“..When I came to Warsaw ..I found many restrictive laws that had already been proclaimed by ..Germans against ..Jews ..order for wearing ..badge or ..Shield of David ..marking of ..shops with ..Shield of David ..a ban on possessing foreign currency or property in excess of 2,000 zloty ..a ban on purchasing working tools ..a ban on medical aid Jewish doctors could give to non-Jews and vice versa. ..curfew ..which was a general one also for ..Polish population ..was advanced by 2 hours for ..Jews. ..It may be said that ..in ..first days of my reaching Warsaw ..I felt ..and other Jews in ..Ghetto felt ..that in essence we had been placed beyond any law ..and that any German could do whatever he pleased. However ..apart from these restrictive regulations ..many other decrees were issued within a short time ..business establishments were taken from Jews ..homes were taken from Jews ..they were forbidden to ride in ..trams ..forbidden to travel on ..trains ..forbidden to trade. ..apart from ..legal prohibitions ..from ..first days we became outlaws in matters of life and death ..and ..any German could do with us as he pleased. I will give you an example. In ..early days of ..Ghetto a Polish policeman was looking for a certain Jew to take vengeance upon him ..to arrest him. ..Jew drew a pistol and killed ..Polish policeman. As retribution for this ..Germans ..following morning ..entered ..courtyard of Nalewski 9 ..removed 50 Jews from among those living in this courtyard and from those who happened to be there by chance. They were taken away ..and didn’t return to their families. This was done for deterrence. Hence in ..early days there prevailed this fear of being collectively responsible for ..acts of each individual Jew ..and if anyone lifted a finger ..or it would be even sufficient if any German or Pole mentioned that any Jew spoke out against ..Germans 100’s of Jews paid for this with their lives ..for ..sake of deterrence. I remember another instance. One of our friends from before ..War ..a cultured Jew ..an important engineer ..had a Ukrainian friend ..who related that this Jew had reported a German. They came to him at night ..removed him from his bed without saying a word to his family ..only half a year later word reached his Wife that her Husband had been taken away ..and if she would pay ..she would be able to get ..ashes.” Zivia Lubetkin.

I have a wish to remind any of those who read these few words, the necessity to carefully note that I single out Zivia Lubetkin clearly. Zivia Lubetkin is Remembered as a Woman, Recalled as a Jewish Woman and given the status as a spokesperson for all manner and forms of Jewish Resistance. Here, following on from what I wish to say about her, and those very many just like her, are her words for Memory to bring her ever forth to admonish those who damned her People and recognise she was a Giant amongst her Jewish People.

“..Immediately upon ..occupation of Poland by ..Germans ..Polish intelligentsia were arrested ..and ..in a special action ..Jewish intelligentsia ..leading public workers ..doctors ..engineers ..according to lists prepared beforehand ..were seized at night and taken to an unknown destination ..and even notice of their death did not reach their families. ..economic prohibitions ..were not only economic ..but ..aimed at degrading and depressing us ..and ..restrictions in ..field of cultural and social life. Right at ..beginning they issued a ban on ..opening of schools. Only primary school up to four grades was permitted. A prohibition was issued on ..holding of prayers in ..synagogue ..a prohibition ..on ..maintenance of public bodies ..Jewish political parties. A decree was issued dealing with ..closing of libraries ..and ..well known institute of Jewish Studies at Tlomackie 5. ..we became ..objects of anarchy. And if there had only been these laws and these restrictions ..intended to depress us ..to degrade us ..to bring us to ..ignominy of starvation ..we thought ..nevertheless ..Jews would somehow have been capable of circumventing ..restrictions and carrying on with their lives. But life did not turn out this way ..since ..we had been placed beyond ..law. ..I recall a day when I went out in ..morning to attend to matters ..streets ..full of Jews hastening to their work ..to seek a source of livelihood. Suddenly a column of Germans passed by in a hurry ..and without any reason they fired in all directions ..without distinction ..and we were left lying prone on that day ..at that hour ..as I saw it ..scores of People ..Women ..Children ..Men ..without knowing for what or why. When this thing happened day after day ..we realized that this was a means of frightening us ..of terrorizing us ..so that we should be afraid. ..indeed ..Jews feared they would pay with their lives. ..beyond ..scope of any law ..kidnapping for forced labour. A person would leave his house in ..morning ..would never know when ..and if he would return. ..formations of Germans were able to come in by day ..in ..morning ..or ..evening ..close a street ..and with screams of such a nature that it would be difficult today to describe them as actually being human voices ..they would first of all collect People by shooting ..and without taking note of age or sex ..seize people and take them off to work. Some of them ..on their return ..related that they had never engaged in any work ..there were those who simply carried stones from place to place ..there were those who dug holes and filled them in again. Again it was clear that this was a method of torture ..of terror ..of making our lives worthless.” Zivia Lubetkin.

For Zivia personally, recognised by the custodians of all of History as a remarkable Human Being we accept that she alone, for her obvious ability to see with clarity what Hitler was set to achieve, she was present and was able to note what Poland was unprepared to prevent. Escaping the flames of Resistance, For Zivia to then identify for us, while Poland and the rest of the World stood so idly by and allowed all of this to happen to her People as Zivia too is an accusation which all too many now seek to circumvent.

“..In general ..number of Jews in ..city of Warsaw until ..Second World War was estimated at approximately 350,000. It is difficult for me to assess ..number of Jews at that time. Some of ..Jews moved to ..East ..a number of ..Jews were killed in ..bombings in ..are between Poland and Germany. ..I believe that at ..beginning of ..liquidation of ..Warsaw Ghetto ..there were about 500,000 Jews there. ..a flow of refugees ..from ..Warthegau. ..Jews from ..smaller towns and villages ..naturally attracted to ..larger city ..so that during ..times of The Holocaust ..which everybody knew was coming closer to realization ..they could be together with Jews. ..when ..Ghetto in Warsaw was already in existence ..Germans brought a number of Jews from ..nearby villages ..about 100,000 ..into ..Ghetto ..already crowded ..ultimately ..number of Jews was estimated to be 500,000. On ..Day of Atonement 1940 we heard an announcement on ..radio that there had been a declaration of ..establishment of a Jewish quarter. ..order stated that ..because disease had spread amongst ..Jews ..they must be put into a section of ..city ..for the sake of preserving ..health of the Aryans. ..secondly ..lives of ..Jews had ..been devoid of any protection ..had not been organized and not well ordered ..in this way ..Jews ..concentrated in special streets ..a special quarter ..where they would be able to live their lives in greater tranquillity ..enjoying cultural and social autonomy. It was stated thus in ..order ..in ..announcement. Within a few days ..Jews were obliged to leave their homes ..their places of residence .and to move to ..quarter designated for them. ..Jews ..placed in an area ..inadequate for ..150,000 ..over 300,000 ..put there. ..in ..course of a few days one could see scenes in ..streets ..Jews ..their families ..their possessions ..on hand carts ..abandoning ..houses ..apartments ..endeavouring to take with them ..property ..accumulated during 10’s of years ..passing by ..moving in ..direction of ..quarter without knowing where to find shelter and what would be done with them. ..for whole days ..by day and night ..Jewish families stood in ..streets with nowhere to go to. Having no alternative ..Jews crowded together. ..in every room there dwelt 8 persons on ..average. ..this ..still before ..flood of refugees from ..country towns. ..entire City of Warsaw became ..a city of refugees. ..Out of ..blue ..beginning of November ..Jews got up in ..morning and everyone hurried to his work and his source of livelihood ..and suddenly was confronted with ..fact ..Ghetto was closed ..closed with gates ..German ..Polish guards ..standing at ..gates. This happened suddenly. If ..refugees ..uprooted from their homes and had not been able to take all their possessions ..suffered from starvation ..they were ..able to go out to ..Aryan side ..to work ..to trade ..now ..all this was over. ..Ghetto ..with its 100’s of 1,000’s of Jews became converted into ..huge prison ..in which each person ..throughout ..months ..years ..received 125 grams of bread ..a kilogram of jam per month ..a little soap substitute and some kilograms of coal waste for cooking and heating ..rooms. ..in prisons too ..there are ..rules. In this prison ..Ghetto ..there were no rules. Despite ..announcement that ..Ghetto would be a place where Jews would be able to live in greater tranquillity ..they would be able ..to put their lives in order ..misdeeds of ..Germans ..instead of stopping ..increased ..Germans who ..I had no doubt about it ..not then and not today ..had a single aim ..to torture us ..to degrade us ..to crush us.” Zivia Lubetkin.

Zivia Lubetkin is a remarkable person of outstanding human quality, a soldier of courage and a human of such dimension, and while she was presented with such deep inhuman darkness she has shed such light on our own inability to see the near total destruction which Hitler sought to wreak upon her People. Perhaps though, and seduced by the fact of German civilisation, she too could not fully foresee what 6,000,000 Jews would be consumed within.

“..environs of ..Ghetto were guarded by ..Schutzpolizei ..Gestapo ..SS. Inside ..Ghetto ..even before it was closed off ..SS men ..Gestapo men ..made their rounds. ..people of Warsaw remember ..young German pilots ..blond hair ..strong young men ..and ..people of Warsaw were very well aware of their strength and their cruelty ..when they used them against helpless persons ..people of Warsaw remember ..Schutzpolizei ..people of Warsaw also remember ..ordinary soldiers who were able to enter ..Ghetto ..to loot ..to destroy ..to torture ..to kidnap ..to do whatever they pleased. We didn’t know then that this was intended for a particular purpose ..but ..Germans issued an order that Jews were no longer to be left in ..small towns. Again they gave ..reason that their lives in ..small towns were more chaotic ..disorganized ..without means of subsistence. Therefore it was important to concentrate ..Jews in ..large towns ..together they would learn in ..larger towns how to organize their lives ..how to arrange their affairs ..and ..also how to work for ..Germans. ..on ..strength of this order about 100,000 Jews were moved to ..City of Warsaw from ..neighbouring towns within a few days. These were already death marches. Any weak person ..old Person ..Child ..anyone who groaned ..anyone who appeared to any German whatsoever to bear an expression that was more insolent ..was shot on ..spot. In this way 10’s of 1,000’s of people came into ..City of Warsaw ..carrying in their hands a small bundle ..and that was all they possessed. ..Ghetto in Warsaw was already ..terribly overcrowded ..and ..Jews of ..City of Warsaw had already been wandering around for days and weeks without a roof over their heads ..then you will understand that these 10’s of 1.000’s of Jews who entered ..Warsaw Ghetto were in actual fact without any means of subsistence ..of earning a livelihood ..without a penny in their pocket and ..homeless. ..Jews ..Jewish organizations ..tried to assist to ..best of their ability. To my great regret ..they weren’t in a position to save ..situation. It could be taken for granted that in such terrible congestion there could be no sanitary facilities. At ..beginning there was not even water in ..Ghetto ..nor ..electricity. Later on ..matter was attended to. But since in one room near to me ..or we ourselves lived 12 to 15 persons in a room measuring 5 by 5 ..and these were already years of hunger in ..Ghetto ..obviously serious sickness broke out and claimed many victims. I want to point out ..particularly ..sanitary condition of these refugees. Owing to ..lack of space ..these refugees were placed in special houses ..occupants of which had been somehow evacuated. These were ..worst conditions of all in ..Ghetto. Once I entered such a refugee home ..a refugee shelter ..in order to look for a family I knew. I knew them before ..War as a well off family. He was a Teacher ..she was a Doctor. They had Children in ..Youth Movement who studied at school. They were ..normal type of people. When I came inside to look for them ..I found them on ..floor ..one on top of ..other. They were in a corner ..but I couldn’t reach them ..for there was not a spare inch of floor where it was possible to place one’s foot. There was no toilet in this house ..but in order to relieve themselves ..on 4th. floor they had to walk down to ..courtyard. There was no water in this house. In this way people sat there ..in this way 10’s of 1,000’s sat there and went from bad to worse ..since they did not have any chance of obtaining work. Under conditions of starvation ..under such sanitary conditions ..it was obvious that ..typhus which broke out in ..Ghetto started in these houses. It was impossible ..although they tried ..to keep ..sick separate ..and sometimes even ..dead who died from hunger ..particularly Children in their Mothers’ arms.” Zivia Lubetkin.

For us involved in History, caught up in the trauma that is The Holocaust, 6,000,000 Murdered Jews must capture for us what we can barely imagine. However, what will be the inevitable fate for these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, 3,000,000 Polish Jews of whom would be destroyed within the boundary of a land they assumed was their’s also, lost a battle few of them knew they were in. However, levelled by stealth and confusion, those all too many Jews who then emerged into the light of realisation, just as the doors to the gas chambers swung closed or at the edge of a bloody ravine where their fallen had gone before them, recognised finally their fate.

“..when Ghetto was closed off ..most Jews were left without any means of subsistence ..without work and a source of livelihood. And then hunger began to take its toll of many victims. These were ..normal scenes to which we had already become accustomed ..to see in ..streets of ..cities whole families ..Father ..Mother ..Children ..families of 8 to 10 souls ..sitting in ..streets ..swollen by hunger. It was hard to say that they had a human appearance. Especially well I remember ..in ..evenings ..after ..curfew ..when silence prevailed in ..Ghetto ..everyone would hide in his corner ..voices of ..little Children ..a stikele broit ..a piece of bread ..and ..no one who could throw them a piece of bread ..for only a few of us ..had a piece of bread. ..they reached such a stage that they burrowed in ..garbage containers in order to seek potato peels. ..those days in ..Warsaw Ghetto there were times when 300 funerals took place each day. These were people who had died of starvation ..from diseases ..without help. ..at ..beginning there were 2 Ghettos ..a small and large one. Between ..2 Ghettos ..link ..by ..bridge ..built. This was ..notorious bridge in Warsaw. Many Jews passing over it paid with their lives. Police used to pass under .. bridge and Jews passed over it. German guards stood near ..bridge and watched lest Heaven forbid ..Jews should mix with ..Germans. In order to cross ..bridge one had to remove one’s hat. Many young Jews did not remove their hats and naturally were shot to death on ..spot. ..any movement ..any sound ..without ..reason at all ..Jews were shot at ..bridge. Since there were ..people with family ..in both sections of ..Ghetto ..Jews could not forgo crossing it ..and thus ..day after day ..Jews crossed over there ..and day after day they paid with their lives. It can be said that ..Jewish Youth movements did not cease their activities from ..first day of ..outbreak of ..War. ..they continued ..in different ways ..until ..last Jew that remained alive in ..Warsaw Ghetto. Jewish Youth movements adjusted their works to ..new reality. Right from ..beginning ..when it appeared to us that ..German policy was to degrade us ..to depress us ..to starve us ..by closing libraries ..closing schools ..apart from 4 grades ..to change us into a nation of slaves ..ignorant people ..lacking culture ..we still believed that this was not total destruction. ..consequently our activities during that period ..until news of ..Extermination reached us ..we concentrated on ..war against these restrictive laws. If ..we thought that these prohibitive laws were intended to wipe out ..human image ..then our battle was to preserve ..human image ..to develop a spirit of revolt against these evil decrees. ..when I say revolt I do not refer at present to a particular rebellion but rather to preserve ..human ..social ..cultural character of ..youth. All our strength lay in ..fact that we were organized in communes. When I crossed ..border from Russia ..when I returned to Warsaw ..I had been sent there by ..headquarters of Hehalutz for 2 purposes. We said ..Jews have remained ..even though we heard about ..evil decrees of ..Germans ..Jews have remained there and ..Halutz movement has to be with them. Kovel ..a town which at that time was under Soviet rule. ..town of my birth was also in that region ..called Bytom. I left my parents there. But in that town of Kovel I was also together with a group of comrades ..we set out together from Warsaw. There we started activities. We sent people to Vilna so that they should be able to reach Palestine ..for a route had been opened up from there. ..second purpose ..was to encourage ..departure of ..Jews from ..German area and to direct them to ..territory of Lithuania. For at that time there were rumours ..and it was also true ..many were rescued and are to be found today in Israel ..that it was possible to reach Palestine from Lithuania. I arrived at a house called Dzielna 34. This had been ..until ..War ..building of ..headquarters of Hehalutz. When we ..were commanded by ..Polish authorities to leave and to travel to ..East ..this building rapidly became filled with people who had moved to Warsaw.” Zivia Lubetkin.

For all of these 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, from Lithuania to Warsaw, Bytom, Kovel and Vilna. all of these who are now consigned to our keeping for us to Remember them, we do so willingly. From the passages of time, knowing how badly they were let down by this World, we admonish such cruelty as indifference does behave. For the Jews themselves, almost immediately upon realisation, when the Killing Site or Gas Chamber shared its deadly secret, none of these Jewish People had a place to turn.

“..First of all ..refugees who arrived from ..Warthegau ..but not only they ..many Jews gathered in Warsaw out of a feeling that ..somehow ..Jews being together might be able to overcome this period. And when I came there ..to Dzielna 34 ..right away in ..first months ..when ..Jewish street was already gripped by fear and terror of ..Germans ..and each Jew stood by himself in this very difficult struggle for his existence ..for a slice of bread for ..continuation of his life ..alone against this mighty War machine ..I ask you to remember that when a Jew saw a single German in ..Ghetto ..he knew that he possessed ..power ..that huge army that had occupied Europe and to which great nations had surrendered ..and he knew that there was such power behind him. And he stood alone ..by himself. Our strength lay in ..fact that we did not stand alone. I already found ..at this Dzielna Street house ..180 young Men and Women who did not stand alone when at ..time of ..bombings ..shared one glass of water between them ..for there was no water. And if one of them found a potato in ..camp ..he shared it with 6 others. Concentrations like this existed in Warsaw for all ..Youth movements 5 or 6 ..and these were concentrated there ..from where they radiated to Warsaw and beyond. At ..beginning ..when ..Ghetto was open and it was possible to travel ..we travelled to ..Jews and established contacts with them. ..afterwards ..when ..Ghetto was closed ..we sought other ways. ..main aspect of our activity was organization ..to organize ..Youth ..in order that it could preserve ..human and ..Jewish image ..to promote within themselves ..despite ..degradation and ..depression ..a feeling of Jewish self respect ..so ..they could stand firm against these decrees. ..indeed ..it was ..Youth ..when ..day came ..when it became clear to them that this was Extermination ..also took up arms. We also dealt with food smuggling ..although I must point out ..there were more professional people involved in it than we. One of our problems ..and there is no doubt that this was a national ..or could I say elementary human ..essential ..a holy activity ..smuggling of food into ..Ghetto. ..smuggling ..proceeded in various ways. ..commonest and most tested methods was ..bribing of Germans. No German unit ..SS ..Gestapo nor ..others ..abhorred Jewish money. ..through bribery it was possible to bring food into ..Ghetto. ..on more than one occasion it happened that ..guard duty of ..Germans who had taken ..bribe was changed in ..meanwhile and fresh guards arrived who had not received ..money ..and seeing that ..Jews sometimes ..came late ..10 minutes after ..guards were changed ..they paid for that with their lives. In ..worst periods of ..starvation there were whole families whose main breadwinners were Children aged ..7 to 11 ..since a Child aged 12 was regarded in ..Ghetto as an adult person. How did they support their parents. They used to assemble ..group by group ..near ..gates ..waiting for ..opportunity when ..Germans would turn away ..when ..Germans would light a cigarette ..and ..in their masses ..cross into ..Aryan sector. ..Germans always used to be quick in opening fire ..and there were always victims. But ..Children were nimble and ..hunger gave them courage ..and they used to scatter in all directions ..and to run around ..streets of Aryan Warsaw in order to gather bread crumbs ..potatoes ..and they used to return immediately with their prize so that they could bring it to their Parents ..Sisters ..Brothers. Many of these Parents waited in vain ..for ..Children did not come back ..as they had been killed in ..streets of Warsaw ..or on going out of ..gate or on entering ..Ghetto.” Zivia Lubetkin.

Likewise, there was nothing to enable these Adult Jews to consider past what the Children, the Elderly or the infirm Jew could possibly achieve left to their own devices and their Murder was imminent. In all of this of course, we still have live Jews fending off the trauma, the brutality and seeking solace in their hoped for survival past another day. Clearly, as Zivia speaks for this individual bravery open to barely a few Jews, those who are unable to arm themselves, she too cannot foresee the distinct possibility of a Poland without its Jews.

“..It was understandable that ..Youth looked for us and found us. ..Its importance lay in ..very fact of our getting together ..when this getting together was forbidden. Its importance lay in ..fact that we conducted an intensive cultural activity. ..included ..secular movements and ..religious movements. ..There had been seminars such as this in No. 34 Dzielna. ..a short time before ..declaration about setting up ..Ghetto. Scores of Boys and Girls from 24 Towns ..Villages in Poland assembled ..and ..remained ..for 6 weeks. ..in Dzielna ..under conditions of hunger ..cold ..this was wintertime ..we studied ..Torah ..Pentateuch. ..value of ..seminar was very important both for ..Students and ..lecturers. ..Jewish intelligentsia in ..Warsaw Ghetto ..were amongst ..first victims because they didn’t know how to conceal themselves ..they suffered from starvation ..for ..tremendous cultural potential with which this large community was endowed there was no way to express itself. ..when we were able to obtain only some 10’s of them ..Professors ..Teachers ..Public Figures who ..during these confusing days ..were able to teach ..Torah ..and ..talk about faith in Man ..about our faith as Jews ..and ..teach ..history ..chapters of Jewish suffering and chapters of Jewish heroism ..and thereby to educate ..Young generation ..this was of great encouragement to them ..Students and ..us. These students would go out throughout ..towns of Poland to bring their message ..words of encouragement ..words to mould ..character ..words of revolt against ..Nazi oppressor that rose up to Exterminate us. ..We organized ..Youth ..one of ..things which enabled us at that time ..under such conditions ..not to lose ..human image. And this wasn’t difficult. I don’t know if any of you are aware what it is to experience starvation ..or more accurately semi starvation. ..when a person does not eat for days ..and ..is swollen from hunger ..he doesn’t feel anything. But a person who has lived for months and years on a slice of bread and a plate of soup ..is not capable of thinking about anything in ..world except about a slice of bread. ..if ..we succeeded in inspiring this youth with ..spirit of life ..despite ..fact that their thoughts during ..day were centred on slices of bread ..then that was a great achievement. These seminars ..this cultural activity ..encompassed 1,000’s of ..Youth in ..Warsaw and beyond it. There was another matter which was of great value. There was an underground press. ..underground newspapers ..included all ..Jewish organizations ..and first and foremost ..Jewish Youth Movements ..from right to left. From ..first days it was forbidden to listen to ..radio ..apart ..from ..German station. This was a decree for both Poles and Jews. ..we had a secret radio and listened to it. We issued bulletins. We passed on news about what was going on in ..world at large ..for we were cut off from ..world at large. At ..beginning this provided much encouragement. For some reason ..Jews believed that ..Russians would advance and defeat ..Germans ..and possibly ..end of ..War was approaching. In general it isn’t difficult to understand that a person who is in trouble clutches with faith at any small thing ..perhaps. I myself did not belong to ..optimists in ..Ghetto. ..I believed in complete faith that ..end of ..forces of evil would come. But I knew we would have to stand up to this for years. ..those were ..years when ..Germans occupied ..whole of Europe. And we also believed with ..outbreak of ..war between Germany and Russia ..and with ..chaos that would be created with ..German retreat ..as usual there would first of all be massive outbreaks of violence against ..Jews. And then we set up an organization ..this was not yet ..Jewish fighting force ..whose function was that ..if there should be such outbreaks of violence ..it would resist. At that time there were still no arms. It was a matter of sticks and anything that we chanced upon.” Zivia Lubetkin.

So while all too many of these Polish Jews have to become prepared so as to deliver their own ultimate sacrifice in order that they can deliver the last moments of compassion and love to their own, they have to secretly hold back their own fears and anxiety’s. However, with approaching stealth and a well devised plan of subterfuge, there still remained a creeping sense that something incomprehensible was being waged. For all too many Jews, who could not see the deliberate nature of Hitler’s true hatred and clinical resolve, a Final Solution was in the fuller sense, progressing.

“..We tried to establish contact with ..Armia Ludowa or more exactly with their political organization. During this period ..Polish underground was only beginning to be formed and did not carry out acts of actual war ..its activity consisted of getting themselves organized ..closing ranks and encouragement. But this was not yet ..period where they used arms. We set up ..organization called ..Anti Fascist League. This organization ..owing to ..fact that contacts with ..Polish underground were weak ..and meanwhile matters developed in a totally different way ..and this body was already in existence ..was of great value for several months ..for it trained people to use sticks. ..it was not so important that people should know how to use sticks and anything else that comes to hand ..but rather that it hardened ..spirit and prepared ..Youth for ..days to come. ..Meanwhile ..Germans advanced ..and ..occupied large areas populated by many Jews ..Vilna ..Lithuania ..Volhynia ..Polesie. ..places of close Jewish settlement. With ..advance of ..army ..we decided to establish contact with these Jewish centres. Since these were ..first months of ..War and there was great confusion on ..roads ..we decided for ..first time to send a certain Pole whose name was Heniek ..a member of ..Polish scouts with whom we were in touch from ..first days. I use this opportunity to mention ..name of ..Woman who was ..head of ..Polish scouts ..Irena Damowitz ..who from ..first day of our life in ..underground ..helped us ..and more than once .. risked her life. ..We sent Heniek to Vilna without knowing what was happening there ..but in order to inform us what was happening there ..how ..Jews were living and what was ..state of ..movement. He was given addresses ..for in Vilna there was a large concentration of youth who were planning to set out for Palestine ..but not all of them managed to get away. This we knew. 100’s of halutzim ..who were unable to leave ..remained there. ..route there and back took him several months. In order to reach Vilna from Warsaw one had to cross 3 borders. ..on ..way to ..Baltic countries. Even a Pole who wished to reach Vilna in those days needed a great deal of courage ..a sense of orientation and a lot of luck. He was lucky.” Zivia Lubetkin.

For what had so far been constantly denied the Jewish People, here within Poland and across the breadth of Europe, all of this stands as an immense measure of the Resistance to all that these Jews, abandoned and alone, could not Survive. Zivia Lubetkin, who remains a colossus amongst generations, and not just for Jews, inspires us still and now for me on this day, to write about what about her contribution to what is essentially, a Jewish Day of Mourning. With a greater sense of the shame that has been omitted from the World through inaction, and for what a World allowed to happen, I write in memory and for the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews in words much more relevant and delivered to us by Zivia.

“..already autumn or ..beginning of winter ..we had an agricultural farm outside Warsaw ..Czerniakow was its name. Apart from ..fact that it represented ..for ..Jewish Youth ..an honourable source of livelihood ..this place served as a starting off point for our Male and Female messengers whom we used to send out from ..Ghetto. ..it was a farm situated outside ..Ghetto ..and we also worked on a farm belonging to a Polish farmer ..as Jews. Our messengers roamed around ..Aryan streets of Warsaw. Any flicker of an eyelid of theirs could expose them to mortal danger ..lest someone ..would recognize that this was a Jew or a Jewess. They had this base which enabled them to come to ..farm by night and to arrive as Jews. This was something great. We maintained there a stock of newspapers ..and ..a store of arms. We received a phone call in ..Ghetto from ..farm at Czerniakow to ..effect that Heniek had arrived ..asking us to come to a meeting. We rejoiced at ..news. At that time we had various ways of leaving ..Ghetto ..despite ..efficient guard system. ..out of ..Ghetto we removed ..Shield of David from our persons ..and we would go about as Aryans. Many of us were killed. But nevertheless many kept up ..contact. When I reached Czerniakow at nightfall ..we sat in a hut. ..no electricity ..and Heniek told his story. ..for ..first time we heard that they were transporting ..Jews of Vilna in their 1,000’s and their 10’s of 1,000’s to Ponar where Children ..Women ..Babies ..were put to death. ..already at the end of 1941. At ..beginning of 1942 a Jew escaped from Chelmno and came to Warsaw. ..he told us that ..in Chelmno ..Jews were being driven out of ..city in trucks and put to death by gas. This Jew reached Warsaw ..but on ..way went into a town ..to ..Rabbi ..told him ..story. ..Rabbi was convinced ..Jew had gone crazy ..and didn’t believe him. After we had heard ..account from Vilna ..and ..story of Chelmno ..we believed that this was being done systematically. I must say that in ..previous years ..even we could not picture to ourselves that a nation in 20th. Century would indeed execute a death sentence on an entire people. We asked ourselves more than once: They are degrading us ..they are suppressing us ..are they truly thinking of destroying all of us. We did not believe it. ..doubt was gnawing at our hearts all ..time. We had been living in this way for years. ..when we received this information from Vilna and Chelmno within a short time ..when we sent our messengers to towns and villages in Poland and tales of disaster began to arrive from each place ..of course ..under a different disguise ..in Vilna because ..Jews were cooperating with ..Communists ..in Chelmno they did not disclose at all that this was extermination. We put all these incidents together ..and on ..same day we heard Heniek’s testimony ..this was a decisive moment in ..life of ..Jewish underground movement. We stopped our social activities ..schools about which I haven’t managed to tell you ..Hebrew Gymnasium ..drama groups and ..rest of our cultural activities ..all our efforts were now devoted to active self defence. But ..Jews didn’t believe it. ..hard to imagine that in fact an entire people would be Exterminated. ..ordinary Jew didn’t believe it ..nor did ..Jewish leadership. If you were to ask me why we believed it ..was this because we were wiser. Were we greater heroes. I would not say so. What stood us in good stead was our Halutz education that in normal times ..we were not afraid to face ..fate of ..Jews ..and to see it for what it was. That same youth believed it ..due to its world outlook and its personal education. I have no other explanation ..for there were many wise Jews in Warsaw ..heroes also ..did not believe it.” Zivia Lubetkin.

I have sat through many meetings and for years of hoping to justly Remember the Jew’s of The Holocaust, utilising in what for me was an appropriate date, January 27th. 1945. This date, recognising the arrival of Russian forces in Poland for the liberation of Auschwitz, is fundamentally an epoch moment for the future Survival of what was left of Polish Jewry and The European Jews. On this Liberation Day, and though the Surviving Jews of this space did not yet know it, full and future Survival in Poland was to be a gift of non-Jewish Poles that was not too willingly given.

“..In July 1942 ..liquidation of ..Warsaw Ghetto began. It started suddenly one day ..although there had already been rumours some days before ..and there was much concern amongst ..Jews. ..we were informed suddenly one day when we got up in ..morning ..by means of notices from ..Germans ..that it had been decided to transfer to ..East Aussiedlung nach dem Osten ..those Jews who were not working here ..who had no source of livelihood. Exempted from ..deportation were ..Jews who were working ..obviously first of all in German places of work in ..Ghetto ..which included ..Jewish organizations ..those that were legitimate ..Judenrat ..Jewish police ..members of their families ..various organizations of social welfare of all kinds ..hospitals. ..then ..Jews came to ..conclusion that ..this was only a small percentage which was destined for deportation. ..reasoning was ..these are Jews who don’t have their source of livelihood here ..they were ..living under difficult conditions ..Germans would transfer them to a place ..East ..a place where they were required for labour ..and ..they would even receive good conditions. ..close to one of ..gates in the approaches to ..Warsaw Ghetto ..there was a railway track ..there was a large field there ..Umschlagsplatz ..where ..Jews were commanded to assemble ..and from that point they were loaded on ..wagons. This involved 70,000 to 100,000 Jews. To ..Extermination Camp ..Treblinka. ..beginning of ..deportation ..announced that Jews possessing foreign nationality ..neutrals .had to gather at a certain place and they would be taken out of ..Ghetto. ..concentrated in ..central prison of ..Ghetto ..Pawiak ..most of them were shot. I knew many of them. Amongst them ..workers for ..Joint ..American citizens ..Neustadt ..Segalowitz ..others ..who were shot and did not stay alive. ..Czerniakow ..head of ..Judenrat in ..Warsaw Ghetto. When ..became clear to him ..this was ..Extermination ..that it meant death ..he committed suicide. In view of ..fact that ..announcement concerning ..deportation was accompanied by an order that all those who worked would remain alive ..each Jew tried to find employment for himself and then workshops they were called Shops sprang up like mushrooms after ..rain. Jews used to walk along with a machine on their back ..as if it seemed to them that this was their ticket for staying alive. ..Germans organized workshops and ..Jews worked in them and they were given Kennkarten certificates that they were working in this particular Shop ..and it is a fact that in ..first deportation these Jews were not taken away. This operation of deportation ..from ..first day to ..last ..was disguised in an exceptional way. When ..hunger grew more severe at ..time of ..deportations and ..Angel of Death stalked ..Ghetto for 2 months ..100’s of 1,000’s of Jews were taken away ..also ..people were dying of starvation. Nobody went out and nobody came in. A kilogram of bread cost more than 100 zlotys ..and even this was impossible to obtain. Then ..Germans announced that anyone coming to ..Umschlag of his own free will would receive 3 kilograms of bread and 1 kilogram of jam ..Jews came there with their meagre bundles in order to receive ..3 kilograms of bread.” Zivia Lubetkin.

Here though, while this date was supposedly signifying the end of the tragedy for Polish Jewry and of the Jewish presence in Europe, there was an abhorrent rise in antisemitic hatred bolstered by greed and avarice turned against a returning Jew looking for solace in a place they had known as home. For me, with the continued dilution of the term, The Holocaust, with its referencing in Holocaust Memorial Day toward other Genocide’s, this had signalled a sea change in any form of reverence I thought should be wholly attributable to the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe, who are The Holocaust.

“..transferred to Treblinka ..to ..Death Camp. ..Men ..Women ..Children. There were those familiar pictures of ..procession of Children from orphanages ..who walked in their shabby clothes towards ..Umschlag ..Children who walked with their Teachers ..Janusz Korczak ..who had made a name for himself ..and whom ..Germans wanted to release ..but he would not agree. ..beginning of September 1942. Within a few hours ..Jews were ordered ..all those who still remained and had not been deported ..to gather in 2 or 3 streets of Warsaw. ..120,000 Jews assembled. ..Jews were told to assemble in these streets in ..course of a few hours. ..ordered to assemble by 10 a.m. ..and anyone found elsewhere after this hour would be shot. Every Jew was obliged to leave all his possessions at home ..and to leave his apartment open. ..at that time ..a special unit which collected all Jewish property and sorted it ..furniture ..jewellery ..shoes ..and so on. ..Jews were ordered to leave their homes open. ..in order to maintain ..camouflage they were told to take with them a parcel limited to 10 kilograms and to bring it to Mila Street. It was impossible to enter ..houses. ..action ..lasted Week ..6 days. In ..course of this week ..60,000 Jews were removed from these streets. Many Jews were there ..and ..Shops were also there ..for ..Jews thought they would come together with ..Shops and with their documents ..and they would be taken off to work. In one street men of ..SS and ..Gestapo were standing at a table ..indicating by a movement of ..hand who was to go to ..right and who to ..left ..who was to live and who was to die. ..of course ..those chosen for death were Children ..great enemies of ..German Reich ..Children ..Women ..Aged ..Sick. .. healthier ..still allowed to live ..by means of a motion of ..hand to ..right. ..families would be separated. There were those terrible scenes ..since ..despite it all ..whole families were still going together. They knew what ..fate of ..Children would be ..and a Mother would attempt to make her Son look a little bigger ..paint ..cheeks of her Daughter ..to give her shoes with higher heels ..but all this was to no avail ..and they went ..same way as their Brothers. In ..course of a few days ..50,000 Jews were taken away. This action in ..Warsaw Ghetto was completed on Yom Kippur 1942 ..with ..liquidation of part of ..Jewish police ..concerning whom we were so sure at ..beginning of ..deportation that their lives would be spared. Their loyal cooperation with ..Germans did not help them ..they ..too ..taken to Treblinka with their families and on Yom Kippur 1942 ..out of 500,000 Jews in Warsaw ..about 60,000 Jews remained within ..Ghetto walls.” Zivia Lubetkin.

Where once we contemplate 500,000 Jews of Warsaw reduced to 60,000 Jews, we have the incomprehensible value that 6,000,000 Annihilated Jews, Murdered solely for being Jews, brings forth an atrocious degradation of all humanity. So while this reduction in Human value stands before us, I wonder why it is necessary to withdraw a Jewish relevance from the term which wholly encompasses all that was measured against them. The Holocaust term has so been eroded by claims to recall all those dead through Genocide, it does not form the marker by which 6,000,000 Murdered Jews are registered as the intentional victims of Hitler’s resolve for The Final Solution of The Jewish Question.

“..April 18th. 1943 was ..eve of Passover. 2 days before ..Gestapo’s liaison officer ..Brandt came to ..Jewish Council office and said ..Council was not sufficiently concerned about ..Jewish Children. There was no greenery in ..Ghetto ..not sufficient food ..he proposed setting up kindergartens ..where Jewish Children would be able to play and also to laugh. ..he was certain that those Jews who remained in Warsaw were productive people and there was no danger of deportation threatening them. We had already learned from experience ..and we knew if there were such rumours and such a promise ..this was a bad omen. ..in recent days there had been various strange rumours circulating in ..Ghetto ..that on ..approach of Passover ..Germans were planning to destroy ..Warsaw Ghetto. ..immediately after these rumours ..others came along saying that they had heard from one German or another ..information that this was not true ..that ..Jews ..in ..Ghetto would remain there. ..18th of ..month ..during ..day ..a policeman of ours ..a Jew ..also a member of ..Jewish fighting force came to us at our headquarters ..and said that Polish policemen had told Jewish policemen ..there was no doubt that something was going to happen that night. ..Jewish fighting force ..was in existence and was organized inside ..Ghetto and had fighting units ..each unit having its own post ..prepared in advance. An alert was declared within ..units ..movement ceased ..everyone was to take his arms to his post ..to ..fortifications ..each officer and his men. At ..about midnight ..this policeman came to headquarters and informed us that ..Ghetto was surrounded. ..between January and April ..even before then ..Judenrat was no longer in charge of ..Ghetto. ..Ghetto as well as ..Judenrat acted in accordance with ..orders and instructions that we used to post up in ..streets of Warsaw. This was a time when ..Jews obeyed us ..obeyed us in everything. We dispersed among ..fighting units. I was at 23 Nalewski Street ..where ..officer in charge of that unit was Secharia Artstein. Mordechai Anilewicz and ..rest of my comrades were dispersed in ..other strong points. Mordechai Anilewicz came to ..post at 29 Mila Street. What did we tell ..Jews that night. We told them that anyone who possessed arms should come out to fight. Not only ..Jewish fighting force but ..ordinary Jews as well had arms. ..we advised those who did not have arms ..Women ..Children ..Babies ..should go down into ..bunkers ..and at ..first opportunity ..go over to ..Aryan sector ..break through and make their way to ..forest ..some would survive. ..we had no need to issue orders to ..fighting units ..those Boys and Girls had been waiting for months for ..moment ..they would be able to shoot at Germans. ..indeed ..moment had come. When ..day dawned ..I was standing in ..upper part of this building ..at 23 Nalewski ..I saw ..1,000’s of Germans ..surrounding ..Ghetto ..with machine guns ..cannon ..1,000’s of them ..with their weapons ..as if they were going to ..Russian front. ..there we stood opposite them ..some 20 young Men and Women. ..our weapons. ..a revolver ..a hand grenade ..entire unit had 2 rifles ..and ..homemade bombs ..primitive ones ..fuse ..had to be lit by ..match ..and Molotov Cocktails. ..strange to see ..some Jewish Boys and Girls ..confronting this enormous enemy with all his weapons ..were joyful and merry. Why were they joyful and merry. We knew that our end had come. We knew beforehand that they would defeat us ..but we also knew that they would pay a heavy price for our lives. ..they did. It is difficult to describe ..there will surely be many who will not believe it ..that when ..Germans came near ..foot of one of our strong points and passed by in formation ..and we threw ..bombs and ..hand grenades ..we saw German blood pouring in ..streets of Warsaw ..after so much Jewish blood and tears had previously flowed in ..streets of Warsaw ..we felt ..great rejoicing and it was of no importance what would happen ..following day. ..great rejoicing amongst ..Jewish fighters. ..behold ..miracle ..great German heroes withdrew in tremendous panic in ..face of ..handmade Jewish hand grenades and bombs. ..1 hour later ..a German officer was spurring ..soldiers on to go to battle ..to go out and bring in ..wounded ..and not one of them moved and they abandoned their wounded men whose weapons we subsequently collected. And so it happened ..that on ..first day we ..few ..with our scant arms ..drove ..Germans out of ..Ghetto. ..they came back. They were not short of ammunition ..bread ..water as we were. And they returned. They returned that day ..for a second time ..in greater strength ..with field guns and tanks ..and we with our Molotov Cocktails also set a tank on fire although this was not at ..post where I was but in Mila Street ..with another fighting unit. That day ..in ..evening ..we each reported. We had seen that ..with our meagre arms ..number of those killed in our ranks was negligible ..2 in all. ..a number of wounded. ..we knew that ..on that day 100’s of Germans had fallen ..killed ..wounded. ..by chance ..I ..met a German on ..Aryan side ..a year after ..Warsaw Ghetto revolt ..posing as an Aryan ..and he had only one eye ..he told me that on that very day ..at 23 Nalewski ..he had lost his eye in a battle with ..Jews and that it was a big fight and we paid for it with many casualties ..I did not know then how to appreciate this. But if one may evaluate this years later ..when I saw my people proceeding on its final journey ..this was some slight consolation.” Zivia Lubetkin.

As far as I am concerned, and translation cannot alter any intention otherwise, die Endlosung der Judenfrage speaks exclusively for what Hitler intended would be the total eradication of the Jewish People from within Europe. In accordance with the protocol established at The Wannsee Conference, this would account for 11,293,300 Jews of Europe, All Men, Women and Their Children to be systematically sought out for Slaughter and Murdered, in situ or in carefully prepared Killing Sites and the Gas Chambers. Firstly though. all of these Jews would be marked out for close attention, segregated and then marked for removal, firstly from their former homes and their own community’s, as they are finally removed from all existence, life itself.

“..battle continued for a number of days at ..same pace. ..Germans could not subdue us and on each occasion retreated from ..Ghetto. ..not all ..days were like ..first day. We paid with more losses and also killed less Germans. But ..in ..days following ..Germans changed their tactics and tried also to change our tactics. From street fighting in places we had prepared for ourselves ..we changed to a method of fighting in small groups. We split up into several groups who at night would find for themselves houses and strong points ..simply hid ..waiting for ..Germans. ..Germans ..no longer came into ..Ghetto in large numbers ..but in small units. ..like us ..we had rags on our feet so that they should not hear our footsteps ..they had rubber boots so that we should not hear their footsteps ..and each side sought ..other. In these days ..also ..we had ..upper hand ..we knew ..terrain ..houses ..prepared for ourselves places of refuge in attics and cellars ..not known to ..Germans. It continued in this way for days. It is difficult for me to describe life in ..Ghetto during that week ..and I had been in this Ghetto ..years. ..Jews embraced and kissed each other ..although it was clear to every single one that it was not certain whether he would remain alive ..or it was almost certain that he would not survive ..reached ..day of our taking revenge ..although no vengeance could fit our suffering. At least we were fighting for our lives ..and this feeling lightened his suffering and possibly also made it easier for him to die. I also remember that on ..second day ..it was ..Passover Seder ..in one of ..bunkers ..I came across Rabbi Meisel. There had been contacts between us and him ..since ..days of ..Halutz underground in ordinary times as well. ..Halutz underground ..in its operations ..had not always had an easy time on ..part of ..Jewish population ..they did not always accept us.” Zivia Lubetkin.

It is a further catastrophe then as to which part of this atrocity does the world need to now dissolve let alone resolve while The Holocaust term becomes continually diluted. I am fully aware of the significance of YomHaShoah and it is that specific day in Israel right now, May 1st. 2019 that it is both poignant and reverential to all Jews wherever they are. As such, perhaps it is time to ensure the Jews know best how to mark what we seek to remember is a Jewish Catastrophe above and beyond all other’s and ask the World to concentrate its attention on the debacle of The Holocaust, as a unifying act of Remembrance on this one day. With The Holocaust, there is this unique blend of legality, complicity, duplicity and the sheer scale of the atrocity which is all aimed exclusively at the Jews whose murder this present to us.

“..There were those who thought that we were bringing harm to their lives ..collective responsibility ..fear of ..Germans. ..this time ..when I entered ..bunker ..this Jew ..Rabbi Meisel ..interrupted ..Seder ..placed his hand on my head and said ..May you be blessed. Now it is good for me to die. Would that we had done this earlier. ..fighting went on ..for days. ..already from ..first day ..had been seeking liaison with ..Aryan side. We had many comrades on ..Aryan side ..Yitzhak Zuckerman ..among them. Their main activity in ..first days was ..acquisition of an additional supply of arms. ..after many endeavours this was achieved. But there was a problem of how to transfer it. In ..first days we had another link by means of ..telephone ..but apart from telephone contact ..connection still existed through ..Burial Society. Our cemetery was beyond ..boundaries of ..Ghetto ..and since ..Burial Society had its hands full ..it had ..to go out of ..Ghetto and to come back into it. And in this way we received a message from Yitzhak Zuckerman ..that he had received a number of rifles which we would be able to obtain ..through ..Burial Society ..we smuggled letters outside ..amongst them ..letter from Mordechai Anilewicz ..which has since been published. But this link ..too ..was soon cut off. ..We began to look for possibilities of sending out a number of comrades for ..purpose of obtaining help. We had a small number of comrades on ..Aryan side who were able to organize help and arms for us ..or food ..or later on to look for a place where a person could stay in ..event of his remaining alive. We thus began searching for a way of getting a number of people out. We were told that there was a bunker in a particular place ..near ..Ghetto wall. From ..bunker there was a canal leading to ..Aryan side. Afterwards it became clear to us ..Apart from ..Jewish fighting force ..which included ..all ..various ideological forces in Jewish public life ..left to right ..there existed a group of Revisionists ..in Muranowska Street. They had prepared this exit for themselves. ..several days of difficult and daring battle ..they decided to go out to ..Aryan sector. We encountered one of them who had been saved. All ..others had been caught and were killed. Without being aware of this ..we sent 2 of our comrades in this way to seek contact with our comrades on ..Aryan side ..Simha Ratajzer ..and another ..no longer alive. When they reached ..Aryan sector and a Polish policeman saw them ..he thought that they were Poles and said to them ..Why are you wandering around here. Do you know what happened here an hour ago. ..he told them about ..fight in ..Ghetto ..that ..entire quarter was full of SS ..and Gestapo ..and ..they were not allowing anyone to come out or to go in. Nevertheless ..due to their courage and ..perhaps ..also their good fortune ..they succeeded in passing by ..German sentries and establishing contact with Yitzhak. They represented an important reinforcement to ..tiny group ..many of whose members fell in ..first days of our fight in ..Ghetto in various actions on ..Aryan side ..to provide substantial aid ..which we subsequently broadened to help ..fighters inside ..Ghetto to assist in taking them out and to help any activity of ..Jewish underground ..which continued until ..liberation. We could not engage in open warfare. ..Germans set ..Ghetto on fire. ..impossible to fight against fire and conflagration ..they did not have to battle against us ..fire fought us.” Zivia Lubetkin.

All of what Hitler aimed for, which makes this a particularly Jewish tragedy, and that is an unparalleled and an unprecedented atrocity in all time, wonders at why the World cannot allow the Remembrance for these Jews to be their’s. For me then, and I speak here personally, as a non-Jew, if back then I had been a non-Jewish pole, barely surviving during the crime of the catastrophe for Polish Jewry and European Jews, I would have felt compelled to resist any and all of Hitler’s clear intentions. Poland was at war with Germany, and all of Hitler’s direction should have brokered an all out response by all of Poland to what was happening to its Jewish Community. It is reprehensible that Poland did not act in accord with its christian principles nor of its catholic dogma. The fact too that this would have created the ideal CV for anyone acting with human compassion would have seen a non-Jewish Pole who had taken a Jewish Family of 7, or even 70 from a extended Jewish Family, to the Woods and then assisted in the building of an underground bunker.

“..Scenes of Women ..Children ..Men are well known. We had previously told them ..called upon ..Jews to hide themselves ..those who did not have arms ..to hide in ..bunker. ..when ..building was suddenly set alight ..when ..smoke entered ..bunker ..it was no longer possible to get out. ..there were ..scenes ..from 4th. ..5th. and 6th. floors ..People jumped from a building enveloped in flames ..in most cases with Children in their arms. There were also scenes of People who jumped from fire into gunfire. ..German machine guns which surrounded ..wall did not miss them. Every such Jew in sight was shot on ..spot. They looked for hiding places in other bunkers. Many of them entered ..sewage canals for want of another way out. ..several People found shelter in ..ruins of ..burnt houses. ..Germans seized many of them and took them ..no longer to ..Umschlag ..but to Treblinka. There was no chance of defeating them in battle. That was clear. This was still in April 1943. ..victories of ..Red Army were only beginning. ..it was plain to us that we had no chance of winning in ..accepted sense of ..term. ..in ..military sense or ..accepted sense of today. ..believe me ..this is no empty phrase ..despite their power ..we knew that ultimately we would defeat them ..we ..weak ones ..because in this lay our strength. We believed in justice ..in humanity ..and in a regime different from ..one which they glorified. ..May 8th. 1943 ..When ..principal bunker of ..Jewish fighting force at 18 Mila was destroyed with Anilewicz and another 120 fighters ..quite by chance I was not there ..for on ..previous day I went on a mission to another part of ..Ghetto and returned after this had happened. I found no traces of ..bunker or of people ..only a small group of fighters who succeeded in getting out of there through some kind of side route ..at ..very last minute. They related their experiences.” Zivia Lubetkin.

Here in such a bunker, where they would have Survived till the Russians had saved them, they would have been written my opus for me, a page in their History to be proudest of. Who could not be proud of such an act of saving lives, when all about Poland the stench of destruction infiltrated the very air poles breathed. For me it seems, humanity would have been keenly felt and a moral bridge would have been crossed. But none of this is as it should have been. The heroism of Parents, unable to assist the fight, struggling to ensure their Children did not know what awaited them, and as they succumbed in desperation to what Hitler intended and Poland did so little to stop, and as a World stood too idly by, they passed into History.

“That night we decided ..there were only a few of us left ..without food ..without water ..almost no weapons ..at any rate without bullets for ..revolvers and rifles ..to send a group of comrades to ..sewage canal ..so that they might cross to ..Aryan sector and see what could be done. These comrades ..on ..way to ..sewage canal ..encountered a delegation of our friends. One of them was ..same Simha Ratajzer ..who had gone out to Muranowska. This delegation had been sent by our comrades on ..Aryan Side in ..company of a Pole who showed them ..way ..to bring ..surviving fighters through ..sewage canal to ..Aryan side. We walked in ..sewage canal for 48 hours. .on May 12th. ..on a clear day ..when ..in spite of ..desire of ..Polish underground to come to our aid ..they did not have ..power to do much ..apart from several people who assisted us in carrying out ..operation ..and when it became clear to our comrades that they would not get any assistance ..they hired 2 trucks saying that they were required for moving furniture from one place to another. When they reached ..street where we were standing in ..sewage canal ..our comrades drew out revolvers ..aimed them at ..drivers and said ..This is not furniture but people ..and if you make even ..slightest noise ..you will endanger your lives. ..so they remained silent. ..sewage canal was opened and we came out of it ..about 50 fighters ..if I am not mistaken ..and we were loaded onto ..trucks. We drove through ..streets of noisy Warsaw ..naturally with weapons in our hands ..and ..reached ..Lomianki forest ..7 kilometres from Warsaw ..since we did not have anywhere ..where we could go to. ..We had a special sector of ..Jewish fighting force within ..Polish revolt in ..ranks of ..Armia Ludowa.” Zivia Lubetkin.

As the remnants of Polish and Warsaw Jewry sat in bunkers, in attics or hidden in rooms, the flames of an unholy conflagration surrounded them. Many of these distraught Parents, People on the edge of this insanity, took hold of everything that was dear to them, their Children, comforted and relaxed them before signalling their intention to defy Hitler’s marauder’s and resisting finally that lasting resolve to accomplish what 3,000 years of History had failed to do. Outside the Ghetto, the city of Warsaw was bustling with non-Jewish life, looking on with a regard that has not entered mainstream History. So the scenes, as Zivia could relate them, have been secured for posterity to future accuse this Warsaw, this Poland and this World for what was left behind in the Jewish World. When Jews need to know what Resistance meant so as to know it definitively, or hear it, or re-listen to its retelling, then listen and learn from what Zivia Lubetkin relays and teaches us all.

“..August 1944. ..Poles decided to give themselves up and be taken prisoner ..our group did not do so. Having no alternative ..we remained in a bunker in one of ..places in Warsaw ..and this was now in Aryan Warsaw ..for Jewish Warsaw was no longer in existence at that time. But even in Aryan Warsaw ..Poles ..too ..were prohibited from being there at all. So we went into some house ..where there was a cellar ..a group of Jewish fighters ..carrying arms and we did not really know what to do with ourselves ..until we sent off a number of comrades ..mostly Girls ..to look for contacts on ..Aryan side. ..they found them and they returned with a delegation of ..Red Polish Army who made out as if it was known that there were sick people there ..typhus patients. Those fighters amongst us who had pronounced Jewish features had their imaginary wounds bandaged so they would not be recognized and were taken out as typhus patients. In this way we crossed into ..Aryan sector and in a village near Warsaw liberation came to us at ..hands of ..Russians.” Zivia Lubetkin.