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This Holocaust Author's Auschwitz Blog

This blog describes my thoughts and experiences in visiting Auschwitz, Belzec, Majdanek and Sobibor and Anne Frank's House from 2014 to 2018

I blogged my preparations for my visit, I posted daily during my visit to Poland...there are also my ongoing thoughts posted here; in the aftermath of my visit...
(Please note due to the sensitive nature of this blog, and the prevalence of trolls, comments may be blocked)


Uncategorised Posted on Sat, October 02, 2021 16:22:17

“..Most of ..victims of Transnistria have neither individual graves nor tombstones.” Felicia Carmelly.

I am chasing shadows and no matter how far I travel, or have travelled within this odyssey that I have sought to explore, The Holocaust offers up insights into a human behaviour which needs expanding upon. In this quest to comprehend, and it is my understanding that Humanity does not represent the terror nor the horror that was visited upon the Jewish People correctly. Unless civilisation can at least show an empathy that is both sympathetic and worthy of all humanity, we will further gather from the wrong lessons, our way forward. The Holocaust in itself becomes an insight into the degradation of all our humanity, and for what some would seek to perpetrate against a Jewish People, simply for being Jews.

“..When we realize how dispersed over natural and social space ..Jewish People are differently Jews are affected by social ..cultural ..intellectual elements ..variability in their conceptions of themselves is hardly to be wondered at. Even within ..same highly complex societies ..different Jews are affected by different sets of circumstances ..and so a variety of different kinds of reshaping occurs. There is ..a sense of awareness ..recognition that ..all are Jews ..understanding of which is so variable as to be dazzling.” Leon Goldstein.

It has never been my intention to stray past the closed perameters of The Holocaust period in search of the commencement for this, the most unprecedented, unparalled and uniquely expressed atrocity ever perpetrated. But a part of that effort, in appraising all those who seek to comprehend what will always remain incomprehensible, is in recognizing the inter causal relationship religious belief has in assailing the Jews for their belief system. Any defence of the humanity which must fight against the basest of instincts, all too readily promoted by a virulent minority, and while in search of power, must be detained, constrained and erased from the furtherance of their hatred.

“..Transnistria became ..cemetery for more than 200,000 Jews. Their story is little known. ..entire story will never be known.” Julius Fisher.

That single demand for Power, focused as it was upon the Jews of Europe and which seeks to diminish the rights of all or any People, will always promote its divisive call against any they deem fit. The early call, perhaps as early as 1931 when Hitler gained a foothold in power, but should we then ignore the murderous hatred which attacked and murdered any Jew prior to this, on the basis of Hitler’s hatred for them. We know that on September 19th. 1930 Hitler’s lackey, Joseph Goebbels, threatens that any attempt upon Hitler’s life will be met by a ‘pogrom’ against the Jewish Population of Germany, a clear indication of the reprehensible position for the Jew within Germany.

“..After my Mother was Murdered ..I was deported together with my Father to Transnistria. We have spent many weeks on a penal trek of sorts. For days we have been slogging along roads deep in mud ..a lengthy convoy surrounded by Romanian and Ukrainian soldiers who flog and shoot at us. Father holds my hand tight feet no longer touch ..ground. ..sound of ..water slices at my legs and my hips. It’s dark all around ..apart from Father’s hand I don’t feel a thing. Truth to tell ..I don’t feel his hand either ..since my hand is alreadly partly numb. If I move just a little I’ll surely drown. Even Father won’t be able to pull me out. Lots of Children have already drowned this way. I fall asleep ..still clutching his hand. But not for long. While the sky is still dark ..soldiers light up ..convoy with sniping and gunfire. Father holds my hand and tugs me. ..mud is deep and I can’t feel ..bottom. I’m still half alseep and tremendously afraid. It hurts. I call out. Father hears my call and answers at once. Make it easier for me. Make it easier.” Aharon Appelfeld.

The Holocaust, which has struck so deep at anything we would regard as civilisation has wreaked its response upon a shallowness orchestarted by those who knew full well what was happening to the Jews. From then on, The Holocaust, and here in the area to be known as Transnistria that I wish to explore here, that clear division between race and hatred was sought and sewn by Hitler and his erstwhile group of vagabonds. Here, people and states as diverse as Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Byelorussia, Romania, Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Poland and Latvia, who all saw in a 2,000 year history of antisemitism, a vengeful response which would sweep aside all morality.

“..There were 70,000 Jews Czernowitz. ..transported to Transnistria. ..Myself Daughter Son in Law and 2 week old baby. ..we did not take anything with us ..most important thing was to get ..Child out. ..Jews stood on ..street ..waiting to be taken to ..railway carriages ..we waited ..whole day ..until evening ..they told us there were no more carriages we went back into ..Ghetto. ..we ..wore yellow star ..whole time. ..Practically all our acquaintances were deported to Transnistria.” Abraham Jakob Mark.

What is now more understood, antisemitism is the hatred of the Jewish People for being Jews, wrestles with that immoral gain for a power that cost 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jewish lives. Transnistria, and though there is no geographical region on pre-War maps which contain an area such as Transnistria, which literally translated as, from across the River Nistria, or transitting the Nistria is indellible now in Jewish blood. The newly established territory measured some 16,000 square miles and was clearly consuming and designated resettlement of the killing area for Romanian Jewry, and particularly those of Bessarabia, Bukovina and Moldova.

“..June 18th. 1941 Kishinev was occupied by German ..Romanian troops. ..military authorities tried to determine many Jews ..City.” Ilya Ehrenburg.

It was located in an area of South Western Ukraine, positioned along the line of the City of Moghilev-Podolsky at its Northern reaches, to the Black Sea at the Southern extremity, with the River Bug in the East and the Dniester River to the West defining this confining area. In this region of the Ukraine, some 300,000 Jews were already living here and way before Hitler launched operation Barbarossa. This attack on Russia, on June 22nd. 1941 should not have come as any surprise who had read exactly what Hitler had boasted, prophesised and bleated about incessantly. For the Jews here, they were ill prepared for what descended upon them, as a People who had secured for itself a matter of civilisation.

“..There was no favouritism before misery and death.” Meier Teich.

Transnistria is now borne along by the tide of misery and death an assault upon the very integrity of not only those Jewish People living there, but the influx of Romanian Jews forced to resettle there. All of these Jewish People, who will be supervised into 13 separate regions, will find their future persistence orchestrated by the Nazi administration and its cohorts aimed at ensuring they would no longer exist. The clear intention in this holding area, as it was with the Ghetto’s established throughout Poland, was to deliver each and every single Jew ejected from Romania to Transnistria, to the Death Camps in Poland at a later stage.

“..1941 ..Germans ..Vinnitsa district ..forced all ..Jews to They tortured ..beat us with whips. ..gave us leaves ..grass to eat. ..In 1942 ..drove us into ..stadium ..young Men ..Women ..murdered ..Children ..old ..taken away to ..forest. ..completely surrounded us ..started killing us. ..for 3 days blood flowed into I was 10.” Nyunya Dovtorovich.

Transnistria was a burgeoning reservoir of human despair, Jewish Men, Women and Their Children all perishing while awaiting a further resettlement to any of the 6 Death Camps in Poland so as to perish within them. Romania provided a primary source of the military influence in this designated area, and the clearly defined areas within what was to become Transnistria are these:

1) Ananiev,

2) Balta,

“..Throughout .. Camp ..silence of a graveyard and a stifling feeling prevailed. ..building were distorted people ..some of them completely naked ..some covered with rags. ..we entered ..long ..clean hall in which ..stench of death also lingered. ..depths of ..hall stood a holy ark made of 4 planks of wood. ..we sat down among ..worshippers. ..Women ..Men .. older Children ..some bloated we could not recognize them ..almost dying. ..all shaking from cold and sickness. of ..Women wished us all a chatima tova and announced that everybody was fasting that day. Suddenly ..a tall desicated male figure appeared ..with ..face of a skeleton. It was ..shaliach tzibbur ..rabbi. ..entire congregation gathered there prayed and cried with him.” Bella Rot.

3) Berezovca,

4) Dubasari,

5) Golta,

6) Jugastru,

7) Moghilev-Podolsk,

“..When ..war began in 1941 ..they came to Mogilev-Podolsk ..drove all ..Jews into ..Pechera Camp ..Tulchin. ..they shot my Parents. ..we overheard ..all Juden would be killed. We ran. ..many of us were killed.” Roza Lindvor.

8) Oceacov,

9) Odessa,

10) Ovidiopol,

11) Rimnita,

12) Tiraspol, and

13) Tulcin.

“..Einsatzgruppe and ..Einsatzkommandos ..informed of their tasks ..given ..necessary orders. ..Streckenbach of ..RHSA ..transmitted ..orders of Heydrich and Himmler. ..the liquidation order. ..Himmler told me that before ..Russian campaign Hitler had spoken of this mission to groups and ..commanding generals provide ..necessary support. ..order for ..liquidation ..given to Himmler.” Otto Ohlendorf.

Bella Rot was born in Balta and suffered through the most excrutiating privations ever experienced by a violated Jewish People while in the Scazinets Camp. Wehn, as Ohlendorf and his team of Einsatzgruppe D Murderer’s, Barth, Bierkamp, Haussmann, Heimbach, Kristmann, Muller, Nosske, Persterer, Roeder, Schubert, Schultz, Schumann, Seetzen, Seibert, Toegel, Trimborn, Werner and Zapp amongst the many, moved to their killing operation, they shot to death, coldly and deliberately a pre-eminence of all the Jewish People that they encountered.

Also, and while in operation, all 4 of the Einsatzgruppe raged aginst Eastern Jewry were adequately supplied by the forces engaged in Hitler’s Weltanschauung.

“..In Dubina ..Jews were put into a large barn with broken doors and windows. They pushed 400 people into this room meant for animals. By ..end ..only 40 people remained alive. Every day they died like flies ..from disease ..hunger ..cold. Romanian soldiers prevented them from going out to look for food.” Chana Luketsher Wroshavskia.

Here too we add to the indictment of a history that has not adequately damned, condemned nor judiciouly sanctioned enough of those guilty of these Crimes Against Humanity. These Einsatz killer’s, who ran a line of logistic’s that was well supported by the Reich, gained all supplies necessary from all elements and ranks of a military not confined to military operations alone. This logisitcal imperative was to include assistance from elements of the Hunagarian and Romanian forces who were also employed in the kill region. We have to identify clearly that the logisitical effort to take Hitler’s vanguard toward Odessa ran through the area we have now given identity to as Transnistria.

“..Transnistria has definitely been ..forgotten cemetery. ..All of us owe a debt to history ourselves ..memory of those victims ..our own flesh and blood well as to those who have no one left to remember them.” Dr. Shlomo Leibovici Lais.

While the forces of War were primarily led by Hitler, Keitel, Jodl, Runstedt, Schobert, Manstein, Kleist, Stuelpnagel and Reichenau for the Wehrmacht, they were supported by close on 1 million men. With legions also of Romanian forces, we recognise too there was complicity in the names of Arbore, Cieperca and Dumitrescu. Also, the Hungarian Army also supplied its own force and it too required logistical support as it afforded aid, under Jany, in ensuring Hitler’s every aim in securing The Final Solution was administered to. Both the military and certainly the Genocidal successes were swift in those initial months of the campaign.

“..born in ..Vagila on ..Seret River 15 ..yet to see anything good. ..took all of us to ..Edintsy Camp. I suffered ..saw death right before my eyes. ..In a single day both my beloved Parents died. ..What was lost will never return.” Enya Valtser.

As was witessed, the length and breadth of the Russian theatre of operations, the Wehrmacht tore through Russian defences and their defenders like a knife through butter. When, on August 30th. 1941, there was to be the question of the administartion of these Jews in Transnistria, it was given added attention by both the German and Romanian bureaucrats. By now, the escalation and ferocity of the murder process was spread wider and now, as the Ukrainian militia added its weight to der Einsatzgruppe, all efforts were now being reinforced by all agencies in the region. Then, as this campaign gained in its systematic momentum, the clear engagement of der Einsatzgruppe too grew in viciousness.

“..My family was lucky not to be killed in ..early days of ..genocide. We weren’t caught in ..Ghetto or arrested during police raids.” Josef Bursug.

The sheer brutality of these murder operatives grew in intensity as the numbers of Jews being massacred accelerated beyond any scale ever measured. In the region of Transnistria too that was to prove fundamental to the intention of Romanian forces to secure for itself a good standing in Hitler’s vision of the Final Solution for all Jews. However, it would simply be wrong to criminalise every aspect of the support afforded to those forces engaged by Hitler in the 2 wide ranging plans to emerge here in Transnistria. All along the entire Russian Front we also recognise that the War ran parallel to Hitler’s murderous intention for all the Jewish People.

“..reality of The Holocaust surpassed any imagination. ..If I remained true to ..facts one would believe me.” Aharon Appelfeld.

The Jewish Peopl were being swept up in the most horrific, unprecedented, unparalled and grieveously unique Slaughter in all of History. Also, and given the role of military manager’s in the campaign to deliver for Hitler a victory, we cannot ignore the wanton criminal demands brought to bear upon an innocent Jewish People. In the midst of these campaigns, logistics dictated that the supply and the communications network was essential for any unit working within the lines of Army command. Along 3,000 miles of territory this would ensure that der Einsatzgruppe could be stocked up with all the necessary ingredients for the massive killing operations they would undertake.

“..From all ..towns in ..area ..People were sent off on foot to Transnistria, with no exceptions.” Josef Bursug.

As many as 150,000 Bessarabian Jews were transported toward Transnistria and would be consumed there, as would some 130,000 ejected from Bukovina. Romania began the deportation of its Jewish People on July 18th 1941 with the transportation of 4,000 Lipkany Jews who were expelled toward Transnistria in a relentless stream of torture. With the only prospect for these Jews without food, water and the means to secure anything adequately resembling a way of life, they were forfeit in all but in seeking some form of hope, now to be gained elsewhere. Every ounce of human endeavour would be brought to bear upon a sought after existence that would not be made possible by inhuman Nazi efforts.

“..In Transnistria ..mere act of surviving was an act of resistance ..a triumph of ..human spirit.” Felicia Carmelly.

By September 15th. 1941 more than 150,000 Romanian Jews had been readied for deportation to Transnistria and 90,000 of these Jewish Men, Women and Their Children would be Murdered along the way, many as they sought to navigate their way across the Dneister River. Eventually, and during November 1941, the largest containment of deproted Jews in the Transnistrian cachment area were in the Concentration Camps of Acmecetka, Bogdanovka and Dumanovka. It must also be remembered here that Transnistria accounted for some 120 other Camps for the Concentration of the Jews there.

“..Romanians left People to die with no shelter heating material warm clothes. There was diphtheria ..typhus and forced labor. There was no money to be earned anywhere ..and People died by 100’s every day.” Josef Bursug.

Along with the Ghetto’s, these Camp corals detained the Jews who were dispatched there, simply long enough for the annihilation process or as the progressive stealth of death by starvation, disease and the punitive measures of a hate filled Nazi administration ensured no Jew was to survive. Here the Jewish People subsisted, driven to hunger, despair and the abject terror of being witess to the massacre of their People in places like Acmecetka, Alexandrovka, Ananiev, Arva, Balanovca, Balta, Balki, Bar, Bershad, Bogdanovka, Bondarovca, Brailovka, Bricheni, Britovka, Budi, Bukov, Byrzula, Cariscov, Carlovka, Codima, Conotcauts, Cucavka and Cuzmints.

“..150,000 Jews once lived in Chernivtsi ..and surroundings. During ..war ..15,000 were allowed to stay. Some 10,000 returned from Transnistria. In other words ..roughly 120,000 people died.” Josef Bursug.

The Jewish People were likewise called upon to survive in the sheer hope that survival would be possible and that they were living a nightmare that would end for them all. History assures us this was never going to be the case and it proved accurately so and in other places such as Capustani, Capusterna, Cariera de Piatra, Cazachiovka, Chanovka, Chernivtsi, Chetvartinovka, Chimasovca, Clocotma, Crasnoje, Crijopol, Crivoie-Ozero, Dabasari, Derebchin, Dimidovka, Djurin, Dumanovka, Frunza, Golta, Gorai, Grabivts, Grosulovo, Iampol, Israilivka, Halchintsi, Hrinovka, Kopaigorod, Kosolovka, Ladijn, Laroga, Larshev, Lohova, Lozova, Luchinets and Luchinik.

“..We came to Obodovka. ..there we met Levis Zania ..his Wife ..many people from Kishinyevski Street ..Wife of Lifshitz ..Mordechai Fod ..Yasha Tzirlonik ..Shimon Galanter and others. ..they welcomed and pushed us into a stable instead of ..animals where we suffered from the terrible cold. this hell ..wretched and miserable of Giurgiu ..Romania ..also arrived ..among them Bori Feldman and his Family ..Lyoba and her Sister. ..many of those in ..stable died. in Transnistria was a hell of torment and suffering.” Goldiak Wolf.

Also concerning, as the nightmare heightened there was no respite in these places Mala-Kiriuka, Maly-Trostinets, Manikovka, Maronovka, Mikhailowka, Mishkovka, Moghilev, Molochnia, Mostovoi, Murafa, Nesterovka, Nicolaevka, Nimrats, Obodovka, Odessa, Oleanitsa, Olgopol, Ostia, Ozarinets, Pancovka, Pavlovka, Pechiora, Popivits, Raschtadt, Rybnitsa, Savrani, Scazinets, Shargorod, Slidi, Slivina, Scazinets, Stanislovchek, Stefanka, Suha-Balka, Sumiliva, Tatarovka, Tiraspol, Tivriv, Tulchin, Tridubi, Trihati, Tropova, Tsibuliovka, Vapniarka, Varvarovka, Vaslinivo, Vazdovka, Vendicheni, Verhovka, Vigoda, Vitovka, Vladislavka, Voroshilovka, Zabokirit, Zatisia and Zemrinka.

“..December 18th. 1941 About 28,000 Jews have been taken to German villages in Transnistria ..meantime they have been liquidated.” Franz Rademacher.

Most of these Jews were taken from Bessarabia, Survivor’s of the Towns and Ghetto of Golta, Romanian and Ukrainian Jews, all brought together so as to ensure an enslaved labour force could be available for the Reich. The scale and intensity of the killing operation though grew steadily and toward January 1942 it was clear, no Jew was meant to ever survive the onslaught. As the detail of this massive undertaking grew, so too did the communication of its destructive capacity and its relationship to the Jewish presence which was fast disappearing. What is clear from these Operational Situation Reports, issued by der Eisnatzgruppe to Hitler’s desk, is the very detailed nature of the massacre of the Jewish People.

“..We knew what was going on in Transnistria. Relatives from Bessarabia were there. We received letters ..but not in ..mail ..of course. I remember one German officer who brought us letters ..and we gave him money.” Josef Bursug.

What is also clear, Allied intelligences knew clearly what was happening, and what these murderous formations were engaged in, and more tragically, the desperate and destructive resolve of Hitler that was being meted out to those Jews the Nazi cohorts encountered. Certainly, and by the end of April 1942, phase one of a der Einsatzgruppe sweep had been completed and in Transnistria, there were barely one third of those Jews who had been squeezed into it still alive. The calamity was assured by the adoption of the myriad of Einsatz methods of murder and disposal, with the shootings and Gassing Van operations complimenting the killing operation.

“..I was born in Chernivtsi Ukraine in 1941. My Father was conscripted by ..Soviets Mother ..Sister and I were deported to Transnistria. ..liberated. ..with a belief in progress and evolution of human awareness towards ever more enlightened thinking. almost seemed as if this would happen and that we’d all love each other and live happily ever after.” Sylvia de Swaan.

This murderous machinery of destruction was ably assisted by both Wehrmacht participation, Waffen SS and SS, SD involvement and well assisted by the Ukranian militia. Involved heavily were also German Volksdeutscher and these were largely bolstered by both the Romanian and Hungarian force of haters. All of these perpetrators were aligned seamlessly and singularly to what history knows is The Final Solution of The Jewish Question. So swift was the rush to complete the miltary and Jewish situation, Hitler’s forward HQ, the Werewolf near, Vinnitsa, brought Hitler within earshot of his own resolution of the Jewish Question, and not for the first time.

“.. After the outbreak of war with Russia ..apart from Bessarabia and Bukovina ..areas between ..Rivers Dniester and Bug ..what was then called by a new geographic name ..Transnistria.” Dr. Theodor Loewenstein.

The Werewolf bolt hole, which saw Hitler in residence there from July 16th. 1942 till October 30th. 1942, brought him closer to the front line. Here too, and this too would be a primary consideration, it was where he could gain first hand evidences of the aktionen. Particularly evident now would be the combined efforts of his charges against these Jews in his Transnistria resettlement reservor. Here, where we saw more than 60,000 expelled Romanian Jews still surviving, and who were merely 20 miles away was close enough for his comfort. With Himmler at the facility, July 25th. 1942, the conversation would centre around the participation of his Reich in the annihilation process.

“..I can’t take any more ..I’m giving up now. ..Kisses strong ..Selma.” Selma Meerbaum.

For many a Reich agency like VoMi, and those many Volkesdeutcher participating in the Jewish Slaughter, there was the immediate move to ensure 60,000 more Jews were annihilated. For this 17 year old Jewish Young Lady, Selma Meerbaum was born in Czernowitz, Bukovina, and death came to her on December 16th. 1942 as she struggled to survive in the Michailowka Camp of Transnistria. Selma remains as one of the 6,000,000 Jews of The Holocaust barely known to history, but recalled here so that we do not allow the World to forget her. At War’s end, with more than 60% of local Ukrainian Jews, who were added to the Slaughter of other Jews resettled to the area, this has been an incalculable annihilation that history has lost sight of.

“ Czernowitz. ..4 SS men came into our house ..with 2 armed soldiers. They went into my Husband ..Abraham Jakob Mark’s room and demanded 1,000 trucks from him. ..He didn’t reply to their demand. Then they asked about jewellery. ..Who has jewellery. ..It is out of ..question for ..Chief Rabbi of Czernowitz to give ..names of people who have jewellery. On Wednesday Morning ..they took some 150 or 160 more people from ..Cultural Centre and from ..Schwarzer Adler Hotel out of ..cellar ..down to ..River Prut ..and there they were shot. ..didn’t know where my husband’s grave was ..I wanted to bury ..body” Perla Mark.

To curry favour with the Allies, Romania and its leadership held the tail of a tiger and then, in realising it was now on the losing side, delivered some of the few of Romania’s Jews, who were still alive in Transnistria, back to Romania. It has to be remember here, that prior to Romania entering the War on Hitler’s side, when there were between 760,000 and 850,000 Romanian Jews, the Jewish persistance was now ended for all too many of these. Though some of those many Jews, stateless at the time, who were only seeking refuge from Hitler’s Germany and Austria, they too are accumulated in a reservoir of Jewish Blood that has been eradicated.

“..Today Transnistria is an historic phantom ..having vanished without a trace. But in Jewish history it is inscribed in blood and tears will never be forgotten. Transnistria spells horror ..horror that defies description ..savage revolting acts of cruelty and bestiality which one group of men torture ..rob .. and destroy their helpless victims in cold blood. Transnistria symbolizes genocide.”Julius Fischer.

Of these all too many Jews murdered in Transnistria, there are estimates which add more than 450,000 Romanian Jews to the Slaughter. It is a fact too that the Jews of Romania had experienced the advent of a brutality that raged within Romania prior to their decapitation from their nation and life. Here, and within the desolate land we know as Transnistria, for what not human being should expect, it was wholly delivered toward Jewish People in extremis and without care nor consideration. Humanity took a dive, and as with the entire confrontation with the notion of civility, culture and humanity, The Holocaust has driven a spear through the heart of the mere idea.

“..In Israel ..because it was a society of Survivors and because they did not tell their Children ..there’s a great dark hole in ..lives of their Children ..and this hole can create curiosity. But much more it creates superficiality. this absence of ..experience of ..parents ..made ..Children Israelis.” Aharon Appelfeld.

While it is true that some 400,000 Romanian Jews managed to live out both Hitler’s, and even Romania’s intention for them, it has nothing to do with Romanian humanitarian concern that any Romania Jew survived. Romania’s resolve to add to that intention for die Ensdlosung der Judenfrage, ensures we cannot so easily displace 400,000 Romanian Jews from memory as they were likewise Slaughtered. From the conscious memory of time, from the science of recorded history, can we ever negate the factual truth testified to. From the recall of that often expressed inhumanity which this deliberate assault upon Jewish integrity stresses, humanity will forget this at its peril.

“..Today ..area which was called Transnistria is strewn with mass graves ..along country roads and ditches ..forests ..fields ..anti-tank trenches. resting place where ..crimes of ..German ..Romanian ..Ukrainian ..Lithuanian murderers are concealed. Not a monument ..or any kind of marker alerts a visitor to ..gruesome crimes covered under ..lush orchards ..thick grain fields ..beautifully landscaped parks.” Felicia Carmelly.

Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun

Uncategorised Posted on Thu, September 09, 2021 12:43:29

“..Without your Testimony ..and those like You ..I would Not find my own words. They are for You and 6,000,000 just like You who did not Survive.” Patrick Dempsey.

Helen Garfinkel was born on September 15th. 1926 to Kalman and Sara Garfinkel in Chmielmnik, a City predominantly Jewish near Kielce on the road to Busko in Poland. Jews lived in the City as early as 1565, though closer to the Synagogue, the graveyard there shares indications that Jews were being buried there around the 13th. Century. From then on in the expansion of Jewish interests in the City took shape. By the middle of the 17th. Century, and with Jews moving into central locations, they were opening stores, shops and employing market stalls to sell their wares. This influence did not stop Pogroms being raised against them as was the case in 1656 when 150 Jews were Murdered.

By the time we are ready to visit the Jewish Community of Chmielnik, as the terms of The Holocaust began to settle about them, this was a City with some 10,000 Jews. When World War II had commenced, and the fixed idea became the annihilation of the Jews of Europe, this presence was perhaps swelling to over 14,000 Jewish People, The Jews from outlying districts, mixed with the ebb and flow of the transports and their resettlement agenda that was to follow, does not give a clear indictaion of exactly how many Jews were transitted through the City. The fact is too that few Jews of Chmielnik actually survived.

“..My mother went to her death ..Treblinka gas chambers not knowing what happened to me. ..We’re ..Survivors dying out now.” Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun. One of those though who did survive and has relayed her ordeal to a World willing to listen was Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun.

There were places like Bogoria, Pinczow, Piotrkowice, Plock, Pysznica and Szydlow amongst them whose Jewish Community was expelled toward Chmielnik and then detained there. Wholly contained in the Ghetto that was created, they remained until the last voyage of their existence took them, most likely to Treblinka and destruction, unless they were otherwise Murdered. Helen had a typically happy upbringing along with her Brother’s and Sister’s, Bela, Fishel, Nathan, Rachel, Regina and Sonia in a community which did at least boast a Brewery, Candle Factory, Hospital, Iron Works, Saw Mills, Soap Factory, Tanneries and a Tool Makers. For these Jews, established in such a vibrant community, and for all those who were in residence, there was this complexity of Hitler’s intention’s to come to terms with. What was not immediately known to them was when in fact Hitler, who attacked Poland on September 1st. 1939, that 3,650,000 Polish Jews were to be totally obliterated. Nothing immediately impacted the Jews of Chmielnik until the German entry into the City on Septembe 5th. 1939 and with 70 of the City’s Jewish intelligentsia being Murdered.

These Community elders, professionals and leaders of the Community were taken to the Batei Midrash and locked inside before the building was set alight. “..We all have a right to live.” Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun. The German’s were learning well the ease with which to Murder Jews, and by setting them ablaze in their places of Education, Worship and Community, saving on bullets too. Immediately also, they ransacked the Jewish Community for able bodied Jews to be forced to work for the Reich in various industries across the full spectrum of duties tied to the German economy.

Then, as shootings intensified and became the order of the day, and though brutality confronted the very existence of every Jew in Chmielnik, the building and systemic nature of The Final Solution approached them only stealthily. This creeping demand to kill more and even more Jews increased on a gradual scale of sheer brutality, and right up until the very demands of the resettlement exercise began, the Jews of Chmielnik could not know the fatality of Hitler’s total intention. The Jews of Chmilenik, represnting more than 60% of the City’s population were forced into a Ghetto during March 1940. This Ghetto was placed under the tutelage of Avraham Langvald, with Moshe Pasternak as the commander of the Jewish police. At this time too, Mordechai Anielewicz, who went on to lead the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, arrived to make efforts to establlish a resitance cell within the Chmielnik Jewish Community.

Amongst the Langvald’s chosen for selection, deportation and annihilation were Chele and His Wife. His position as the Ghetto Elder did not ensure Avraham, Pola, Leah’tche or Teltse Langvald any other passage that the resettlement, more than likely to Treblinka that had been demanded of all too many Jews of Chmielnik. Amongst the Pasternak’s of Chmielnik lost to Hitler’s intentions for all the Jews of Europe are Moshe, Sarah-Esther, Chantche, Rachel’tche, Rozshk, Rachel, Sarah’tche, Golde, Freidzye, Yosef, Yitschak, Perl and Their Children, Yosl, Blime, Velvel, His Wife and Their Children, Eliezer, His Wife and Their Children, Leibish and His Wife, Hershl, Tsvia, Moniek, Yechezkel, Feigl, Sarah, Beile, Chana, Leibish, Mi, Meir, Esther and Her Children, Leibish, Zelig and Rachel. Moshe, His Wife and Their Children did Not escape the intention of Hitler.

All this was in preparedness for what Mordechai Anielewicz became aware of, as he was increasingly convinced there was a more definite and longer term threat than random assaults and murders. With the gradual influx of Jews from the surrounding areas, which began to increase during June and July 1940, all of this was part of the reasoning then behind the consistency of movement as transports of 100’s of Chmielnik’s Jews were then sent on to forced Labour. This was in November 1940 and many of these were forced to settle in and around Biala. After a ransom was paid, a totally depleted human form of these Jews were returned to Chmielnik. Though so debilitated, many of them succumbed to Typhus and the spread of th disease grew to less containable levels.

For Helen, her Parents, Brothers, Sisters and all the Jews of Chmielnik, this was the first indicator for these Polish Jews that something untoward was being ordained. When Avraham Langvald was as the Ghetto Elder, and was replaced by Shmuel Saltzman in April 1941, this concentration effort records a moment in time that ensured for the Jewish People here that they were facing a newer threat, a seemingly less benign confrontation with an invading German force. In Chmielnik itself, and out of a burgeoning Jewish population, now exceeding 10,000, there were 104 typhus deaths during the period January to May 1941.

“..worst thing in life is starvation. You don’t think about anything only think when ..piece of bread comes.” Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun.

The presence of a Hospital ensured this number was not any greater though than it is devastating to those it managed to kill. Then, when Hitler’s armies invaded Russia, June 22nd. 1941 the atmosphere of hostility toward the Jewish Community heightened. Within weeks, the arrival of a Killing Unit, EinsatzKommando 5 set about murdering 299 of the Jewish Citizens of Chmielnik. When, on September 30th. 1942, amidst the French Convoi taking French and Foreign Jews to their Deaths in Birkenau, Convoy 39 records that Adele Klarmann was one of those transported to her Death. Born in Chmielnik on October 16th. 1927, this 14 year old wee Person, does not know the fate the World sits away from. Taken from her home in Liege, France, along with her Sister Flora, who was born in Busko, they were detained in Drancy before being tansported for resettlement. In an irony of sorts, this Transport detailed some 211 Jews instead of the customary 1,000 or so and contained just 8 Children, Adele and Flora included. All of the Children, including Adele and Flora are immediately Murdered including 147 of the Adult Jews upon arrival at Birkenau on October 2nd. 1942.

Part then, of the legacy which Adele and Flora leave behind is a memory which Helen now imparts as to their place in the story of both Chmielnik and The Holocaust. Amongst those other Klarman’s lost to us are, and though Adele and Flora are Klarmann’s, these Baltche, Yitschak-Leibish, Yisrael-Ya’akov, Teibl, Golde, Rachel’tche, Chana, Abba, Roize, Feitche, Hershl, Alte, Natan, Pesl, Genendl, Zlate, Moshe, Nute, Breindl, Avraham, Yisrael, Libe, David, Elia, Hershl, His Wife and Their Children and Chame Klarman. Prior to the forced expellation of some 1,200 young Jews from the City on October 1st. 1942, Mordechai Anielewicz returned to the City to inform Chmielnik’s Jews of what Treblinka meant for All the Jews of Europe, and not just Chmielnik’s nor Warsaw’s Jews. Helen and her Sister and Brother, Sonia and Nathan were to be amongst the deported Youth of Chmielnik these deportees forced away from their former life.

Also, a further 40 able bodied and youthful Chmielnik Jews were sent to the Labour Camp near Kielce. Helen, together with a small parcel of bread, socks and other requirements Helen, her Sister Sonia and Brother Nathan, those of the Kalman and Sara’s 7 Children old enough, reported to the Town Square to await the trucks that would send them to the Camps for Forced Labor some 60 kilometres away. The sheer will power and ability to at last Survive what is incomprehensible to us, saw Helen live through 2 Labour Camps and even 5 Concentration Camps.

“..Hell is better than what I went through. Now I have a better life I can do this.” Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun.

These Camps, of which are Allach, Belsen, Burgau, Chestochowa, Dachau, Skarzysko and Turkheim are those, sought to earn as much from th life of the Jews interned within their confines as the expendable nature of their very existence became increasingly obvious. On October 3rd. 1942 1,270 Jews from Bogoria, Pinczow, Piotrkowice, Pysznica and Szydlow arrived from the vicinity to be concentrated in Chmielnik prior to the great resettlement. On October 5th. 1942, an SS detachment, complimented by forces from Latvia, Lithuania and the Ukraine surrounded the Ghetto of Chmielnik and transported the vast majority of those Jews within Chmielnik, firstly toward Checiny and then onward to Treblinka. 500 of Chmielnik’s Jews were shot in situ, including the present Judenrate Chairman Shmuel Saltzman and enroute to their destruction many others would be shot for various excuses.

Along with some 8,000 Jews from the City, rounded up and driven towards a resettlement transport taking them to Treblinka on October 6th. 1942, were both Helen’s Parents, her Mother Sara and her Father Kalman, her younger Brother Fishel and younger Sister Rachel. Amongst the Garfinkel’s, more than likely filling this transport to extinction in Treblinka were: David with his Wife and Their Children, Leatche, David and Rachel, Leibish with his Wife and Their Children, Mordechai-Fishl with his Wife and Their Children. Also ncluded were Simcha-Yoel and His Wife, Volff and Feigl, Yehuda with his Wife and Their Children, and Yeikl, Frimetl, Shlomo and Velvel.

There were some 75 Chmielnik Jews were left behind in the Ghetto as a sonderkommando, to clear up the debris of death and destruction, to finally empty the Streets of the Murdered and bury their bodies. Returning Jews from the Forests and hiding places swelled this cleansing squad to some 700 Jews now with Leon Koralnik as an intermediary, the perfunctory Judenrate head. On November 5th. 1942 the vast majority of these Jews, some 625 of them were transported to the area of Stopnica. Once more this left a still 75 strong sonderkommando who were detailed to hide further the truth of The Final Solution that had been undertaken there.

Many of these last few Jews of Chmielnik managed to escape into hiding to Survive with their Testimony, for which we have gained incisively to this day. On November 6th. 1942, and yet again from amidst the French Convoi taking French and Foreign Jews to their Deaths in Birkenau, Convoy 42 records that both Brana and Pinkus Poper were both transported to their Death. Both were born in Chmielnik on March 30th. 1929 Brana, and March 30th. 1928 Pinkus. These 2 Jewish Children are unaware what this train journey means to them while the World is almost certain death awaits some 220 Jewish Children, Brana and Pinkus Poper included. Arrival at Birkenau on November 8th. 1942 ensures a further 773 Jews from this transport are immediately gassed, the 2 Jewish Children from Chmielnik, Brana and Pinkus Poper included.

Amongst the Poper’s of Chmielnik lost to our own Humanity are Yishayahu, Gitl, Efraim, Gutche, Reizl, Berl, Shmuel, Sheindl-Leah, Pinchas and Breindele. We must not for a moment forget to include both Brana and Pinkus who are missing from the Necrology of the City of Chmielnik. On December 20th. 1942 the Chmielnik Ghetto was finally liquidated with no more than 80 Jews left, most of whom were transferred to Sandomierz. In the modern era, and since 1973, Helen has lived in the Centre of Florida and has been an ever present source of Education for those attending the Holocaust Memorial and Education Center of Florida since 1981.

In 1992, in Helen’s first return to her Chmielnik Birthplace, this Polish Jewish Survivor was not wanted in the community there and her guide was damned for bringing back Jews to Chmielnik. It is entirely clear that the dread from the local community, of any Jews returning to reclaim anything within Poland, from what the supposed christian Poland has sought to steal, purloin and somehow own, this leaves a bitter taste upon World History.

“..Even in 5 years ..I feel a change. ..I don’t know what it is. Maybe it’s ..younger generations who have an interest. ..difference is education. Education is ..difference.” Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun.

In January 2010 Helen was recognized for her contribution to the understanding of human endeavour and educational principles. She is recorded in History as a Good Neighbor Who Gives From the Heart and her warmth has adorned the pages of the Orlando Magazine. Helen gives her time freely so that students, Academics and, Historians like me, can add an extra page to the suffering endured by 6,000,000 Jews who did Not Survive. It is also a reminder to those all too few who did survive, that not all non-Jews are as they once were and from within the pages of the Testimony of those like Helen, a Survivor of The Holocaust.

“..Words cannot describe. ..For ..first time in Poland ..I feel people care about me and my story. I feel with my whole heart that they listened with their whole heart.” Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun.

In 2013 Helen, who is an Honorary member of the Holocaust Memorial and Education Center of Florida, and has been these past 8 years continually adds to what We need to know. Of a later return to Poland, Helen was gifted with a reception which was astonishing for her. In 2014, upon a further visit to her former homeland, there is always the constant reminder that she is amongst very few of the 3,650,000 Jews of Poland, who lived. What does not escape the sense of good fortune, which most Survivor’s give as some form of evidence for their survival, this fact was not avalable to all too many of the Jews of Europe and particularly Poland, as the Survivor is now reminded of life itself.

“..It doesn’t bother me if makes money. It is good that ..Cemetery and ..Synagogue has been restored. People should know there were 10,000 Jews here and not one Jew lives here now.” Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun.

There is a rather disquieting and burgeoning shame which Poland appears to be heaping on the Polish Jewish Survivor, their aim to make capital out of these Jews wishing to return and pay honour to their 3,000,000 Destroyed Polish Jewish Community, whilst they refuse to honour what is still owned by the Slaughtered Jews. What has not escaped notice, as with the lucrative museum that is the Auschwitz and Birkenau complex, while Poland sees fit to deny its own wrong doings against Polish Jewry during, before and even after The Holocaust. Poland is not against the huge amounts of monies flowing in to restore the Jewish past to a semblance of what was a substantial Jewish presence.

“..Look how beautiful. is beautiful. Really’s ..memories of my Parents that bring me back.” Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun.

More recently, Helen arrived back in Chmielnik, an honored guest, to witness the restoration of the Synagogue, built there in 1638 on land leased from the Catholic Church. The Synagogue, now renovated and scrubbed of its desecration of swastika’s and other neo-nazi graffiti, was now but a source of reference that is the only physically tangible link to the past of Judaism. For other than the Testimony of the Survivor’s, would the World of history be even aware of what Jewish Chmilnik represents. This Synagogue, this place of worship, that had stood the test of time for nearly 400 years, is now the Jewish History Museum and Cultural Centre in Chmielnik.

“..what may have started as a promotion to put Chmielnik nowhere middle Poland ..on has attained a higher purpose with ..tasteful and respectful use of ..Synagogue. One can find stereotypical depictions of Jews at Chmielnik’s annual festival ..puppets ..images of Jews with big noses ..counting coins. ..careful attention to preserving ..Synagogue is impressive ..painstakingly uncovering of ..original wooden bima and peeled layer after layer of paint from ..walls to reveal ..original paintings. It’s a museum of high level. It will put Chmielnik on a higher awareness of existence.” Nadav Eshcar.

There is no irony in the fact that there are no Jews living in her former hometown of Chmielnik and Helen is well aware of this fact. There is a continuing sadness though, which both Helen and Meir Maly, as fellow Holocaust Survivor’s of Chmielnik, is what any Survivor must resolve. It is not only for these 2 Survivor’s, but any of Chmielnik’s Jewish Survivor’s whoare finding it more and more difficult to return, even for those who would wish to do so.

Amongst the Mali’s lost to the better good of us all are Feigl, Genendl, Bezalel, Gitl, Hershl, Shifra, Yoel, Hershl, His Wife and Their Children, Moshe and Yehudit, Yedidya, Reizl, Mendl, Heinoch, Manye, Yosef and His Wife, Asher, Yosef, Mendl, Gershon, Berl and Chaim.

“..A lot of people from Chmielnik they don’t want to come to Chmielnik. They lost everything. They lost everyone. They don’t want to hear about it. They started to open a new page.” Shlomo Zohari-Zonshein.

Age, infirmity and even the ghosts of a persecuted past makes Poland an unwelcome distraction for many Polish Jewish Survivor’s. Even alongside their inate survivoral ability to recover ever more physically and emotionally, they are subdued more fully from what Poland is quite capable of refuting. What Poland is ceasing to acknowledge, and of there insistence for not being any part of what is The Holocaust, any semblance of post Holocaust denial has become a distortion of the truth history cannot condone nor leave unquestioned. It is a careful balance for the Historian to confront the very integrity of The Holocaust with compassion and with an emotive accuracy that attempts to mediate what it inflicts upon the Survivor.

“..For them to see living history ..that is more enlightening ..I think they’ll always remember it. ..It takes some kind of inner strength to be able to talk about it and remember.” Pauline Korman.

In words too that Helen’s Children use to commend her life, this reinforces our own understanding of her role and persistence in our History. As a consequence of this, and for some time the Survivor reminded me, they did not need the detailing of the horror, as they constantly revisit their own terror. For me though, seeking a pathway through their emotional turmoil, it is always my feeling that while their great pain must be dealt with sensitively, the accusation of what they endured must be relayed constantly. With a huge respect to that desire, there is a demand I place upon myself, when I am simply confronting a World that should be ashamed, it is to express that accusation with the fullest vista of their pain. The evident essential in any moral education, especially here on the history of the period, and this must ensure the ethical viability of its emotional integrity. We cannot be required to remove, from the narrative of the detailed horror the Survivor brings to the fore, without distorting the truth they bring to us.

It is for us to base our understanding of learning, and that we then confront the incomprehensible nature of that hatred. What has been visited so brutally upon 6,000,000 Jewish People is a lesson we either learn from or ensure in perpetuity the same grave wrongs exacted upon a People for being, a People.

“..It’s still not easy for her. I don’t think it’s anything you can get over.” Rita Renshaw.

Also, and in acknowledging, with a horror we can barely imagine, we are reminding history and the World of what the Survivor knows first hand. This then becomes my accusation of the Intolerances shown and for a hatred that was all too clearly shown. The very fact that it was so easily complicit for those who showed any degree of Indifference to the Jewish plight, we have now begun to show 6,000,000 Jews, that they are those we add a Testimony to. Also, and while we add to the Testimony of Helen, who roundly defeated Hitler, we look to her Daughter’s, Pauline and Rita to know how this was future secured. Though Helen’s Children will have never met their Grandparents Kalman and Sara, nor the multitude of relatives they were deprived of, through Helen, they, we and History will know of them.

“..There’s a lot of Holocaust Survivors that cannot talk about it. ..I do it. I’m alive ..I talk about it and that’s all I can do.” Helen Garfinkel-Greenspun.

                          Always to Remember, Never to Forget.

Natalie Mehlman-Scharf

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, August 04, 2021 15:34:47

Natalie Scharf born in the year 1925 and passed from us on August 1st. 2021

“..Dear Patrick. I am 91 years old ..a faded old beauty ..born in Jaworzno ..Poland. I came from a family of 8. My father and Mother Ichak and Rosalia Mehlman. Kind law abiding people along with my three sisters Eva 29 ..Regina 28 ..Salusia 12 years old nephew Willy 6 niece Frieda 6 months old ..that I never saw. ..In 1942 was slaving ..starving ..infested with lice ..eaten by bedbugs in a Concentration Camp in Czechoslovakia ..for 3 years until ..blessed day when we 350 very lucky young innocent girls ..were liberated by ..raggedy tired but victorious Red Army. ..God bless all liberators of this time in history.” Natalie Mehlman-Scharf.

Natalie was My Friend and though we were separated by generations, and enjoined by a tragedy I cannot begin to imagine, even though I seek from it comprehension on a daily basis, Natalie and I are kindred spirtis. For me, Natalie filled me with hope. Natalie gave me inspiration. Natalie just lifted my mood when it seemed so deeply down in the midst of a terror Natalie all too willingly relayed to me. Natalie Survived what 6,000,000 of her People, fellow Jews who did Not manage to do so and as such, these Slaughtered Jews are now the basis of a history which is termed The Holocaust we seek Always to Remember, Never to Forget.

“..September 1st. 1939 ..My Parents had a grocery store where we lived in Jaworzno ..Poland ..right by ..German border. They knew ..Nazis were seizing all Jewish businesses they quietly began to bring sacks of flour ..sugar ..beans ..barley ..onions ..potatoes home to live off after they raided our storehouses.” Natalie Scharf.

What I know from our gentle discourse, the narrative of which has been confined to a platform I have been sensured from, is that over the years Natalie has inspired me toward what I now know of her place in the History of Jaworno, her birthplace in Poland. What I recognise in Natalie is her tenacity, her resilience, her generosity of spirit, her warmth, her incredible strength and the very fact that in the face of what can confront the World, she is resolute. For Natalie, her experience within the most unprecedented and unparalleled perpetration of hatred ever envisaged, ensures that Natalie, not only managed to Survive, she took that life experience to look objectively at the World we now occupy. The Holocaust World had prepared Natalie for what was to come and in particular, this present pandemic

“..I’m not comparing this to The Holocaust ..but seeing everything shut down ..hearing of closed borders shortages travel ..being afraid to go outdoors ..see family and even touch anything feels like ..start of ..war. But now you don’t see ..enemy.” Natalie Scharf.

Natalie was born in the Town of Jaworzno, Poland in 1925 amongst a population of some 1,500 Jewish People, a vibrant community amidst a representing body of some 10% of the total population. Natalie’s Hebrew name is Necha bat Rasel. Here in Jaworzno, with her parents, Ichak and Rosalia, and her 3 sisters, Chava, Rivka and Sarah, all would be Murdered by the forces of Hitler’s deep hatred. Her Brother Leon and Sister Yadja would Survive along with Natalie, and though such was the decimation of her Family, it was in time she was to have it proved that this was all too difficult in healing the scars.

Natalie was to become a witness to the arrival of Hitler’s forces into her Town and shortly after it was bombed on September 1st. 1939, the forces of hatred descended upon the Jews of Jaworzno. At this time there were some 1,852 Jews who now lived in what was to be deemed a City, and these were about 8% of that City’s population. In the spring of 1940, the Germans concentrated a larger contingent of Jews within the City confines, Jews from Chorzow, Katowice and Siemianowice who were to be concentrated here for future removal to Birkenau.

It wasn’t until later on into 1940, when Natalie was 15, that the local Gestapo raided the Family Home, and during the night took Natalie away. Her lasting memory has been the sight of her Mother chasing after the truck tht was taking her, and 20 to 30 of her Female Friends, Class mates, awy. Natalie then endured periods of uncertainty about the survival of her entire Family and was incarerated in Camps in Poland and Czechoslovakia.

Between July 12th. 1942 and July 13th. July 1942, all that remained of the Jewish presence in the City of Jaworzno, some 2,100 Jewish People, Men, Women and Their Children, all were transported out and toward the Death Camp at Birkenau where they would perish.

“..When I saw them marching with their torches in Charlottesville ..I had terrible heart palpitations. They looked just like ..Nazis of my Childhood ..and hearing them scream ..Jews will not replace us ..and blood and soil was exactly as I remembered it. And this president said they were fine people. ..Good riddance. It feels like liberation. We made it.” Natalie Scharf.

Natalie Scharf Survived to become witness to the atrocity that can still be inflicted upon a people because of the negligence of so many other’s to the threats from right wing extremism and politicians who placate and enable theiur hatred. Natalie was very vocal about her resentment of the Country which delivered so much for her, that such times of race hatred toward anyone could be witnessed in her America.

I shared Natalie’s bitterness toward the lost lessons of a History she had been forced to endure. I noticed with disquiet that there were people all too willing to attack Natalie’s position, and this was reprehensible for one who is My Friend, a Survivor and a testifier of truth’s only lesson, its integrity!

“..It felt like ..end of the war. I felt a real obligation to vote for Biden. I don’t have to imagine how much worse it can get under trump. I lived through it.” Natalie Scharf.

My Friend, Natalie Mehlman-Scharf.

Memorial to a Lost Jaworzno
My Friend Natalie
The Family before The Holocaust

A Response to Ambassador Anna Sochanska

Uncategorised Posted on Fri, July 09, 2021 21:13:16

“..To be ignorant of what occurred before you were born is to remain always a child. For what is ..worth of human life ..unless it is woven into of our ancestors by ..records of history.” Cicero.

Dear Anna Sochanska, as Polish Ambassador to Ireland, would you consider answering me this question? Why is it you insist Polish Jews, 3,000,000 of whom were Slaughtered in The Holocaust are distinct from Poles?? I have visited Poland on so many occasions, searching for some form of understanding of the awful detail of The Holocaust, placing myself in the missing steps of over 4,500,000 Jews, all Murdered there. I have met some of the finest People, of Polish descent who you are depriving them of their History, by a disengenuous lack of the whole truth.

“..Poland promotes a mythic and heroic narrative where Poles risked their lives to protect their Jewish neighbours against Nazi persecution.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

Let us accept that one of the formative writer’s on The Holocaust, himself a Holocaust Jewish Survivor, Elie Wiesel puts it most succinctly. When we admit that not all victims were Jews we know that All Jews Were Victims and this can be suggesting of the fact that not all non-Jewish Poles are guilty. It is very important, that in The Holocaust itself we acknowledge this but also assess that not all non-Jewish Poles are innocent in the wake of what happened in Poland, what they knew as it emerged in Poland and what non-Jewish Poles allowed and even perpetrated aginst Polish Jewry.

“..Poles constitute ..largest national group within ..Righteous Among ..Nations recognised by Yad Vashem. Considering ..harsh punishment that threatened rescuers ..this is a most impressive number.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

How can you even mention impressive when Poland allowed 3,000,000 Polish Jews to be annihilated in Gas Chambers purposely built in Poland for that reason. It is very true that there are 7,112 Polish Righteous who stood head and shoulders above 36 million other Poles who did what to save another Polish Jew. If we are to equate this to say the 5,851 Righteous Dutch, we must also recognise this is out of a population of some 8,700,000, so it is hardly credible of those extremely Worthy Righteous of Poland giving a number without extracting the context of an entire nations paltry effort.

“..Polish government in exile ..and ..Polish resistance ..were ..first to alert ..allies about ..extermination of Jews.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

From 1939 while Poles had been killing Polish Jews since forever, the scale of atrocity in line with what Hitler’s Einsatzgruppe were doing in Poland escalated. From 1941, when the Final Solution of The Jewish Question was being properly prepared, Jews were being killed at random in Poland, and not always by Hitler’s forces. Even while allied intelligence was well aware of der Einsatzgruppe operations after June 22nd. 1941, the Slaughter of more than 1,000,000 Jews was before May 1942 when the Jewish Bund entreated the exiled Polish government to act. Poland, Europe nor Polish resistance did anything to prevent this.

“..heroic is well in place to describe people who risked their own lives and ..lives of their families to save Jews from ..Holocaust.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

Absolutely no one suggests, those Poles who risked everything in saving their Jewish Community are not heroes, moral, gallant and the best of humanity. This is not true of those non-Jewish Poles who sought to collude with Hitler’s fuller resolve for all 3,650,000 of Polish Jewry. It is without doubt that more Poles acted witgh moral efficacy toward their Jewish Neighbours, though fear prevented them from admitting to what they sought to do or achieved in saving Jews from their own families, friends or non-Jewish neighbours.

“..At liberation ..around 50,000 Jewish survivors were on Polish soil. It is estimated that about 30,000 to 35,000 Jews ..around one percent of all of Polish Jewry ..were saved with of Poles.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

Please, for the sake of both truth and its clarity, acknowledge what it appears this Polish government is at length in attempting to distance it self from. The factual truth and its veracity in History demands nothing less than the fullest detailed truth. By the Summer of 1946, there were more than 200,000 Polish Jews, living in and returned to their former domicile, which was their Country of Poland. However, by the first quarter of 1947, this number had severely shrunk to about 90,000 Polish Jews fearful while still managing to live in Poland.

Even when there were Pogroms raged against them they were home. We know of Kielce, does this Polish government admit to Sokoly? Remember too the efforts Poland decreed to ensure Jewish Restitution claims for Property, Homes and Possessions were to be made by end of 1947. Such a devious policy, all enabling the larceny of what has been taken from Polish Jews is presently detained by non-Jewish Poles, is a theft. Polish Jewish Survivor’s have been forced into the most ludicrous defence of their ownership of all that has been taken from them.

August 1943 “..return of ..Jews to their jobs and workshops is ..out of ..question ..even if ..number of Jews is greatly reduced. ..non-Jewish population has filled their places in ..towns ..cities much of Poland this is a fundamental change in character. ..return of masses of Jews would be perceived not as an act of restitution ..but as an invasion against which they would have to defend themselves ..even by physical means.” Roman Knoll. Polish Foreign Affairs Office.

It is so odious, in the very highest omission of morality, a major defect in human ethics, all in the face of the gravest Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. Poland chooses now to barely recognise that 3,000,000 of the Slaughtered are Polish Jews, insisting in a racist tone that is a characteristic of antisemitism, divesting Polish Jewry of their Polish nationality. I am so tired of this attempt to distory if not fully deny this aspect of The Holocaust, which took place upon Polish soil and to Polish Jews in the main part and European Jewry transported there too.

“ bill will be a project that meets ..expectations of many Poles ..routinely blasphemed in ..Europe ..even ..Germany ..saying that they are ..perpetrators of The Holocaust and that in Poland were Polish concentration camps ..Polish gas chambers. Enough with this lie ..there must be accountability.” Zbigniew Ziobro. (Polish government minister February 13th. 2016.)

For context to why I am writing this, I add the full letter of this correspondence.

Sir, – A letter by Oliver Sears (Letters, June 30th) includes particular statements mocking the Polish. He claims Poland “(…) promotes a mythic and heroic narrative where Poles risked their lives to protect their Jewish neighbours against Nazi persecution”. There is nothing mythical about Poles saving Jews from the Holocaust. Statements from Yad Vashem, The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, prove that Poles saving Jews are not a myth: “Poles constitute the largest national group within the Righteous Among the Nations recognised by Yad Vashem. Considering the harsh punishment that threatened rescuers, this is a most impressive number.”

Poland, as the first victim of the Nazi Germany, stood firm against denial and minimisation of the crimes of the Holocaust. Moreover, during the second World War Polish government-in-exile (first in Paris then London) and the Polish resistance operating in German-occupied territories were the first to alert the Western allies about the extermination of Jews by Nazi Germany. I strongly believe the word heroic is well in place to describe people who risked their own lives and the lives of their families to save Jews from the Holocaust. Poles kept on fighting in the face of unimaginable horror. A Pole caught hiding Jews was punished not only by losing their own life, but their entire family’s lives as well.

As per Yad Vashem: “At liberation, around 50,000 Jewish survivors were on Polish soil. It is estimated that about 30,000 to 35,000 Jews, around one percent of all of Polish Jewry, were saved with the help of Poles.” – Yours, etc,


Ambassador of the Republic of Poland to Ireland


Dublin 4.

Tovah Olshak

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, June 30, 2021 20:54:38

Tovah Olshak (1941 – 1945)

“..Suddenly ..back door opened. A Pole with a large mustache ..and dressed in an Army uniform ..came in with an automatic rifle in his hand. ” Michael Maik.

Because of 1 Girl, 1 Jewish Girl, 1 Jewish 4 year old Girl, because of 1 Jewish 4 year old Girl Murdered in The Holocaust, and when most Jewish Survivors might have assumed the worst has ended, I met Tovah Olshak. From here, Tokele introduced me to 6,000,000 others, Jews also Murdered simply because they were Jews. For Tokele, her pet name, she was born at sometime in 1941 and I first became aware of her when I was sent her photgraph. All I knew was the fact that she had been Murdered by antisemitic Poles, even as the World was coming to realise what The Holocaust means.

“..Zeev Gritshak saw ..Pole first ..and cried out ..Robbers have come. He ran to ..other room and locked ..door. ..Pole opened a round of fire.” Michael Maik.

From me, I could write of my own loss and grief for 2 all too Young Sister’s and hoefully allow for my feelings to add to the memory of Tovah, so religiously being sought out for forgetfulness. 2,000 Jews resided within Sokoly, 850 of her Jews were removed, presumably to Bialystok on Monday 2nd. November 1942, to await final deportation to the Death Camps, either at Auschwitz/Birkenau, Majdanek or Treblinka. 500 more of Sokoly’s Jews were expelled on Sunday 11th. April 1943 and eventually all of the Jews of Bialystok were transported to one of these 3 killing centres at Birkenau, Majdanek or Treblinka.

“..With ..first shots he killed engineer David Zholty and ..bride from Swieciany.” Michael Maik.

Many of these Jews were murdered on the spot, unsure as to why they were expected to accept transportation to a destination as yet unknown. It is possible here that the Sokoly Judenrat Chairman, Alter Ginzburg, his Wife Ida, Sokoly’s Local Dentist and their son Monik boarded the 1st. Transport to Treblinka. Jews, brough together from all outlying regions were being settled within the Bialystok Ghetto prior to relocation to the Death Camps. Here, on February 9th. 1943, and up until 10,000 Jewish souls had been finally removed in a 4 day period, the persistence of the Nazi machine was so relentless that by February 13th. 1943, 10,000 Jews were no more.

“..Batya Weinstein ..who had been frying latkes ..fell dead with a knife in her hand.” Michael Maik.

Monik Ginzburg managed to jump from the Transport and went into hiding where he became reunited with Michael Maik and Moshe Maik and the Goldberg Brothers. We will meet with Michael’s Maik’s tale of Deliverance later, when Michael shares with us his insight into that time of Tokele’s murder in 1945 as Dr. Szymon Datner becomes a conduit for the truth. Simon, a Resistance Leader and head of the Bialystok Jewish Regional committee, was asked to investigate the emerging truth of what had occured in Sokoly.

“..A third victim was ..pretty ..4 year old orphan Tulkale.” Michael Maik. #As an historian of Bialystok, and after all that had brought about the end of the Second World War, Simon was ideally placed when asked to make a report on the atrocity that had been reported at Sokoly. I have used this travesty to write all 4 of my own Books, both dedicated to the History of The Holocaust, as it needs to telling, and for a World who shamefully stood aside and allowed for Tokele to be taken from us is recognised. In that assertion, there are 6,000,000 other Jews who were so brutally mistreated, exiled from their homes not knowing where they were going.

“..After that ..murderer entered full of guests and started shooting again. Panic arose.” Michael Maik.

Then, detained in Concentration and Labour Camps, crammed into Ghettos and then coralled until the time came when they could be further removed to be extinguished in the 6 Death Camps in Poland. So let me take you back to when the murder of Tokele and her Family and fellow Survivor’s actually took place, on February 17th. 1945. This then is where we first come across the name of Tovah Olshak, Tokele, a 4 year old Jewish girl, and the Daughter of Shaine Olshak’s Sister.

“..For a moment ..his rifle jammed. A number of celebrants succeeded in breaking ..window and escaping through ..front door ..and they thereby were rescued from death.” Michael Maik.

Shaine Olshak too was amongst those murdered in Sokoly, Poland on this particualr day and when a period of hatred, a collusion of which exemplified with the tenet’s of Hitler’s Final Solution continues. The photograph of Tokele, which I was sent would seem to have expected from me a comment that would suggest the evil deed I was looking upon required some commentary. The photograph is of Tovah Olshak, Tokele only being a pet name for her that those in her Family sought for her, and becomes a measure of the total lack of comprehension that is the Slaughter of innocents in the name of hatred.

“..But a few ran in panic and hid under ..beds.” Michael Maik.

Though this particular photo of Tokele has become separated from the collective photograph of The Last Victims of Sokoly, I am assured that this is of the very same Tokele, history must now reflect upon. For all of those who were to be murdered were staying in the home of the Gritzik family, and at the time this might add to the confusion over where they were indeed murdered. From amongst some 20 of Sokoly’s Survivors, who had gathered at the home of the Gritzik Family, there is this conflicting evidence to suggest that the account shows the murder scene to have been in the house of Mordechai Surasky.

“..A kerosene lamp that stood on ..table fell down on ..wood floor. ..kerosene spread and a fire broke out. Additional robbers entered and shot Shammai Litvak and David Koschevsky.” Michael Maik.

Mordechai Surasky, who resided in his home near to the Mazowieckie Road, is near to where those murdered were shot. These Survivors of The Holocaust lost their chance to remain as Survivor’s due to the intervention of the hatred of antisemitic Poles in Sokoly. For me, this is the most awful of events, and in an atrocity which has more than 6,000,000 such horrors, the Jewish Children, this Jewish Child have a certain resonance which I struggle with. From what I have gathered up to this point, here are these Murdered Jews by antisemitic Poles

“..Shammai Litvak’s body covered Avraham Kalifovitz. ..shots did make holes in his clothing ..but he was saved by a miracle.” Michael Maik.

(1) Tokele, aka Tolkele aka Tulkale, aka Tulka, and though the Last Survivors Photo p.136 does not list her, we know that she was 4 years of age. I am now reliably informed by a Survivor, Yaffa Litwak, who knew of Tokele, that she is (Tovah Olshak) That said, Tovah Olshak is listed as the Sister of Shaina Olshak and in Last Survivors p.136 Photo this lists her as Tovah Olshak. Both of Tokele’s Parents were previously shot in the nearby Lupochowo Forest and Tokele had been cared for and Loved by a Christian woman. Sadly, and though with difficulty, Tokele was given back to her Cousin by marriage, Shaine and this became the route toward Tokele’s fate.

(2) Shaine(Shaina) (Sheine) Olshak was a Cousin by marriage of Tokele, she was 22 years of age, the Wife of Zeev Velvel Olshak of Zeremow. Shaine Olszak nee Nilovitzki was born in Kobylin, Poland in 1923 to Shmuel and Ester and the Last Survivors p.136 Photo lists her. Shaine was shot while attempting to flee the scene of the Sokoly carnage.

(3) David Zholti (Zholty) was born in 1939 and was 35 years of age and the Last Survivors Photo p.136 lists him.

(4) Yankele Litwak was shot by a Polish soldier while in Bialystok, a few weeks after the War and was 15 years of age. Yankele was the Brother of Shaikele, Shammai and Yaffa Litwak, formerly Shainie.

(5) Shaikele (Sheike)(Yehoshua)(Shaikeleh) Litwak appears in the Last Survivors Photo p.136 which lists him and he was 13 years of age. Shaikele was the Brother of Yankele, Shammai and was the Son of Chaim.

(6) Chaim (Tuvia) Litwak, who was the blacksmith from Siemietitz was the Father of Yankele, Shaikele, Shammai and Yaffa Litwak.

(7) Shammai Litwak is in the Last Survivors Photo p.136 which lists him was 19 years of age. Shammai was the Elder Brother of Yankele, Shaikele and Yaffa Litwak.

(8) Batya Weinstein was 20 years old, and while she had managed to survive Auschwitz she did not Survive the intention of these atisemitic Poles.

(9) David Kostshevski (Koschevsky)(Koschavsky) who had Survived both Auschwitz and Majdanek was 28 years of age. David is named in the Last Survivors Photo p.136 which lists him. David died from his wounds in Bialystok.

“..Issur Wondolowicz ..who was standing behind ..closet ..was also saved.” Michael Maik.

Those who managed to survive the attempt by this anti-Semitic Pole were:- Avraham Kalifovitz, Issur Wondolowicz and Zeev Gritshak. Both Benyamin Ratzlev (Rachlev), who had been engaged to Batya Weinstein, and Benyamin Gorkovitz, who had accompanied Avrahamel Goldberg to Lendowa-Budy to take back his Sister’s Daughter, Feigele Tabak, from a Woman Farmer. Yaffa Cohen who was elsewhere when the Poles broke in and started shooting was a Survivor still, and upon their return to the house, they found the caranage that had been waged.

“..Shaina Olshak ..22 years old ..who had been recently Married ..fled outside and was shot on by ..robbers’ guard.” Michael Maik. #Even in the Holocaust arena itself there are confusions as to territory, and believe me there is a turf war over who owns what information and the very evidence of those we now seek to discover. I wrote my first Book as a response to the murder of this 4 year old Jewish girl and no one would let go of that possession of the information that might, collectively, have broadened the picture we have been presented with. For me, it is evident that The Holocaust belongs to all of us who choose to learn from it and it most definitely belongs to the memory of 6,000,000 Jews who can no longer speak for themselves.

“..robbers stole and shoes from their victims well as possessions from ..beds and closets.” Michael Maik. #We must disown such possessiveness so that we can all add toward a credible understanding of the catastrophe itself, in order that we are affected by the need to learn. There is often a vitriole that exists for those who seek to open out the debate, in order that some might disguise further the wrong done. There is no closure without acceptance firstly of the great wrong done, and so the work continues to expose that wrong and supply the answers which might yet comprehend the need to appreciate the grave debt we owe the Jewish People.

“..I knew ..Tokele ..she is Tovah Olshak ..the Sister of Shaina Olshak. Both of Tokele’s Parents were previously shot in ..nearby Lupochowo Forest and she had been cared for and Loved by a Christian woman.” Yaffa Litwak.

All of my work is part of that process and it flows from the essential of the first book, through the 2nd., 3rd. and even the 4th. Book to add an Irish voice to a particularly specific and Jewish Catastrophe. This all leads me toward that certain necessity, in the hope that my work is an essential in affording to the memory of these Jews, an Irish accent that is an Irish lament. A 4 year old Jewish Child, taken from us when she had so much to live for deserves as much respect as the disdain for the perpetrator is measureable.

Tovah ‘Tokele’ Olshak

Emanuel Ringelblum

Uncategorised Posted on Tue, June 29, 2021 20:03:56

Emanuel Ringelblum (1900 – 1944)

“..Day in out hundreds of cities throughout Poland ..Russia 1,000’s upon 1,000’s of Jews are ..systematically murdered according to a preconceived plan one .takes our part.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Emanuel Ringelblum was born on November 21st. 1900 in Buczacz, Poland and his life story is more worthy than the mereest words that I can deliver in this short essay, can ever contain. Emanuel met and Married his Wife, Yehudis Herman in Warsaw and in 1930, they had a Son Uri, whose presence gave them both comfort and hope. But let us try to begin at a point in History where an Historian is present when on October 28th. 1938 Germany expells 17,000 Polish Jews. Escorted over the Polish border, and while 8,000 of these Jews are stranded at Zbaszyn, Poland, these Jews were not to be admitted by Poland.

Saturday October 29th. 1938 ” ..shall ..take ..Jewish Question toward its total solution. elimination.” das Schwarze Korps.

Nor where these destitute Jews ever to be allowed back into Germany and this sparked a response in all of history that had major ramifications for all of Jewish existence. If we think back to the period, we also recognise that the rhetoric of hatred, all vented toward the Jews, had been scaling newer and more vociferous and intended heights. On October 30th. 1938, with Emanuel at the head of the delegation of the Joint Distribution Committee, a Jewish relief team, they were sent to Zbaszyn where Emanuel sought to deal with the burgeoning crisis for those Jews.

“..future historian will have to dedicate an appropriate page to ..Jewish woman. ..She will take up an important page in Jewish history for her courage and steadfastness. By her merit ..1,000’s of families have managed to surmount ..terror of ..times.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Here, already forced to leave their German homes, and much of what were their possessions, these Polish Jews were literally discarded there. For Emanuel and his team, so as to somehow relieve much of the pressure on a small overcrowded provincial Town, on the Polish side of the German border, leadership was brough to the fore. The sheer effort eventually proved a resource that Emanuel would find of use to him when History demanded it of him. Here, and we have to remember, there where some 8,000 Polish Jews who had been summarily and arbitrarily expelled from Germany.

“..Comprehensiveness ..chief principle guiding our work ..objectivity was ..second principle.” Emanuel Ringelblum. #Here they were though, these stranded Jews, in their own lands that did not want them and did not care what happened to them. It is important too to recognise, that in Emanuel Ringelblum, we have a Polish Jew who was bringing them some relief whilst a nation refused to do so. Emanuel, too was a formative Historian as well as being a Social Worker and a Politician and he is amply known for his established works. On his Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto, there is a clear insight into the bulging presence of increasing numbers of Jews now entering the Ghetto.

“..We are afraid to walk in ..Street. ..that saying World War ..would see an end to Jewish People is frequently quoted.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

While it is often overlooked, and that when the time came, Emanuel was to be one of the Leaders in this coming confrontation with Hitler’s resolve for the Jews, in The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Along with his Notes on these Refugees in Zbaszyn and of course the Onyeg Shabbes, the Archive of the Warsaw Ghetto, Emanuel has become a major reference indicator in sourcing the Jewish existence of Jews during The Holocaust. What we can always draw from his intervention into the politics of the Jewish struggle in Zbaszyn, is to consider his effort a remarkable achievement.

“..Remember ..there is a national treasure buried under ..rubble. It’s ..Ringelblum Archive. We must not rest until we find ..Archive. ..even if there are 5 layers of ruins over it ..we have to find ..Archive.” Rachel Auerbach.

For a well intentioned Man, Emanuel will exemplify the surety of that long established Jewish hope and will become an endeavour that has been beneficial to our study to this day. Clearly, the ability to rise to the occasioning of a disaster, which was beginning for the Jews of all of Europe, and with what was available to him, marked Emanuel for what he delivered for us. There are many dissenting voices in the midst of Emanuel’s achievement, not least from some of those of his Archivists who protested the lack of a physical response.

“..In 5 weeks we put up a whole Town ..with a supply department ..workshops for carpenters ..tailors ..shoemakers ..barbers ..a legal section emigration office ..our own post office and 53 clerks ..a welfare department ..a court of arbitration ..a committee for law and order ..a control service ..a sanitary commission ..a network of health services.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

I do not sit here to judge any or even some of the Jews within this period who acted as they stood before the abyss and were catapulted into it, with other than a shame that the World allowed them to be so targetted. The sheer brutality to be exacted against them, and to those next to them and to force them toward compliance is exacting enough for History to draw its conclusion as to the Jews lack of choice. The culmination of responses to this Zbaszyn aktion was to see Ernst vom Rath being shot by Hershel Grynzspan on Novemeber 7th. 1938.

Wednesday November 9th. 1938 “..I remember sort of being yanked out of our flat and being ordered to march to in in and there we were separated ..Men ..Women ..Children ..stood there in ..bitter cold November night wearing short trousers.” Bernd Koschland.

Here we are to see the emerging atrocity of The Holocaust and with the consequences of Hershel’s action, a Hitler whose response takes a more critical turn. The dedication with which Kristallnacht descended upon the Jewish People should have been the clarion call to the World to act. But, and here on November 9th. 1938 when vom Rath dies, Hitler authorizes his chief lieutenant, Hermann Goering, to deal without measure or restraint, all aspects of Jewish living and political issues.

“..majority of our ..collaborators ..mostly recruited from ..folk intelligentsia ..mainly from ..proletarian parties. ..purposely avoided inviting professional journalists ..we didn’t want our work ..cheapened and distorted. We wanted ..simplest ..unadorned account possible of what happened in each shtetl ..what happened to each Jew ..each Jew ..a World in itself. Any superfluous word ..any literary exagergeration grated and repelled. Jewish life so packed with events is unnecessary to add an extra sentence.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Immediately, this Night of Broken Glass, Kristallnacht, is orchestrated throughout Germany, Austria and the Sudetenland. With some 267 Jewish Synagogues ransacked and destroyed, 7,500 Jewish Shops looted and over 50,000 Jews are removed to German Concentration Camps. Here at Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen, the Nazi expertise in abusing, and killing the Jewish People is clearly honed for future reference. Jewish life has now been ritually targetted for destruction and there are over 240 Jews who are killed to add to the emergence of what die Endlosung der Judenfrage will mean.

“..Polish Police ..has played a most lamentable role in ..Extermination of ..Jews of Poland. ..uniformed police has been an enthusiastic executor of all ..German directives regarding ..Jews.“ Emanuel Ringelblum.

On December 14th. 1938 Goering is given overall charge of this, die Endlosung der Judenfrage, and The Final Solution of The Jewish Question becomes more certain. Any euphemism therefore which becomes employed, given the full nature of the Destruction of all Jews in Europe to come, will never hide from truth the fully murderous intention of Hitler’s resolve. Though we clearly cannot rely upon this continuing formation of words to establish the exact date at which Hitler arrived at the overall kill policy, we know it arrived.

“..It must all be recorded with not a single fact omitted. And when ..time comes it surely will ..let read and know what ..murderers have done.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

As we move on to December 6th. 1939, Emanuel notes in a letter, reporting and describing the situation for the Jews of this no mans land, that was Zbaszyn, Poland. Meanwhile, the Jewish suffering is being added to. Working out what was and could be achieved, and given the will to do so, a handful of Jews did more for humanity than entire states or nations were prepared to. For both Germany and Poland, the human failings were enormous and entirely essential to both these states decrying the presence of Jews within their communities, with an acceptance of their removal from their states.

“..Signs of Modern Slaves. ..Numbered and stamped. Live in barracks ..without their Wives. ..Wives and Children removed ..because slaves don’t require Families. ..Walk in crowds ..not individually. ..Beaten and terrorized at work. ..Inhuman exploitation. ..Ban on organiusation of any kind. ..Ban on any form of protest or sign of dissatisfaction. ..Every slave dependent for his life on his master. ..At any moment ..sent to ..Umschlagplatz. ..murderous discipline ..workers to forced labour camps. ..Compulsion to work. ..Worse off than slaves ..they must look after their own food. ..Confiscation of property from a dead worker’s Family ..right of inheritance has been abolished. ..Locked inside ..residential block. ..Ban on leaving your apartment ..walking in ..Streets after work hours. ..Limitation of personal freedome ..of movement. ..Worse that slaves ..because latter knew they would remain alive ..had some hope to be set free. ..Jews ..sentenced to death ..whose death sentence ..postponed indefinately ..or has been passed. ..sick and ..weak have been liquidated.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Also clear is, that when it arrived, All Jews Were To Become Hitler’s unwilling Victims in accordance with what Hitler enabled his minions to bring forward on his behalf. The resolve of Hitler for the complete response and answer to the Jewish Question was always in operation, ever since Hitler came to power. But, and even before then, Hitler had trained his sights upon the Jewish People and their destruction was an increment away. Those stages, in words and hate filled bile, sought to camouflage somehow his impulse to destroy and punitively, the entire Jewish Race of People.

“..February 2nd. 1940 ..according to my Son Uri ..Children tell one another ..old People will be shot ..middle aged will be sent to camps ..and ..Children will be baptized and passed out among christian families.” Emanuel Ringelblum. #While what Emanuel recognised here in the words of Children and was still some years away, we saw with Kristallnacht that this had already crystallized the frenzied rhetoric of Hitler’s hatred of the Jews. What branched out into a full blown programme of destruction we see with the procession of events toward the future enslavement of the Jewish People that was destructive and clearly defined, fast approaching. We recognise too that Kristallnacht is an identified staging post for what would become the resettlent transports from the Reich to the 6 Gassing facility’s in Poland.

“..from ..principal European Ghettos set up by ..Germans ..several diaries ..collections of documents survive . ..3 largest existing sets of contemorary records are those of ..Warsaw Ghetto ..collected by Emanuel Ringelblum and his Joy of Sabbath circle ..archives of ..Bialystok Ghetto ..and ..chronicle of ..Lodz Ghetto.” Martin Gilbert.

Every facet of Hitler’s being was focused upon the Jews and their annihilation and the entry of War into this configuration gave Hitler a further 3,650,000 Polish Jews for him to resolve as an issue, as a solution, as a People. With his formative der Einsatzgruppe, small pockets of Jewish Community’s were targeted and eliminated and this is nowonly 1939. During December 1940, while work was being considered on creating the Onyeg Shabbes, the consensus amongst many is given a more immediate purpose.

Tuesday June 30th. 1942 “..Jewish population under ..impact of news from London. has been stirred by ..reports of ..slaughter in Poland ..aroused ..deepest emotions in all of us. Formany ..many months ..endured ..most terrible sufferings ..asking ourselves ..Does know about our sufferings ..if it knows ..why is it silent. Why was not outraged 10’s of 1,000’s of Jews ..shot Ponary. ..10’s of 1,000’s of Jews poisoned in Chelmno. 100’s of 1,000’s of Jews ..slaughtered in Galicia. ..slaughter in Vilna. ..180,000 Rostov ..Jews ..murdered Kiev. ..blood is flowing in rivers. Is ..blood of ..Jews more precious…Only now have we come to understand ..cause of this silence. ..Polish government ..its own radio station .knew nothing about it. ..if London knew day 100 people ..shot ..Pawiak prison ..why ..did it take many months before they learned of ..100’s of 1,000’s murdered Jews…a question which cannot be turned away by excuses!” Emanuel Ringelblum.

As Emanuel seeks to bring together like minded activists as archvists, those who share the same sense of urgency, Poland is evidencings all of what Hitler’s forces are securing against the Jews, throughout Poland. In Aleksandrow they Murder Jews. In Czestochowa they Murder Jews. In Konskie they Murder Jews. In Kruszyna they Murder Jews. In Lelow they murder Jews. In Ozorkow they Murder Jews. In Pietrkow-Trybunalski, in Piotrkow, in Sosnowiec, in Wieruszow, in Zarki, in Zdunska-Wola, in Zgierz and in Zloczew the Einsatzgruppe murder Jews.

“..Ringelblum certainly played an important role ..not only in ..archive ..but also in all his activity. energetic man ..filled a central role st Tlomackie Yisa ..and had an outstanding organisational ability.” Yitzhak Zuckerman.

All of which suggests the systematic nature of the Slaughter and the planned for execution of Hitler’s developing instructions to do so. As the Murder’s become more and more widespread, the knowledge of their consistency permeates all of Poland. As Emanuel engages in the prospect of ensuring the World will know of this, we do not seek to discount any of those 50 or 60 Archivists who worked so closely to ensure it. The Memory of what was achieved against all the Jews of Poland is entered into with what we recognise is Emanuel Ringelblum’s Onyeg Shabbes Archives. 

Wednesday July 22nd. 1942 “..eve of Tisha be-Av ..Day of Mourning ..liquidation of ..Warsaw ghetto was begun. ..Public Committee was immediately summoned to find out what ..situation was and to take measures. Those attending ..meeting included Dr. A. Berman ..L. Bloch ..Shmuer Bresler ..Yitzhak Cukierman ..Zisha Friedman ..Josef Finkelstein-Lewartowski ..D. Guzik ..Yitzhak Giterman ..Josef Kaplan ..Menachem Kirszenbaum ..Alexander Landau M. Orzech ..Dr. Emmanuel Ringelblum ..Josef Sack ..Szachna Sagan ..Dr. Yitzhak Schiper. ..Opinions were divided. Representatives of ..left-wing Zionist parties and of He-Halutz ..and also some of in public life called for active intervention in some way or other. ..majority wanted to wait. How long. Until ..situation became clearer. ..rumors ..circulating that no more than 50,000 to 70,000 Jews would be deported from Warsaw ..old people ..sick ..prisoners ..beggars ..after that ..Aktion would be finished.” Adam Czerniakow.

For this reason alone, the Archive will always allow for Emanuel Ringelblum’s name to ring out throughout all of Eternity. While we have at least many of the names of those who assisted Emanuel’s endeavour, we recognise a concerted effort has now been recorded into the evidence and testimony we know is The Holocaust. For all of those other contributor’s, and we are aware that not all of these are known us, we recognse them, their hand intervening and intentional and for that, they too are recalled and remembered.

Monday August 3rd. 1942 “..I am proud these grave ..fateful days ..I was one ..who buried ..treasure order that you ..know of ..tortures ..murders of ..Nazi tyranny.” Naum Grzywacz. #On August 3rd. 1942 in 10 Tin Boxes and Milk Churns, some holding Emanuel Ringelblum’s own Warsaw Diary, we know that this part of the Ghetto Archive, perhaps Emanuel’s own personal attachment to the Onyeg Shabbes, this is hidden by Naum Grzywacz, Israel Lichtenstein and other’s. The Jewish Self Help Society, from which this Yisa Archive arrives and all of this adds more to the culture of Poland which did Not exist without the influence of some 3,650,000 Polish Jews within that Group and Society as a whole.

“..Ringelblum asked me to transfer Michael Weichert’s archive from Krakow to Warsaw. ..It wasn’t a personal archive but ..YISA archive.” Yitzhak Zuckerman. #Emanuel Ringelblum, who sought to remind the closed World of Poland, the ever threatened Europe and consequently the World thrown into conflict of what will be missing of Polish Jewry. We should be certain that while some 3,000,000 Polish Jews are to be missed, they form a part of a larger 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews are missed but must never be forgotten. We know too that in the March of 1943, Emanuel, Yehudis and Uri escape to the aryan side of Warsaw and away from the Ghetto.

“..Before ..War ..Jews lived in their 2 storey tenement. As neighbours ..they were on good terms. A Jewish vegetable merchant and a Jewish fruit trader bought products from their garden and orchard. Old Mieczyslaw’s Father was known for his liberal attitude towards Jews. He was an honest man ..of noble character. Modern trends had not touched him. He did not understand hatred towards Jews. It was in that spirit that he raised his children whom he instilled ..principles of justice and to treat everyone ..same ..without regard to religion or nationality. Mrs Malgorzata ..Mieczyslaw’s Mother adopted that family tradition from her Husband.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Emanuel could not forego his undertaking to gift us memory and was always adding to what the Archive would finally constitute in recalling what the Jews were enduring. The vulgar horror of the actual Slaughter rips through the whole of civilisation and marks any perceived culture with a disdain that resonates though 6,000,000 Jews lost. The War against the Jews was no coincidence and World War II will not conceal that fact, an integral part of its knowledge not hidden behind a smoke screen an attempt to shroud and deflect a World’s attention.

“..When it was needed to rescue ..current residents of Krysia from ..Ghetto ..Wieczyslaw personally drove his cart to ..finish ..loaded ..suitcases and parcels onto ..cart ..sat ..people onto ..packages and drove home. One time ..he loaded on 8 people ..Women ..Children ..and ..before ..eyes of ..police ..szmalcownicy these blackmailers ..and ..neighbours ..he drove along ..main streets of ..City ..arriving home safely.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Along with the Archives from Warsaw, there was also many other Archives which Emanuel pooled together from the far flung corner’s of Hitler’s intention for Polish Jewry. In this we can recall, Bialystok, Cracow, Lodz and Vilna and know from them, the physical resistance is placed alongside the cultural emphasis always Jewish, always a Jewish enterprise and always in confrontation with Hitler’s demands. It is indeed unfortunate that some in history see, that it required the tide of the War to move against Hitler for him to unleash The Final Solution.

“..What could I answer. ..We all knew well that if we succeeded in taking Ringelblum out of there and bringing him to us as a shoemaker or tailor ..his Family would still be doomed. My silence conveyed ..truth to him.” Julian Hirszhaut.

This is very far from the truth as in every corner of Germany and Austria, in Czechoslovakia and on into Poland, from these earliest days, the Jewish People were being Murdered and to scale. On March 5th. 1944, Emanuel was betrayed by the Pole, Jan Lakinski, and their place of hiding was uncovered by the Germans. Emanuel and his Family, and all the others in the hiding place, as well as the Pole who hid them, were taken to Pawiak prison. There are variants to the last details of Emanuel’s life, and those of his Family.

“..On ..morning of March 7th 1944 ..Germans and polish police came to where we were sitting Mother Brother Mieczyslaw ..Me and my sick Sister Halina. They took my Brother and led him straight into to ..greenhouse. I immediately went into another room and lowered ..blind as a signal of danger. Janusz was in front of ..greenhouse. When he saw ..drawn blind ..he jumped into Krysia and stayed there. Through ..window ..I saw ..Germans standing near Krysia as ..Jews emerged. They were then stood against a wall with their arms raised. That same day ..or ..Krysia was pillaged and burned. ..polish police stood guard there for another 3 days before they were recalled.” Wanda Szandurska.

Some 130 Jews are recorded as having been in hiding alongside Emanuel and his Family and were caught by the Germans as they sought Emanuel and even his Archive. Other’s contest that it is within Pawiak Gaol that Emanuel and his Family were shot and either way, Emanuel Ringelblum has left to posterity what we surely gain from. We can afford him no other accolade than the saving of a Jewish Cultural rebellion that stood against the tide of such uncivilised atrocity, there is a victory we might not choose to mention while it is steeped in the blood of 6,000,000 Jews. Emanuel deserves more than just a mention far beyond what is to be learned of, and ahead of all of his effort for us.

“..populace is afraid that at ..crucial terrifying moment ..Germans will discover some clever way of turning to nought all our efforts ar self rescue. Whether this is true or not ..only future will tell.” Emanuel Ringelblum. #The Foresight to see, while all around you is crumbling into dust, that choking feeling of isolation being masked by the flames of destruction and all the time while facing the blanket of ash from the Slaughter of Your People, this is what confronted 11,293,3000 Jews of Europe and Emanuel Ringelblum ws one of those Jews. Emanuel Ringelblum established for all time what history now acknowledges is the formative archive of the Jewish Struggle to Survive. This idea, this concept worked tirelessly against Hitler’s plan to ensure no trace of any Jew could survive, either physically, culturally, or effectively.

“..If ..third part of ..Ringelblum Archive ..and with it my papers ..turned over for safe keeping after ..Great Deportation began ever found will include a ticket from ..Ghetto’s laundry with a poem by Yisroel Shtern about a tree in ..Ghetto.” Rachel Auerbach. #And here, as we recognise this day, March 7th. 1944, as the very day Emanuel and his Family are murdered, we know more of what happened to those who used to surround him in Warsaw, 300,000 to 450,000 Jews, filtered through the Umschlagplatz into oblivion. The Archive itself, this Onyeg Shabbes, and their wealth of evidences and materials that were preserved in metal cases, boxes, milk crates, is a treasure to be measured by 6,000,000 priceless lives. Uncovering thsee artefacts, one of the sites was uncovered in September 1946 with 10 cases of the Archive still intact. On December 1st. 1950, the second resource, the Milk churns containing more of these evidences and testimonials were discovered.

“..Everything depends upon who transmits ..who writes ..history of this period. ..they might wipe out our memory if we had never existed if there had never been a Polish Jewry ..a Ghetto in Warsaw ..a Majdanek. ..if we write ..history of this period of blood and tears ..I firmly believe we will ..who will believe us. Nobody will want to believe us ..because our disaster is ..disaster of ..entire civilised World. ..we are Abel ..murdered Brother.” Isaac Schipper.

This other large section, Rachel Auerbach’s 3rd. Section of the Archive has as yet remained hidden beneath the depths of the Ghetto and will possibly never be uncovered. What we have though, are the raw materials of Jewish Life while they are facing the daily perils of The Final Solution of the Jewish Question. This, at the time when the forces of Hitler were decimating Jewish existence is not to be measured lightly, nor forgotten easily. The physical evidence of the persistance of more than 3,000,000 Jews who were eradicated from all of Poland stands also as a testimonial to World failure and Jewish loss. 6,000,000 Jewish losses, all too easily forgotten by those who would seek to forget our lamentable failings as human beings has its reminders.

“..we die ..knowing ..we hurt ..enemy. ..unmasked his ..plan to destroy Polish Jewry. ..upset his plans ..revealed his cards. ..if England keeps its word ..goes through with its threats ..maybe we will be saved after all.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Emanuel Ringelblum
Yehudis Herman Ringelblum
Emanuel and Uri Ringelblum
Onyeg Shabbes Contained
A Wealth in Words

Wladyslaw Szlengel

Uncategorised Posted on Mon, June 28, 2021 14:29:43

Wladyslaw Szlengel (1912 – 1943)

“..poems which you will enter dears ..without armbands ..are a jungle in which you will not find it easy to find your way. Topics and props are alien and incomprehensible to you ..they require many comments. There are words and points ..whose depth and horrifying sadness can be understood only after ..preparation in ..form of a life behind ..wall and under ..whip of ..SS.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Wladyslaw Szlengel was a born Poet, sometime in 1912, as records have proved inadequate to be more specific, he was born to Parents Mala and Maurycy Szlengel in the Warsaw District of Wola. In 1930, a Graduate of the Merchants Association Trade School, he had his first poem Published, Cjankali. He commenced his Theatre training and throughout the 1930’s his poetry was being read everywhere, in articles, newspapers and in songs for all of the theatres he frequented. With Hitler’s Invasion of Poland, September 1st. 1939 Wladyslaw was a fighter, defending his Warsaw and once Polish defeat was assured he and his Wife left for Bialystok and then onto Lvov.

“..With heart rozbitem and choir ..With thoughts about that page Sat down tonight Speaking. ..And I think to myself ..I’ll call ..To someone on that side ..When I’m on duty ..In ..Evening. ..And suddenly I think ..on God ..I don’t actually have to whom In ..year of trzydziestym ninth ..I went another way. ..Our roads parted ..Friendship are in Toni ..And now ..well please ..I don’t have ..Even who to call. ” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

With Hitler’s further demands East, Hitler Invaded Russia on June 22nd. 1941, Wladyslaw returned to Warsaw by way of the Janow Camp, after he was incarcerated by the Germans. Freed, around January 1942, he managed to finally return to the Warsaw Ghetto, to their apartment at 14 Walicow Street. At this time he created the Living Diary and attracted the attention of Emanuel Ringelblum, himself assembling like minded spirits for the Onyeg Shabbes. With this Living Diary, Wladyslaw chronicled the ups and the many downs of Ghetto life, producing a newspaper which not only contained his songs, it contained a spirit of resistance.

“..And ..autumn evening behind ..And ..autumn evening is on ..road ..And I think ..I would like to call ..But I have no one to. Taking to hand ..Pathetic link ..I friend number ..He’s talking ..girl. ..Excuse me you recognize me. ..I’m asking .voice ..September years ago ..Before I went to road room at dawn ..I knew what was starting ..And for ..last time ..That it’s six o’clock. ..Now you want to talk to me ..Because my throat stands tears ..Tell me something zegarynko ..ten ..Fifty ..three.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

The paper was filled with interviews from other Performers, Writers and those who witnessed the life changing effects of the Ghetto as it was imposed. It was at such time that Wladyslaw came to also know Janusz Korczak of the Children’s Orphanage, a Home for the waifs and strays, the homeless and the destitute Jewish Children of the Warsaw Ghetto. His Poetry took on a newer meaning now as he was attracted to Emanuel Ringelblum’s efforts in establishing the Ghetto Archive. The songs, the poets of spirit in hope began to filter throughout the Ghetto as Wladyslaw became a component part of the Onyeg Shabbes Archivists.

“..How often I had to life ..With that voice of calm tie. ..Remember me ..zegarynko ..ten ..Fifty ..Six. ..Ten ..Fifty ..Six. ..You want ..we’ll mention ..In ..year ..I’m out of ..movies now. ..Ten ..Fifty Seven. ..Coming home zero ..With chmielna from Atlantic cinema ..With Gary Cooper. ..On ..corner of ..golden paperboy ..He was selling ..Kurjer Red ..On ..asphalt they are rolling like lights ..Colorful Neon.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Wladsylaw, who had been a member of the Jewish Police, up to the point of the First Great Action, the commencement of the liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto, when reality finally assailed him. Jewish Warsaw, its population having swelled from 300,000 Jews in the 1930’s, was now bulging with in excess of 450,000 Jews, adding those from outlying districts to the hugely over crowded Ghetto area. Here, Adam Czerniakow as the Judenrate Chairman sought to refuse the Nazi’s their list making effort and he committed suicide on July 23rd. 1942 as Treblinka awaited 900,000 or 1,000,000 of Warsaw’s Jews, Europe’s Jews and Poland’s Jews.

“..No he he ..Into ..heart of a nice city ..Do you say something zegarynko .. Eleven. ..A new world will be born ..Still for a walk parks went ..He also invited cafe club. ..Eleven Three. ..In quick fresh sausages ..And kolacyjny piston ..And rushed from adria cab ..From The Speaker Sang Fogg. ..Back to firehouse trams ..And ..night started to drive ..Which was more or less. ..Eleven ..Forty ..Six.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Here, Wladyslaw took leave of his policing duties, witnessing the Death and Destruction of his Jewish Warsaw, with colleagues, friends and associates all being harassed, tagetted and killed at the whim of the Nazi forces. Wladyslaw was moved to 34 Swietojerska Street and began working in the brushmakers workshop and began his life renewed, though in hiding there and finally in the basement at 36 Swietojerska Street. Here, Wladyslaw Survived during the Jewish Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, which began on April 17th. 1943 and he was still alive until its last days.

“..How good to talk to you ..No dispute different opinions. ..You are ..nicest ..zegarynko ..Of all ..friends of ..ladies. ..Already Lighter now ..heart will be ..When I know that when I call ..Someone will listen to me ..Though He’s on that side. ..That someone remembers all this ..That we shared fate ..And talk to me is not afraid ..And so calm has a voice. ..Already night fall pluszcze ..And wind over murkami gna ..We dream ..we dream ..Girl and I. ..Be healthy my far away ..There are hearts where nothing changes. ..In five twelfth you say ..You’re right goodbye.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Tragically, and not fully 2 days before the crushing of the Jewish Uprising, which came to an end, on May 10h. 1943, together with his Wife, on May 8th. 1943, the Nazi’s came across their hidden bunker and no one emerged alive of the some 130 Jews in hiding there. The carnage of their Murder leaves no resting place for them, so we Remember them all as Jews of The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. In the words of Wladyslaw Szlengel, both prophetic and deeply moving we recognise in:

Your Death and Our Death.

Your death and our death

are two different deaths.

Your death it’s a strong death,

tearing into shreds.

Your death in the midst of grey fields

fertile from blood and sweat.

Your death is death from bullets

for something for the Homeland.

Our death it’s a silly death,

in an attic or a cellar,

our death is a dog’s death

from around the street corner.

Your death will be marked with a cross,

it is being reported,

our death warehouse pile,

they will bury goodbye.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Wladyslaw Szlengel

Yoshue Perle

Uncategorised Posted on Sun, June 27, 2021 12:09:28

Yoshue Perle (1888–1943)

Yoshue Perle was born in 1888’s Radom, Poland and his Father, a merchant sent Yoshue to a Russian School to learn bookkeeping. In 1905, working in a Warsaw, Poland Bank, he pursued his literary career visiting theatres, meeting with other young Yiddish writers and honing his craft amongst Warsaw Jewry. His Shabes work was published in 1908 and he became a known quantity, perhaps through his regular interactions with the monied of local Jewish Society. Yoshue however, never quite sought to fit into the rather strange mix of assimilated Jewry who could never fit totally into Polish society, as all too often Polish Jews were considered outsiders in their own land.

This separation between assimilated and the more Observant Jews was continually expressed in the works of Yoshue at the time. In 1926 Sara, when Yoshue’s Wife took her own life a looming cloud descended over him and in 1935, when his Book, Ordinary Jews was Published, it caused quite a stir amongst the more reserved, conservative and religious Jews in Poland. However, since its entry into the lexicon of Jewish consciousness, it has come to be both respected and well regarded. It is a Book that is certainly one of Yiddish Literatures modern classics, ahead of its time.

It is a glimpse into the facets of Jewish life that was set to fade and there are small snippets of ordinary Jews in small provincial Jewish Towns in Poland which ensure we can reach past The Holocaust. Here, we are directly connected with those Jews still warm and vibrant, enduring hardships of antisemitic hatreds, but living none the less. With what has been taken from the World with the loss of some 3,000,000 Polish Jews, the Jewish World and more specifically the Polish Jewish World has been ransacked from all existence.

With this work intact, Ordinary Jews the novel, becomes in many ways a History of the Jews of Poland before The Holocaust brutally detained them. The Book in itself opens a portal to a Jewish way of life that has been, for all intents and purposes, eradicated throughout all of Poland.Yoshue’s work too has a direct connection with that past which Emanuel Ringelblum sought to source, in order to establish his own Shabes, the Onyeg Shabbes. In March 1936, Yoshue perhaps foresaw the consequences of the mounting hatred for the Jewish People now spreading through Europe.

“..It is bad and bitter here. When they slaughter us all ..there won’t be anywhere to bury us.” Yoshue Perle.

After Hitler’s forces invaded Poland, September 1st. 1939, Yoshue left Warsaw for Lvov and in Novemebr 1939 he worked alongide the Russian Writer’s Union, chairing the Yiddisher section. Then with Hitler’s attack on Russia, June 22nd. 1941, Yoshue returned to Warsaw and filed a report on the Russian occupation of Lvov for Emanuel and the Onyeg Shabbes. Here, Emanuel also managed to secure employment for Yoshue, at the honey factory, which would also employ Rachel Auerbach, and in order for them to maintain the Yiddish framework of the Archive.

“..Korczak’s true value was not what he wrote but that he lived as he wrote.” Wladyslaw Szpilman.

Also, as a part of the archive itself, Jewish life, was worked upon as a microcosm of individual lives that is to be played out as we are transported back to a time of great Jewish vibrancy and creativity. Here, in pre-Hitler’s intervention into Poland, how little could be perceived of what lay in store for all of European Jewry would be more certainly felt and within Poland, almost immediately. On August 5th. 1942, we reflect with Janusz Korczak and the 200 Children of his orphanage as they were marched through the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto to a waiting transport for Treblinka.

“..A miracle occurred ..these 200 Children did not cry ..200 innocent creatures condemned to death did not weep ..not one of them ran away ..none tried to hide. Like sick swallows ..they clung only to their Teacher ..Mentor ..Father ..Brother ..Janusz Korczak that he might preserve and protect them. He stood in ..first row. He protected ..Children with his weak ..emaciated body. ..Hitlerite beasts showed no pity. ..pistol in one hand ..whip in ..other ..they barked ..March. Woe to ..eyes that had to watch this terrible scene. Janusz Korczak ..bareheaded ..with a leather belt around his coat ..and in high boots ..stooped ..held ..hand of ..youngest Child and led ..way. Several nurses in white aprons followed him ..and then came ..200 clean and freshly combed Children.” Yoshue Perle.

On August 6th. 1942, and along with 15,000 other’s of Warsaw Jewry, were those of the Orphanage that had been directed by Janusz Korczak, also known as Hersch Goldszmit. Amongst these were his assistant, Madame Stefa otherwise known as Stefania Wilczynska standing at the head of a column of orphans, and as Korczak walked them toward a more consoling end in Treblinka, where all were murdered in the Death Camp Treblinka, Poland and history recalls the loss alongside their 200 charges, All Polish Jewish Children.

“..We could have defended ourselves. ..Had all Jews into ..Streets ..climbed over ..Ghetto walls ..flooded ..Warsaw Streets carrying knives ..axes ..stones ..maybe they would have killed 10,000 ..20,000 ..but ..never ..300,000.” Yoshue Perle.

These small, often times fragile Jewish Children, orphaned on the Streets of the Warsaw Ghetto, were among approximately 50,000 Jewish Children from the Warsaw Ghetto who were murdered at Treblinka, and this in a period of less than 2 months. While Ghetto life had gravely marked Yoshue, reeling still from his Wife’s death, he was left wondering more and more about why life could have much meaning without those they had loved ever still being present in their lives.

From then on Yoshue would become deeply concerned for their Son and he was overly cautious with him in their life together. In words, often critical of those who administered the Ghettos for the Nazi’s, and his critique of them is a slamming indictment of a bitterness he reserved for them, his words are somewhat poignant given the escalating attempts being made to eradicate all of the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto..

“..Today I saw Janusz Korczak,

As he walked with the children in the last procession.

And the children were in really clean clothes,

As if they were going in a walk in the gardens on Sunday.

Someone dashed up with a paper in his hand,

You can go back there’s a card from Brandt.

Korczak shook his head silently,

How could he get into those unfeeling heads

What it means to leave a child alone.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Luck remained on Yoshue’s side as he evaded deportation from the Ghetto and he finally decided to escape to the aryan side, which he managed in March 1943. Living under false identities and with The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising fullly engaged, the Jewish Warsaw Ghetto Uprising began on April 17th. 1943, and on May 10th. 1943 the Jewish Uprising came to an end, Yoshue was still on the wrong side of Jewish Poland. Polish Jews, always expecting to Survive but never surprised that Survival was hopeless, had nowhere to go and no one to look to for immediate assistance.

Monday May 17th. 1943 “..Warsaw Ghetto is free of Jews.” SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.

Meanwhile, rumours abounded that privilieged status could be afforded those Jews with exit visas and for these to be obtained from the Nazi’s at the Hotel Polski. The sham was not to be discovered until the doors of the Krematorium closed behing all of them who were misguided enough to believe anything the Nazi’s had said. It is certain that Yoshue, given some form of protective status with a highly paid for visa to the America’s, was placed on a transport which took him and his Son to Belsen and from there toward Switzerland.

While I have never wished to enter into why some Jews behaved so deliberately badly toward their fellow Jews, I have no desire either to place myself in their shoes. Knowing full well, as I do, no Jew was the arbiter of what was to befall all or any Jew, it was Hitler and his cronies who were. However, there is a certain stain which presents itself in all the searching research I have done, which is mentioned by those like Yoshue, and I mention them. For instance though, and this is the infamous transport of 1,800 Polish Jews that was redirected to Auschwitz and on into Birkenau.

Here, where Yoshue Perle was to be Murdered and with his Son in Krematorium III, Birkenau, Poland on October 23rd.1943, this is and was regardless of whether or not any Jew was ever present at any seeming point of influence of confluence along the way. What Yoshue is Not privy to, as History has surpassed his very life, is the amount of retaliation that was being conducted as he sought to save his own and other’s lives. Yoshu is also unaware that even in Birkenau, resistance would see more Jews take a knfe to the captor’s and strike deeply for more than a wounded pride, and for 6,000,000 lost Jewish existences that was Never a deserved fate.

“..If community of 300,000 Jews did not try to resist its own throat to ..slaughterer’s knife ..if it did not kill one German ..maybe this was a generation that deserved its fate.” Yoshue Perle.

Jews Saved in Poland

Uncategorised Posted on Sat, June 26, 2021 11:03:00

“..Monsters exist ..they are too few in number to be truly dangerous. More dangerous are ..common men ..functionaries ready to believe and to act without asking questions.” Primo Levi.

Sometimes, and there are all too many of these times, so please excuse me a little for the amount of the push back that is necessary, so as to counter the disingenuous nature of some who see everything in the little that some do. Amongst the many who YadVashem have declared Righteous, there are 6,000,000 Jews who were systematically rounded up, transported to their deaths, arriving at places of execution and all along that proverbial route toward destruction, where there were witnesses everywhere who did absolutely nothing even to alleviate the Jewish suffering.

“..those who ignored ..opposed populist opinion ..dared to do what is right.” Simhas Frumkin.

While I have no doubt that there will be many ways to interpret who is and who was a Righteous amongst the World’s indifference to the Jewish struggle. But, and while we allow an ethical balance to morally judge those who acted in accordance with all humanistic certainty, the counter demand is to denounce those who did not act accordingly. I am not here to say what I would have done, had I been alive to do so, but I can be categorically clear on, I know what I would not have done to betray a fellow human being to th hatred of another for the difference in their religious and ethnological persuasion.

“..It is of ..highest importance not only to record and recount ..both for ourselves and for ..future ..evidences of human degradation ..but side by side with them to set forth ..evidences of human exaltation and nobility. Let ..epic of heroic deeds of love opposed by those of hatred ..of rescure as opposed to destruction ..bear equal witness to unborn generations. On ..flood of sin ..hatred and blood let loose by Hitler upon ..World ..there swam a small ark which preserved intact ..common heritage of a Judeo Chistian outlook ..founded on ..double principle of love of god and love of one’s fellow men. ..demonism of Hitler had sought to overturn and overwhelm it in ..floods of hate. It was saved by ..heroisim of a handful of saints.” Shholem Asch.

For me, and while my grounding will be founded upon a christian if not a catholic ethos,it is beyond question for me to countenenace other than that all human lives are more priceless than life itself. Human Beings being totally disregarded from all human existence, simply because they were Jews, speaks against us for not having the moral fibre, as these Righteous surely have, to say stop, desist or leave these People alone. The fact here also, and that the pertinence of knowledge to the knowing World was issued, is also an accusation of what is intolerable to the human condition while intolerance permeates the air we breath.

“..I saw a flood once in ..mountains. Wooden huts ..torn from their foundations were carried above ..raging waters. One could still see lighted lamps in them ..Men ..Women ..Children in their cradles were tied to ..ceiling beams. Other huts were empty inside ..but one could see a tangle of arms waving from ..roof branches blowing in ..wind waving desperately toward heaven ..toward ..river banks for help. At a distance could see mouths gaping ..but one could not hear ..cries because ..roar of ..waters drowned out everything. And that’s how ..Jewish masses flowed to their destruction at ..time of ..deportations. Sinking as helplessly into ..deluge of destruction. And if ..for even one of ..days of my life ..I should forget how I saw you then people ..desperate and confused ..delivered over to extinction ..may all knowledge of me be forgotten and my name be cursed like that of those traitors who are unworthy to share your pain.” Rachel Auerbach.

Such awareness therefore, of the knowledge of the awful effects that placed the Jewish People upon a timed and graduating conveyor belt toward extinction. This fact is only important as to when those who issued these reports or testimony’s did so. Even when these truths were conveyed, and it is astonishingly clear they were conveyed well after the very truth of what was happening to the Jewish People, was in front of the World’s eyes. Whether this truth is evident in Germany, Austria or indeed in Poland alongside the Death Camps there, Jews iding in these Countries were being hounded out of existence on a continually worsening scale and by those who sought to profit from Jewish misery.

“..going into hiding which forced enervating passivity on ..Jews demanded constant activity and vigilance upon their helpers.” Joseph Michman.

Also me, and I am well aware of the fuller meaning that term of what Righteous means, and the very fact that the largest contingent of these Righteous are Poles. What remains inexplicable to me, and I hate using any examples of this gravest tragedy ever inflicted upon a people, let alone upon the Jewish People, but there are more than 3,000,000 Polish Jewish examples of this tragedy. What so inflicted itself upon the Jews here in Poland, was at the behest of Hitler, but entailed the conspiratorial efforts of all too many who were not Jews themselves.

“..It is ..duty of righteous men to make war on all undeserved privilege ..but one must not forget that this is a war without end.” Primo Levi.

It must be recognised too, that the sheer scale of what transpired within Poland to Polish Jewry cannot equate in any way as for us to ever condone the sheer lack of a more concerted response by a more knowledgeable national body. Simply put, this commemoration of those hugely upstanding Human Beings, who put the Jewish People first in their hour of need, placed their own moral concern before their own safety. Moral probity within a Community stands before that community or it is a failed community in need of an intersecting commentary. This has been my cause to uphold all truths, always, and I see in that act in itself, a human demand that should have prevailed.

“..For over a decade .in our time full view of all our senses ..a great evil manifested itself in guise of a dictator. Deranged ..sadistic ..he gained power ..and during his regime perverted ..very nature and essence of man.” Philip Friedman.

We either each recognise that we are all Our Brothers Keeper and through that essential demand, the factual truth will uphold the integrity in history that outlines that effort. We each must search to see how the Jews were so mistreated, abused and then annihiliated, that we wonder why much more was not done to prevent this. We will of course, in the recounting of these horrific events, uncover the sheer lack of a Wold intervention that should have been presented, and on behalf of these Jews who were betrayed by such indifferences. What it was for the Jewish People to feel their abandonment, is in order for us to further the Remembrance of those 6,000,000 Murdered Jews.

“..If you get back tell our comrades that we are at Oswiecim because some of our comrades wanted to liquidate us as we were inconvenient to them.” Norbert Barlicki.

For that truthful search and reason alone, I have continued a narrative that must press for a more comprehensive understanding of what is lost and why we have lost so much more than some might consider. With that in mind. I draw attention to the clear cut fact that in a 2 day rage of despicable carnage, Hitler’s Einsatz under Paul Blobel Slaughtered 33,771 Jews of Kiev. Then, and whether or not we are to look to the Polish governments attempt today, in switching Poland’s geographical position, we identify Polish Jewry as having been consumed within Poland in all the 6 Death Camps established there, including Majdanek, in the City of Lublin, Poland.

“..In Majdanek and everywhere in Poland. They gave what is in humanity. I have it all my soul ..letters written to me by many. Everything is possible spite of other manifestations. I ..myself have never experienced any animosity toward me and what I represent. There is always ..goodwill and hope.” Halina Birenbaum.

What we cannot ignore either is, that alongside the innumerable Jews from all over Europe, who were transported East, most of these understood that they were being deported to Poland. We must then consider why Poland’s past position, with regards its own Jewish People, they seek to distance even in Death, the Memory of the vibrancy of Polish Jewish life is so dismissed. In that regard, there can be no emphasis that would consider the forms of moralistic or ethical empathy this Polish government seems to countenance as a major unconcern.

“..circumstances of my present life ..impossibility of reaching a large library ..loss of my own books have made me dependent upon notes and ..memory. Both ..supplemntary reading and..research demanded by ..very laws of ..craft ..have been denied me.” Marc Bloch.

For instance, in more than 5 years of Hitlerite control in Poland, the responses from non-Jewish Poles and from their absconding government, had not sought to directly save the 3,000,000 of their own Jewish Community. So for the Polish Jewish Survivor, it was largely left to them and some element of luck to save themselves. It is equally certain that by whatever other means the Polish Jewish Survivor managed to Survive, whether this was a fated chance or not, it is they themselves who found some way to save their own lives, hindered by an indifference to their aim.

“..When I die there will be no one left who knew them. keeps them alive when they are in people’s memories.” Leslie Baruch.

Sadly, and whether from an inbred, unchristian and an indifferent attitude, the Polish Jews were confronted by a totally inhumane and intolerable hatred. The Polish Jews were abandoned to their fate and to this day, and what is now being rankled over in very dispiriting terms, is a defining Polish moment which seeks to redefine its past. That distortion, which has 3,300,000 Polish Jews somehow responsible for the tragedy imposed upon them is as racist as any theory can profess. Perhaps too, in what Raul Hilberg themed as the 3 anti-Jewish policy’s, namely:

01 Conversion,

02 Expuslion and

03 Eradication, well perhaps there is a Fourth from here on in,

04 Denial!

Quite horribly, this limits what Jews are allowed to grieve over in the face of all that has been witnessed in the process leading toward their total annihilation. While numbering these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, history has yet to clarify the exacting detail of this number and is quite probably well shot of the true assessment we should be making. Make no mistake. It is incumbent upon History to ensure the lasting legacy for these 3,300,000 Polish Jews, and the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe.

“..No Jewish inmate counted on ever leaving Auschwitz alive. We lived in ..shadow of ..chimneys both spatially and intellectually. ..chimney was ..alpha and omega of all conversations.” Lucie Adelsberger.

The lasting legacy toward memory is not to be forged from a failure to confront what was enacted by some non-Jewish Poles, with or without the Polish governmental connivance of the time. To ensure the rapid dissolution of any and All Jewish presence in the Jewish Poland that belonged to a Polish Jewry that is now vanquished, collusion did not need a national cohesion. Individual community’s and neighbourlyness was collectively absent. Comradeship no longer remained within Poland for much of the 3,300,000 Polish Jews left to fend for themselves. For Polish Jews, Mercilessly brutalised, abandoned and exorcised from their Polish status, their Jewish antecedence earmarked the demand for their destruction.

“..When we were transferred to we starved ..because ..only food we received apart from small rations of bread was watery soup. ..Poles began secretly to barter their army gear ..coats ..blankets ..for food with ..civilian population. Afterwards they would turn to ..Germans and point ..look ..that Jew has shoes and I haven’t. ..Germans ordered ..Jew to remove his shoes and give them to ..Pole. ..same thing happened with blankets ..coats and other items. ..within a few days we were left without shoes ..coats ..even uniforms.” David Leiser.

As we seek to recognise those who acted with true humanity, and for anyone of the 11,293,300 Jews of Europe, mandated by Hitler’s Wannsee Conference and targeted for destruction, those saviours are to be commended. To have Survived at all, without luck or sheer will, the Jewish Survivor of Poland and Europe must have been aided by those who Samuel Oliner calls the Altruistic Personality.

“..Altruism simply means devotion to ..welfare of others ..based on selflessness. Specifically ..I have characterized altruism as a behavior that is directed towards helping another ..that involves some effort ..and sacrifice to ..that is accompanied by no external reward ..and voluntary.” Samuel P. Oliner.

My Island Ireland

Uncategorised Posted on Fri, June 25, 2021 12:24:05

My Island Ireland.

The universal catholic church has proved itself the operator of the Charnel House when it comes to morally reprehensible bias and even bigotry. Then, when it comes to antisemitism, the totally lamentable relationship record the church has with Our religious Cousins, has led with the incremental steps for all too many toward hatred. In Ireland in particular, Poland especially, the Religious influence in Community’s across their Country’s had their moral compass both distorted and misdirected.

Here for me, the concern in all of history has not been the confronting of the church’s attitude with the deliberate aims of catholic’s in Fascism to be evidenced. With awareness also of the churches own grass roots intelligence service, the allied intelligence agencies must have shared their knowledge of those gradual steps Hitler took, and more so than has been admitted to. Once we moved away from the rhetoric of Hitler’s Jewish hatred, and to the wholesale Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews, it becomes incumbent upon someone to raise their heads above the moral and ethical collapse.

In this, the Irish church and Irish g2 are no exception, and as they looked to see if the IRA would become involved, they must have seen Canaris’s Abwehr in light of his own opposition to Hitler. We certainly recognise that the IRA were willing to take Arms from anywhere, to mount the fight against Britains role on the Island. This did not in any way secure for Hitler, nor Eichmann’s RSHA IV B4 offices of Hitler’s Reich Security Main Office, an entry into Ireland as a back door to Britain nor access to Ireland’s 4,000 Jews.

The Final Solution of the Jewish Question would not then be converted into realisation on the Island due to the sheer lack of a willingness of the Irish to engage with Hitler’s terms. There were three things going on, and on this little Island of mine, as the Jewish People were being shredded from all existence, while a World of War raged and this land of ours was divided. At the time, there were not enough boats to take the more than 100,000 Men of Ireland, who wished to confront Hitler and Fascism, that were quick enough to get them all to the battle.

Those Irish who took up the challenge, to defeat a pestilence that was Hitler, sought out the good fight, and it was a fight that stood ahead of the one of Freedom still belonging to them all in their own Country. However, in Europe, and for what the Austrian corporal sought to achieve, this would not only have subjugated a World, Ireland included, it would have slaughtered a further 11,293,300 Jews. Those Jews who still remained, when at The Wannsee Conference of January 20th. 1942, and after more than 1,000,000 Jews had been routinely Slaughtered, the implicating, inculcating and entire complicity of all arms of the Reich was being made.

For those Jews already Murdered, and prior to the Wannsee Conference itself was conducted, had been shot into ravines, ditches and killing pits while others were being gassed in Vans, was recognised. The evidence of the Slaughter undertaken and accomplished was brought to the table by these 2 killer’s:

“..SS Oberfuhrer Dr. Schoengarth Security Police and SD Chief of ..Security Police and ..SD in ..Government General.

SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Lange Security Police and SD Commander of ..Security Police and ..SD for ..General District Latvia Deputy of ..Commander of ..Security Police and ..SD for ..Reich Commissariat ‘Eastland’.” The Wannsee Protocol.

But, and in this overall assessment of the systematic Slaughter, there were 4,000 Jews of Ireland too who would have been sought out for that exact same method of annihilation. For more than 400 years the Irish already had had enough of such oppressions and ransoms, that Irish Men and Women streamed across the Irish Sea to join the British Army. Some of these anti-Fascists were that keen to march, they headed North to Belfast so as to enter Britain from there and join up more immediately.

“..Under proper guidance ..course of ..Final Solution ..Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in ..East ..Able bodied Jews ..separated according to sex ..will be taken in large work columns to these areas for work on roads ..course of which action doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes.” The Wannsee Protocol.

Here too, and what also needs to be remembered, 3,600 of these loyal Irishmen, Men who saw the grave danger of a Nazified Europe, had died and were killed in the conflict. However, and while this amounted to some 7,500 Dead of the whole of Ireland, all of whom had fought together and died as one People in an honourable battle against an even worse tyranny realsied their unity as Irishmen. But, and while the position for those soldiers of the North was a given, they were a part of the United Kingdom, for the Irish Soldier of the South, he was all too often seen as a traitor to the Irish Cause.

“..possible final remnant will ..since it will undoubtedly consist of ..most resistant portion ..have to be treated accordingly ..because it is ..product of natural selection and would ..if released ..act as a ..seed of a new Jewish revival see ..experience of history.” The Wannsee Protocol.

With that in mind, at War’s end the Irish dead were our dead, a fact disregarded when on May 2nd. 1945 Eamonn de Valera signed the German Embassy’s Book of Condolence over Hitler’s suicide. This, at a time when it was clear in all of Europe that Hitler was responsible for some of the worst crimes ever committed against the Jewish People and all of Humanity. Then, when history looks back upon the integrity of the time, it will have to concede that de Valera, who could have struck a deal to harness the unity of the entire Island, refused to enter into any agreement to the detriment of this Ireland!

deValera would have been better serving the Nation, Europe and the World by saving his condolences for those who deserved them. Perhaps when on May 31st 1941 Hitler’s Reich sought to bomb the North Strand in Dublin, killing 28 Irish People, injuring 101 Irish People and making 300 Irish People homeless, this is where Irish sympathies must be expressed. At this point in History too, Reinhard Heydrich and General Eduard Wagner, Wehrmacht Quartermaster, were meeting to agree upon the respective roles and logistics for der Einsatzgruppe, about to Slaughter 1,250,000 Jews in the Baltics, Poland, Byelorussia, the Ukraine and in Russia itself.

Or do we stand with 7,500 of Ireland who gave their lives to defeat the ignoble Austrian and do they yet need condolences. Maybe too that the 6,000,000 Systematically Slaughtered Jews of Europe deserve more than a passing thought, even when 9 of whom were Irish Jews. Or even if he were to consider the some 50/70 millions of those who fought in World War II and lost their lives to prove Fascism has no place amongst us, would sentiment not be better served here. One thing though is so very certain! deValera did not do what Mary Elizabeth Elmes risked her life in achieving, and at risk to her own life.

Here, and what is certain of Mary, and what 200 other Irish People, or all too many other peoples on the Continent of Europe failed to do, was the fact that Mary Elizabeth Elmes saved an additional 200 Jewish Children’s lives. Mary’s story needs to be told as she managed, from the clutches of the most unprecedented and unparalled Slaughter in all of History, a Hitler resolve to murder them all because they were Jews, these more than 200 Jewish Children. For this Righteous Irish Woman speaks louder and more proficiently about the lives worthy of living than any diplomat who failed to grasp the essential in not adorning a book with his scrawl.

“..In ..course of ..practical execution of ..Final Solution ..Europe will be combed through from West to East. Germany proper ..including ..Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia ..will have to be handled first due to ..housing problem and additional social and political necessities.” The Wannsee Protocol.

In recording the extraordinary horror of The Holocaust is witnessed to by a memorial to what has been suggested is the only Irish Jewish Citizen to have been Murdered in The Holocaust. This was unveiled in Dublin, Ireland in 2014 but completely misses the exact relationship with The Holocaust that Irish Jews have been confined within. The dedication to Ettie Steinberg is a fitting one for any Jew who was taken from life for being a Jew, and with her Son Leon by her side.

“..evacuated Jews will first be sent by group ..transit Ghettos ..from which they will be transported to ..East.” The Wannsee Protocol.

However, while many now seek to accept that Ettie Steinberg is the only Jew of Ireland to become one of the Slaughtered, we have not done enough to ensure that this is a complete realisation and is not the fuller truth. For any of the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, who are The Holocaust, we need a more inclusive certainty that links them to the past they used to belong to. Here then, of our Irish Citizens who were Murdered as Jews, we recognise at least 9 of these and must accept responsibility in History for recognising them as ours.

“..SS Obergruppenfuhrer Heydrich went on to say that an important prerequisite for ..evacuation as such is ..exact definition of ..persons involved.” The Wannsee Protocol.

The Edinger’s, Adam, Anna and Frida were all born in Dublin, Mordechai Hertzog was born in Ireland, Lina Merker was born in Dublin, Annie Rohrbach was born in Kerry, the Saks’, Afraim and Jeanne were born in Dublin while Philip Watchman was also born in Ireland. Here we must take note, that Ettie Steinberg, who had resided in Dublin and married Vogtjeck Gluck then left the Island, was born in the Czech Republic. They settled in Antwerp, Belgium in 1937 and both she and their Son Leon, who was born in Anvers, France on March 28th. 1939.

We know too that the whole Family were indeed Murdered in The Holocaust after they were arrested during the French roundups in Nice in 1942 and moved to the holding camp at Drancy. Here, aboard Convoi 27 with some 1,000 Jews, they were all transported away from Drancy on September 2nd. 1942 and toward destrucion at Birkenau. Here, we must assume that of the 800 Jews who arrived, Ettie, Vogtject and Leon Gluck were amongst the 677 Jews immediately Gassed in Birkenau, September 4th. 1942.

Incredibly, Ettie penned a postcard that was to reach her Family in Dublin a postcard that states:

“..Uncle Lechem (Hebrew term for Bread) ..we did not find ..but we found Uncle Tisha B’av (Traditional day of mourning for the destruction of the First and Second Temples.)” Ettie Steinberg.

Ireland’s 4,000 Sought for Slaughter!

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