December in The Holocaust.

There are 6,000,000 Murdered Jews who have had their raised voices quashed and their call for Justice quelled. They have been Slaughtered and obliterated with little thought to their human integrity. For us in History it becomes a human duty to raise our own voices 6,000,000 times on their behalf so that History hears the plaintive cry of our own shock, horror and despair. I think it is imperative to think too, one of the most important Feasts in the Christian Calender that is Christmas Day, is also a day of the most concern for the Jews during this period. The anti-Jewish rhetoric is ramped up to such a degree, Jews would be fearful of being seen on all and any of the high Christian Holidays or Festivals.

On December 7th. 1924 the Nazi’s lose 50% of their votes in Reichstag Elections and almost 2 years later on December 1st. 1926, Josef Goebbels becomes ‘Gauleiter’ of Berlin. On December 31st. 1930 the ‘Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt’ or RuSHA is established as the Nazi Racial Research Office. On December 1st. 1933 a legal decree issued by Hitler declares that Germany and the Nazi Party are one. Hermann Goering orders closure of all SA ‘wild camps’ and the Jewish Social Democratic politician Ernst Heilmann is arrested. Meanwhile the antisemitic Glaubensbewegung deutscher Christen (Movement of German Christian Believers) becomes the semiofficial religious organization of Germany and an antisemitic, anti-Communist organization, the Gesamtverband deutscher anti-kommunistischer Vereinigungen (General Association of German Anti-Communist Societies), is founded.

On December 31st. 1935, all remaining Jews employed within Germany’s Civil Service are dismissed and the following year, on December 1st. 1936 The Hitler Youth is declared a State Agency. On December 27th. That same year, a non-intervention agreement between Britain and France abandons Spain to the throws of Franco. In a 2 year period up until the end of 1936, over 47,000 Polish Jews have fled their Country on account of some unsavoury anti-Jewish measures and responses with over 35,000 of them reaching Palestine. On December 14th. 1937 the Gypsy is declared an ‘inveterate criminals’ by Hitlerite decree. Ferenc Szalasi establishes the Fascist antisemitic Arrow Cross in Hungary. The first issue of The Jewish Question ‘Die Judenfrage’ is published in Germany and is edited by Georg Haller. Meanwhile, Poland investigates the possibility of deporting resident Jews to Madagascar as ‘The Madagascar Plan’ is first muted.

Later on, on December 28th. The Romanian Government of Goga-Cuza is the first government that introduced antisemitism as state policy. Of the over 8,800 Polish Jews who managed to flee Poland this year alone, over 2,800 of them manage to reach Palestine. The following year, on December 3rd. 1938 all Jews within Germany lose their Driving Licenses as Jewish industrial enterprises and businesses expropriated under compulsory purchase orders seeing Jews being wholly diminished in the German economy. On December 6th. A nonaggression pact between Germany and France is signed. On December 12th. the Neuengamme Concentration Camp opens and there is a

$400,000,000 fine levied against German Jews for the Kristallnacht destruction that had been railed against them.

On December 14th. Hermann Goering is given charge of die Endlosung der Judenfrage, ‘The Jewish Question.’ On December 24th. Many leading American clergy come together to issue a resolution protesting at the events of ‘Kristallnacht’. By the end of the year more than 200,000 of the 500,000 Jews who had been in the German 1933 Census had emigrated with over 9,000 Jews who fled to Poland while over 2,000 of them actually reached Palestine. On December 1st. 1939 1,800 Chelm Jews are expelled toward Luck as 1,400 of these Chelm Jews are murdered by Wehrmacht troops. 200 Hrubieszow Jews are force marched to Sokal and many of them die enroute. On December 2nd. There is the first use of gassing vans for the elimination of mental patients. On December 5th. All Jewish property in Poland is seized.

On December 6th. Britain admonishes the Bulgarian Government over its transit policy for Jews fleeing to Palestine and on December 11th. all Jews in Poland must now seek permission to change their address. On December 12th. all Jewish males aged between 14 and 60 are subject to forced labour and have to do 2 years of service in Eastern Germany. Elsewhere Jews are expelled from Kalisz. On December 15th. it is decreed that Jewish Forced Labour be made ‘free’ to German interests. On December 18th. all Jewish valuables to be declared in Poland and 2 days later on December 20th. the Radomsko Ghetto in Poland is established with 18,500 Jews being Enclosed. On December 30th. 1,210 refugee Jews aboard the Uranus are prevented from going on to Palestine. Over the past 6 years more than 1,400 individual anti-Jewish measures are enacted in Germany alone. On December 10th. 1940 Himmler convenes a meeting of Higher Nazi officials and Gauleiters in Berlin to discuss the population transfer plan. This was still as yet a territorial consideration for The Jewish People!

“..By resettling ..Jews out of ..European economic area to a yet to be determined territory. In ..framework of this ..5,800,000 Jews will be affected.” Adolf Eichmann.

On December 12th. The Salvador sinks killing 200 Jewish refugees and of these 70 of them are children. On December 17th. the Piotrkow Ghetto is struck by a typhus epidemic and on December 29th. the Glowno Ghetto in Poland is established with

3,000 Jews Enclosed. By the end of year 8,200 Jews of Lodz had died of starvation as SS Sturmbannfuhrer Herbert Lange has moved his entire Sonderkommando to Chelmno and with the completion of this Death Camp, Chelmno would be at the centre of the storm for Lodz Jews. This year sees some 27,000 Polish Jews still manage to emigrate to Palestine though illegally!

“..Today I can confirm that our objective solve ..Jewish problem for Lithuania ..has been achieved by EK 3. In Lithuania there are no more Jews ..apart from Jewish workers and their families. ..distance between ..assembly point to ..graves ..on average 4 to 5 klms.” SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.

On December 1st. 1941 1,200 Stuttgart Jews are removed to Riga and they too will find their way to Rumbuli for annihilation. As the Jaeger Report states that 85% of all Lithuanian Jews have already been murdered, the Jews of Lithuania are under an increased threat. This report amounts to an assessment that some 137,366 individual Lithuanian Jews who are now dead, deceased and are Murdered.

Thursday December 4th. 1941 “..10’s of 1,000’s of Jews from abroad were brought here. I saw them walking with their suitcases ..many of them well dressed. Young men and women in good spirits ..relaxed. They observe everything around them. They look at our city with curiosity. They were told that they were brought to work and were ordered to bring their best clothing with them. Afterwards they were murdered at ..Ninth Fort. It was said that these young people had no suspicions of anything bad happening to them and they even danced in ..evenings. On ..following day ..they were taken in groups of 50 and shot. Lithuania earned ..label ‘cemetery of ..European Jews’.” Helena Kutergiene-Buividaite.

On December 4th. 2,500 of Gorodenka’s Jews are murdered and the following day, on

December 5th. the first truck transports of Jews are delivered to the Chelmno Death Camp abd 2 days later on December 7th. the Chelmno Death Camp’s Extermination operations begin. 700 of Kolo’s Jews are the first victims at Chelmno as they are gassed and confined to eternity here at Chelmno. Meanwhile the Second ‘Aktionen’ of the remaining Riga Ghetto Jews takes place and they are all murdered into the prepared pits within the Rumbuli Forest. On December 8th. of 4,000 Novogrudok’s Jews murdered as 2,300 Jews are murdered at Chelmno with the introduction of ‘gassing vans’ to murder the Jews expelled here. The remaining Jews of Belgrade are ordered to report for ‘resettlement’ as the final stages of Riga Jewish murders in Rumbuli is reached. On December 9th. 25,000 Latvian Jews were murdered in the Rumbuli Forest in a 3 day operation. More than 38,000 Jews will be murdered here. The Wannsee Conference is postponed.

On December 10th. 1,757 Jews of Turek are Murdered at Chelmno and the following day, on December 11th. Germany and Italy declare war on America with America reciprocating by declaring war on both Germany and Italy. Meanwhile the Lutsk Ghetto is established and 18,000 Jews are to be enclosed. On December 12th. Hitler discusses the complete annihilation of European Jewry with some fifty of the leadership of his Reich. In his private rooms, Hitler spoke in lieu of The Wannsee Conference of what he expected would inmplicate all levels of Reich Admisistration in the completion of The Final Solution we recognise is The Holocaust:

Friday December 12th. 1941 “..In respect of ..Jewish question ..make a clean sweep. war is here ..annihilation of ..Jews must be ..necessary result. This question is to be regarded without sentimentalism. We are not here to have sympathy with ..Jews ..but ..with our German people. If ..German people have sacrificed 160,000 dead in ..eastern campaign ..authors of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives.” Adolf Hitler.

That same day the Baranovichi Ghetto in Poland is established and 10,000 Jews will be enclosed. On December 13th. 14,000 of Simferopol’s Jews are murdered in a 3 day period while the remaining 6 Jews of Warendorf are deported toward Riga and are murdered. Meanwhile, Hitler’s axis partners, Hungary and Bulgaria both declare War on America. On December 14th. the Kharkov Ghetto in the Ukraine is established and 21,000 Jews will be enclosed. The following day on December 15th. It is enshrined that the Jews are to receive no inducement for any extra hours work that is to be demanded of them.

I am trying to resolve an issue in relation to Shkeden. Some say it was an SD Oberscharfuhrer Sobeck who took these pictures and that it was a naval officer Hans Kawelmacher who conducted the operations. The dispute lies in the period of the aktionen though, whether it was in July or the December aktionen. Andrievs Ezergailis is better equipped to have known and detailed both these x2 separate actions! His study on The Holocaust in Latvia is exemplary.

On December 16th. some 3,000 of Liepaja’s (Libau) Jews were murdered at the start of 2 day operation on the beaches of Skeden. This ‘Dezember-Aktionen’ (December Action) is watched by scores of Wehrmacht personnel, Civilians and a motley crew of mawkish observers. These are the remnants of Liepaja’s previous community of over 7,000 Jewish Citizens, Men, Women and Their Children. Of the major actions here in July and December barely 30 Jewish Liepajan’s Survived. There is surviving evidence of an entire action that was conducted here by a German Wehrmacht soldier on July 18th. 1941, that was filmed and photographed surreptitiously.

Elsewhere, some 3,500,000 Jews are now governed by Hans Frank, according to his own diary entry and Frank fully informs his associates of Hitler’s intentions for the Jewish People. The Federation of the Union of the Jewish Communities in Romania is dissolved and the Jewish Central Committee for Romania is established. On December 17th. Father Pietro Venturi notified the Papal Secretary of State, Cardinal Luigi Maglione of the huge concerns over the fate of Austrian Jewry.

Wednesday December 17th. 1941 “..on ..point of being sent from Vienna to die in a concentration camp in Poland.” Father Pietro Venturi.

On December 21st. And over the coming 4 weeks, the Massacre of the Jews from Bogdanovka Camp begins. The following day December 22nd. over 32,000 of Vilna’s Jews have been murdered and 1,000 of Zablotov’s Jews are murdered. SS Sturmbannfuhrer Christian Wirth arrived in Belzec to inspect the construction of the Death Camp. On December 27th. Knowledge of ‘gassing van’ operations at Chelmno reaches Izbica Lubelska and 2 days later on December 29th. an initial T4 team arrives for duty at Belzec. On December 30th. over 50,000 Jews at Bogdanovka are murdered over a 10 day period and 10,000 Jews of Simferopol are murdered.

Meanwhile, Eichmann with a team of SS officials Hermann Hofle incuded, inspected the area of Belzec with Christian Wirth. This is significant in that Eichmann is in the midst of the Death Camp system and this is just prior to The Wannsee Conference. On December 31st. Jewish Armed Resistance is being prepared in Vilna and a report is sent to SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Dr. Fritz Dietrich, Police commander for the Libau area, that some 2,731 Jews of Libau have been murdered on the beaches of Skeden.

“..Ponar is not a ..Camp. Jews ..shot there. Hitler plans to destroy all ..Jews of Europe ..Jews of Lithuania ..first in line. ..We must not go like sheep to ..slaughter!” Abba Kovner.

By end of this 1941 year, 16,000 German Jews have been deported to Riga. Over the Winter period, 1,000’s of Jews interned in Transnistria are Killed. Starvation, the bitter cold, sickness all add to the Transnistrian devastation for the Jews there. The following year on December 1st. 1942 400 of Karczew’s Jews are murdered as are 1,000 of Plonsk’s Jews who are murdered in Birkenau on December 2nd. On December 3rd. Members of the Birkenau Sonderkommano shot as a reprisal for a planned revolt against their tormentors. On December 4th. the Jewish Aid Council, ‘Zegota’ is established. On December 8th. 1,250 of Rohatyn’s Jews are murdered. 3 Jews, Herzl Kawa, Hersch Liverant and Moschk Nelkenbaum escape from a Treblinka Transport taking them from Siedlce. They escaped toward Brenner and were caught and interned in Ferramonti Camp, Italy.

Tuesday December 8th. 1942 “..Already almost 2,000,000 Jews ..Men ..Women ..Children ..have been cruelly done to death ..5,000,000 more Jews live under ..threat of a similar doom.” Maurice Wertheim, Rabbi Dr. Stephen S. Wise, Henry Monsky, Adolph Held, Israel Goldstein and Rabbi Israel Rosenberg.

On the World stage Rabbi Wise compose a memorandum on the destruction of European Jewry and with a clear indicator that more Jews are under threat. Rabbi wise now meets with President Roosevelt to discuss the plight of European Jewry. On December 10th. 1st. a transport of German Jews arrives at Auschwitz as the Polish Government in Exile asks the Allied nations to retaliate against Hitler and his axis collaborators for the Nazi murders taking place.

Thursday December 10th 1942 “..For those in Germany who let themselves be misused as tools of ..systematic extermination of snother race with full awareness of of what they are doing ..there will be no room in postwar world. For such people there can be nothing but extermination. ..members of ..SS and all others ,,participating in ..planning ..implementation of ..Nazi policy of exterminating ..Jews should take note of this.” The BBC.

On December 11th. with the last transport of Jews arriving at Belzec, Globocnik is ready to call time on the killing operations here as the Belzec Death Camp is now officially Closed with estimates as high as 1,250,000 Jews having been murdered here at Belzec, as part of the Aktion Reinhard Death Camp system. On December 12th. 2,000 of Czerwinsk’s Jews are murdered as Jewish Resistance at Lutsk is crushed where more than 15,000 Lutsk Jews will be eventually murdered. On December 17th. the Baranovichi Ghetto is Liquidated and 3,000 of its Jews are murdered. Meanwhile the

Allied nations condemn the extermination of the Jews with a pledge by America, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, French National Committee, Greece, Holland, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Russia and Yugoslavia that not only do they officially condemn the Nazi’s bu they will resort to punish this:

“..bestial policy of cold blooded extermination.”

On December 19th. 3,000 of Dworzec’s Jews are murdered after intitial efforts at Resisting are crushed. Over 560 Jews are murdered in the Rakow Forest. On December 23rd. there is an effort of Jewish Resistance in Cracow.

Sunday December 27th. 1942 “ ..where comfort lures people into of ..mighty is of no interest to history. ..Holocaust will steal its way into world history.” Zelig Kalmanovich.

Zelig Kalmanovich writes from the depths of the Vilna Ghetto, which is still struggling to remain viable. In the midst of this particular maelstrom, the Germans are determined to ensure that the Jews from here are totally obliterated and their presence is no longer to be felt in the World. But history has been told of these events and The Holocaust has presented to the World the worst of what Man can do to his fellow Man. To this day the Jews prevail and we make strenuous efforts to Remember them and stand stoicly to accuse those who perpetrated these crimes! On December 28th. Dr. Carl Clauberg begins his sterilization ‘experiments’ at Auschwitz and on December 30th. Pope Pius XII remarks upon atrocity’s against Jews as ‘propaganda exaggerations.’ On December 31st. more than 2,000,000 Jews have already been murdered in the Death Camps alone as the Einsatzgruppe and Police Battalions have more thatn added to this figure? The Dachau Concentration Camp have a Gas Chamber and Crematorium installed while a concentration camp is established at Riga and a Labor Camp is attached to the Vilna Ghetto. On December 6th. 1943 over 200 Jews from Milan and Verona were transported to Auschwitz.

Tuesday December 7th. 1943 “..people tell me ..your children are still young ..they’ll cope ..they’ll stand up to it. ..I told them ..They wont stand up to a bullet in ..neck. ..In Kiev they massacred 20,000 Jews. Feodosia ..Crimea ..12,000 in a single night.” Helene Berr.

On December 10th. Jews of Lippstadt are ordered out of their homes. On December 11th. the Red Cross visits Romanian Jews who were deported to Transniestria.

Monday December 13th. 1943 “..Objectively seems to me we are ..last shovelful ..we won’t slip through ..not many Jews left in Paris ..we don’t have much prospect of keeping out of ..way ..we won’t be tipped off. Subjectively ..time had finally come for each of us to look for our places of safety. ..I stay on in full awareness of what may happen is a conscious choice. ..why did I make that choice. ..if I ..abandoned my official life would feel like ..defecting. ..I’m well aware that nobody in if left behind ..would have ..resolve in ..face of danger. ..seperation will be atrociously painful for all of us ..above and beyond ..fact of being deported. ..If anyone reads these words after it has happened ..will be struck ..and ..ask ..How could you have done nothing. worries are not about me. ..Should we abandon everything ..when it’s quite possible ..nothing will happen at all.” Helene Berr.

On December 13th. Jews of Lippstadt are ‘resettled’ to Riga as Rumbuli awaits them. On December 14th. 200 of Drohobycz’s Jews are murdered and the following day, December 15th. over 2,500 Jews from Theresienstadt are transported to Auschwitz. Meanwhile the first trial of German war criminals takes place in the City of Kharkov. On December 18th. over 2,500 Jews from Theresienstadt are transported to Auschwitz and the following day, December 19th. the first trial of German war criminals in Kharkov ends.

Wednesday 22nd. December 1943 “..Maman told me ..Andre Baur ..his Wife ..deported ..with their four small Children. It haunts me. certain they would not be taken Christmas ..making trees for what is a Children’s holiday ..made me grieve so much.”” Helene Berr.

On December 23rd. Sess the end to the Red Cross mission to Transniestria.

Wednesday 29th. December 1943. “..I have not enough faith in God. ..only thing to do is to pray that God will some of them.” Anne Frank.

Friday December 31st. 1943 “When I write ..word Jew ..I am not saying exactly what I mean ..for me that distinction does not exist ..I do not feel different from other people ..I will never think of myself as a member of a separate human group. ..I suffer from ..sight of evil falling upon humanity.” Helene Berr.

On December 6th. 1944 the Kasztner Jews, part of the deal Rudolf ‘Reszo’ Kasztner made with Eichmann, reach Switzerland. This train, with 1,685 Jews who were considered a privileged group of Jews, boarded a train that would take them out of harms way. These 1,685 Jews avoided the tenets of The Holocaust and reached the safety of Switzerland and Survived. Though these Jews were expected to pay a ransom of $1,000 each, totalling more than $1,600,000, for this reason these saved Jews were considered far too privileged by some. Dr. Kasztner, who paid for the drawing up of that list with his lifehadmanaged to deprive Hitler of 1,685 fewer Jews to add to his tally for The Holocaust. On December 13th. 1945 SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Joseph Kramer, Kommandant and Beast of Belsen is Hanged.

“ feelings ..carrying out these things ..received an order… I was trained.” SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Josef Kramer.

On December 18th. 1945 the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials prosecution team begins introducing evidence to prove the criminality of seven German organizations, the German High Command, the Gestapo, the leadership of the Nazi Party, the Reich Cabinet, the SA, the SD and the SS.

Monday December 9th. 1946 “..wrong to imagine men of ..regime would have boasted of their crimes . ..nothing would ever be said about any sinister activities we might be up to.” Reichsminister Albert Speer.

On December 9th. 1946 the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 1, The Medical Doctors Case begins. Twenty Three Nazi physicians are charged with conducting inhuman experiments on German civilians and nationals of other countries. The experiments ranged from studying the effects of high altitude and malaria to sterilisation.

1) Luftwaffe Captain Hermann Becker-Freyseng, Sentenced to 20 years commuted to 10 years imprisonment.

2) Consulting Physician Wilhelm Beiglboeck to the Luftwaffe, 15 years commuted to 10 years imprisonment.

3) Reichsgesundheitsfuhrer Kurt Blome, Deputy Reich Health Leader, Acquitted.

4) SS Oberfuhrer Viktor Brack Waffen SS and Chief Administrative Officer in the Chancellery of the Fuhrer. Death Sentence.

5) SS Gruppenfuhrer Karl Brandt Waffen SS Personal physician to Adolf Hitler, Death Sentence.

6) SS Standartenfuhrer Rudolf Brandt Personal Administrative Officer to Himmler. Death Sentence.

7) SS Sturmbannfuhrer Fritz Fischer Waffen SS. Assistant Physician to the defendant Karl Gebhardt. Life in prison, commuted to 15 years.

8) SS Gruppenfuhrer Karl Gebhardt Waffen SS. Personal physician to Himmler. Death Sentence.

9) SS Gruppenfuhrer Karl August Genzken Waffen SS. Chief of the Medical Department of the Waffen SS. Life in prison, commuted to 20 years.

10) Generaloberst Siegfried Handloser Medical Inspector of the Army and Chief of the Medical Services of the Armed Forces. Life in prisont, commuted to 20 years.

11) SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Waldemar Hoven Waffen SS. Chief Doctor Buchenwald Concentration Camp. Death Sentence.

12) SS Oberfuhrer Joachim Mrugowsky Waffen SS. Chief Hygienist of the Reich Physician SS and Police. Death Sentence.

13) Physician Herta Oberheuser at Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp. Assistant Physician to Karl Gebhardt. 20 years in prison, commuted to 10 years.

14) Physician Adolf Pokorny Specialist in Skin and Venereal Diseases. Acquitted.

15) SS Oberfuhrer Helmut Poppendick. Chief of the Personal Staff of the Reich Physician SS and Police. 10 years in prison. Served 4 years.

16) Doctor Hans Wolfgang Romberg. Staff of the Department for Aviation Medicine at the German Experimental Institute for Aviation. Acquitted.

17) Luftwaffe General Gerhard Rose. Medical Service of the Air Force. Life in prisont, commuted to 20 years.

18) Chief Surgeon Paul Rostock the Surgical Clinic in Berlin. Acquitted.

19) Luftwaffe First Lieutenant Siegfried Ruff. Director Department for Aviation Medicine at the German Experimental Institute for Aviation. Acquitted.

20) Doctor Konrad Schaefer. Staff of Institute Aviation Medicine Berlin. Acquitted.

21) Luftwaffe Generaloberst Oskar Schroeder. Chief of Staff of the Inspectorate of the Medical Service of the Luftwaffe. Life in prison, commuted to 15 years.

22) SS Standartenfuhrer Wolfram Sievers. Reich Manager of the Ahnenerbe Society and Director of its Institute for Military Scientific Research. Death Sentence.

23) Luftwaffe Oberfeld Georg August Weltz. Medical Service Luftwaffe. Acquitted.

On December 4th. 1947 the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 3, The Justice Trial concludes. Ten defendants, officials in the Reich Ministry of Justice and Judges of the People’s and Special Courts are convicted. Four are acquitted, one declared unfit for trial, one died before the verdict was given.

1) Josef Altstoetter sentenced to 5 years,

2) Wilhelm von Ammon sentenced to 10 years,

3) Paul Barnickel acquitted,

4) Hermann Cuhorst acquitted,

5) Karl Engert due to ill health acquitted,

6) Gunther Joel sentenced to 10 years,

7) Herbert Klemm sentenced to life commuted to 20 years, 8) Ernst Lautz sentenced to 10 years,

9) Wolfgang Mettgenberg sentenced to 10 years,

10) Gunther Nebelung acquitted,

11) Rudolf Oeschey sentenced to life commuted to 20 years,

12) Hans Petersen acquitted,

13) Oswald Rothaug sentenced to life commuted to 20 years,

14) Curt Rothenberger sentenced to 7 years,

15) Franz Schlegelberger sentenced to life, served 2 years, and

16) Carl Westphal committed suicide prior to trial.

December 8th. 1947 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 10, The Krupp Case, begins. Alfred Krupp and Eleven other defendants, all members of the Krupp Industrial Group, are charged with Human enslavement and other war crimes. They are also charged in connection with the plundering of public and private property.

1) Friedrich von Blow sentenced to 12 years,

2) Karl Adolf Ferdinand Eberhardt sentenced to 9 years,

3) Eduard Houdremont sentenced to 10 years,

4) Max Otto Ihn sentenced to 9 years,

5) Friedrich Wilhelm Janssen sentenced to 10 years,

6) Heinrich Leo Korschan sentenced to 6 years,

7) Alfred Krupp sentenced to 12 years, served 3 years,

8) Hans Albert Gustav Kupke sentenced to 34 months,

9) Werner Wilhelm Heinrich Lehmann sentenced to 6 years,

10) Ewald Oskar Ludwig Loser sentenced to 7 years,

11) Erich Muller sentenced to 12 years, and

12) Karl Heinrich Pfirsch found not guilty and acquitted.

On December 22nd. 1947 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 5 ends. Three defendants, including Flick, are convicted and sentenced to varying terms of imprisonment. Three are acquitted.

1) Odilo Burkart acquitted,

2) Friedrich Flick sentenced to 7 years,

3) Konrad Kaletsch acquitted,

4) Otto Steinbrinck sentenced to 5 years,

5) Hermann Terberger acquitted, and

6) Bernhard Weiss sentenced to 30 months.

On December 2nd. 1959 SS Untersturmfuhrer Kurt Hubert Franz, former Treblinka Camp Kommandant is arrested.

On December 15th. 1961 a verdict of Guilty is passed on Adolf Eichmann and he is sentenced to hang!

On December 20th. 1963 The Auschwitz Trial opens in Frankfurt.