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This Holocaust Author's Auschwitz Blog

This blog describes my thoughts and experiences in visiting Auschwitz, Belzec, Majdanek and Sobibor and Anne Frank's House from 2014 to 2018

I blogged my preparations for my visit, I posted daily during my visit to Poland...there are also my ongoing thoughts posted here; in the aftermath of my visit...
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What is left of Jewish Boryslaw.

Uncategorised Posted on Mon, August 31, 2020 20:02:35

In Memory of Mark and Arlene Krochmal.

The life of the Survivor of The Holocaust has been impossible to contemplate, yet we are well aware that it has not been an easy one and not just with the ghosts of memory. There is the sense of loss that the term Survivoral Guilt brings to the fore and there is that constant and nagging knowledge of the very betrayal they encountered. Given also that the realisation that there was the clear cut abandonment of the Jewish whim, and to the whim of Hitler, this leaves the Survivor with far too much to despair over. To have Survived at all, when there was a clear Hitler directive that No Jew should ever Survive, is such an immense achievement for any Jew to have managed. I know all too well, there are many a Survivor who call their Survival a matter of luck, as if we can find luck in anything that was brutally meted out to them.

“..A new era has arrived. A different world came to Western Ukraine ..political parties were banned without exception and their leaders exiled to Siberia. People were afraid to talk to each other freely of drilling projects quickly changed. ” Abraham Hauptman.

True, for the chances that the Survivor has taken to eventually emerge, it is with their sheer determination not to submit to the callousness and outrage of the overall atrocity, but to persevere so as to remember, that they have ensured that not all Jews were annihilated. For the Jewish Survivor’s Mark and Arlene Krochmal, who emerged from the desecration of Jewish Boryslaw, they are amongst the many who ensure there is a continued Jewish presence in the World today. For the Polish City of Boryslaw, which was residing at the foot hills of the Carpathian Mountains, what drew the Jewish People toward it is now steeped in a Jewish tradition that is all but lost.

“..1877. ..At this time ..part of Poland called East Galicia was part of Austro-Hungarian Empire ..ruled then by ..Emperor Franz Josef ..whose policies towards ..Jews were tolerant.” Marcus Markel.

Of course, the area was rich in Oil and this allowed the forward thinking and frontier mentality of those Jews who migrated there, a boon Town that grew into a City of Jewish content that was above and beyond 30% of the population. Later, with outer influences, the Town and City was also known as Boryslav, and even Borislav, after it was ceded to the Ukraine by Russian intervention in Poland. The War Russia would engage in and alongside Hitler in 1939, for this oil rich place, as much owned by Jews as the Jews who worked in its fields and refinery’s, it had grown rapidly and prospered. However, and tragically for the Jews of this City, German intervention, and a seething animosity from both non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians, the tolerance toward Jewish Citizenry dissipated.

“..A forest council ..committee was established. It was headed by Mundek Schwartz from Boryslaw. ..council’s task was to find a hiding place for any Jew. ..council members assigned people to ..various hiding places and established new hideouts for those that had lost theirs.” Frieda Koch.

For Boryslaw is now a desolate place, devoid of its Jewish influence, for it was here, amongst the many such Shtetl’s, Villages, Towns and Cities of Poland which had harboured its Jewish Community, the Jewish People were to be targeted. Since Hitler realised that Jewish blood could be extinguished at will and wherever he wished, Poland with 3,650,000 Jews within its boundary, proved to be the other catalyst to Weltanschauung, his pervasive World view. Also, and throughout the 1930’s, antisemitism scaled newer heights within Poland and the locally induced pogroms, readily conducted against Jewish merchants plying their trade in the surrounding areas, convinced Hitler he would have little opposition to The Final Solution.

“..1930 ..Matilda ..married a farmer from ..Olszanik ..near Sambor. ..They had 3 Sons ..3 Daughters. Their firstborn Son’s name was Wowa. From ..time I was 5 Parents used to send me to their home for ..holidays ..often for an entire month. I liked being there for I could ride horses and drink milk right from ..cow. ..fresh farmer’s produce ..vegetables ..potatoes ..carrots ..cucumbers ..also fruit ..apples ..pears ..plums. ..produce was brought in horse drawn wagons to our town of Boryslaw ..where it was sold to merchants. Father ..a shopkeeper ..used to buy it for his grocery. ..Aunt Matilda ..her Husband ..Children ..were sent to Belzec.” Marcus Markel.

As the scale of atrocity grew in intensity, the Jews in Poland were as yet unaware that what Hitler would afford them would be more directed, brutal and lasting. However, with such assaults and abuses by locals even in the City of Boryslaw, all directed against their own Jewish neighbours, robbery and killings were also rife. More and more Jews from the rural areas sought a better sense of security from within Town and even City limits. This did not go without Hitler noticing. The overall reaction to this growing assault upon the Jewish integrity with Poland was the formation of Jewish Fighting Units, who organized themselves in the fight back. While Boryslaw is a space, which sought out refuge from its own surroundings, it is undistinguished from so many other places within Poland.

“..there are good and bad people in every race every country. It is to humanity’s credit that ..good generally succeed ..though never easily and never quickly.” Sabina Wolanski.

However, it is so clearly distinguished from those same or similar places of Europe that did not as yet have to contend with Hitler’s plan for the Final Solution of the Jewish People. In all of history, and due to the vicious nature of what happened to the Jewish People here in Boryslaw, and for that matter in every Town that occupied Jewish minds for Century’s, the perversity of The Holocaust haunts the existence of Europe to this day. With the bond broken between the Boryslaw Jew and its Boryslaw lands, The Holocaust is written in the Jewish Blood of 19,500 of the some 20,500 of Boryslaw’s Jews no longer alive. While this surely recognises both the inhumanity in humankind and the genuine successes most humans make to prevent most of the atrocity that occurs, The Holocaust has written more than a chapter of degeneracy toward a People for being Jews.

“..They could have gone to China as a Russian Jewish soldier could take them. My Father’s Father Raisel Krochmal said what could they do to us. They had no idea what was coming.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

Of course, we cannot even be truly accurate with the assessment of this census of a detail written in numbers, as many Jews who gravitated toward the larger metropolis from more exposed outlying areas, many of these failed to acknowledge their habitable status with Boryslaw. Politically too, there was a diversity of outlooks, some harbouring a view that leaving for Palestine was a safer course while all too many others leaned toward the more socially concerned, even communist front their homes would afford them. Among the Communist activists in Boryslaw was Marek Rattner, who had been a medical student in Prague, and who received a six-year sentence from Polish Courts for his Communist held views.

“..Jews from Schodnica were transferred by trucks to ..train in Boryslaw and from there to Belzec and ..Janowska camp in Lvov. Many from Urycz and Pereprostyna were killed in July and August 1941 ..during ..Ukrainian pogroms and other pogroms afterwards. ..In ..Hebrew month of Elul 1941 they gathered ..Jews from Urycz and Pereprostyna ..and killed them by machine-gun” Joseph Kitai.

However, freed by the Russians, and after they took up their bi-lateral agreement to partition Poland in September 1939, Marek Rattner became the Deputy Mayor of Boryslaw from 1939 until 1941. Also, and it is clear that whatever idea’s any Jews had of the approaching intention of Hitler’s Nazi’s, and we know this can only ever be speculated upon and surmised, the certain belief that Jewish Poland would be a wasteland for more than just Jews, is certain. In the wake of Hitler’s Weltanschauung, a World View without Jews was wholly envisaged with not a single Jew in it. Enough here however is known, and from the Survivor, that the tally of the destruction which was met in Boryslaw, and similarly throughout Europe, was what the Jewish People were forcefully met with, and that had been a well ordered and orchestrated plan of annihilation.

“..It is appropriate to make known ..story of ..young Jews from Boryslaw ..brave heroes ..who saved about 300 Jews from It seems to me that this was ..only case that such a significant number of Jews were saved by ..actions of young people who took it upon themselves to build hiding places in ..surrounding forests.” Bezalel Linhard.

At this time of direst deadly consequences for these Jews, and I bring to mind that there were more than 1,500 of the Jews of Boryslaw who were merely Children, whose maturity of age was from Infancy to the late teen. Given the fact that they were indeed Children, this did not negate the attention Hitler paid to them and these all added to what became of the at least 18,000 other Jews destroyed. The very Jewish soul of Boryslaw had been ripped from its core foundations and extinguished. The inherent needs of the Jews in Boryslaw were plenty and there were various charitable groups Bes Lekhem, Bikur Kholim, Hashgakha and Moadon Khevruti who delivered assistance where needed. The operators of these institutions were principally the Jewish Women of the Community who raised funds, collected and distributed clothing, opened kitchens and supplied medical care. ]

“..We needed equipment and construction materials and weapons. I can attest that in camp ..there was almost nothing you could not get for money.” Arnold Distler.

But! As the struggle to ensure the safety of Jewish Boryslaw was an on going effort, and not to put too fine a distinction upon this, there was a murderous tally of hatred that undid every bit of life saving communal effort. I am certain too, given that I have overseen the pages of this particular research, with a scrutiny that lapped itself many times over, that there could be far more than even that 19,500 number of the Murdered Jews of Boryslaw. I make that assumption, and if ever we get round to fairly calculating the loss to us all, I am sure it can be verified. Of course, the eventual blood lust which Hitler inflicted upon 3,000,000 or so Polish Jews, is only to be measured alongside what we estimate as 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jewish People who are The Holocaust.

“..I did not perceive myself as a vendor of personal guilt and private reminiscences ..nor as a chronicler of ..disaster that befell my People and my generation ..but purely as a story teller.” Jerzy Kosinski.

While History balks at the possibility that many more than 6,000,000 Jews of Europe were Destroyed, as Europe was blinded by indifference toward them, we struggle still further to come to terms with any understanding at all fully compounded by the scale of inaccuracy we are failing to deal with. Uncertainty, and even wilful deceit so as to conceal the true nature of the atrocity, will burden the fate of Humanity for far more years than we have thus far sought to minimise it. It is true of that calculation that has been made, and that not even here at Boryslaw, can we ever be certain of that assessment. Given the evidence of that so many have made throughout the era of The Holocaust itself, we have doubted the very clear testimony afforded us. For far more than the 19,500 Jews assessed her within Boryslaw’s reach, far too many more have probably lost their lives to the will of Hitler’s plan.

“..My Grandmother ..Berta Seeman ..had 2 Sisters and 2 Brothers. One Brother ..Itzik Seeman ..lived with his family in of Skole south of Stryj. There is not a trace of their family. All of them were killed in ..Extermination Camp Sobibor. ..other Brother Hano Seeman ..who lived in Lvov ..was exterminated with his family.” Marcus Markel.

Of course, nothing of this Jewish Blood will be stilled by the lack of justice shown for their extermination, and from a one story teller to another, we gather enough pieces together to mark a piece in a giant jigsaw puzzle. Me personally, I choose to chronicle, in as much detail as I possibly can, the lost vain hopes of those 6,000,000 Jews, and though not as a personal reminiscence, it is with a sense of shame that such guilt for this perpetration was not more severely punished. Also, the Worlds indifference toward the vast majority of these Jews, which accuses civilisations sheer lack of compassion in this crime against humanity, is not to be written out of their History. Of course, while Boryslaw is not unique in the excruciating detail of The Holocaust, the room for much brutality was always unique to Hitler’s horde’s.

“..We want to save ..memories of ..Jewish streets of Boryslaw ..even if only very few of us are still around. There are 1,000 or 2,000 ..perhaps ..scattered around” Leopold Held.

Along with local collaborator’s, who sought to exact their own brand of vengeance, and they too go very much unpunished by any law we would consider just. The spoils of such inhumanity, the sins of which the Children of the parents have inherited, is now being vindicated by their own governments of today. Here though, with more than 19,500 former Jewish residents of Boryslaw, those alive and those forever extinguished, there are words, let alone my words, which can never come close to understanding or comprehending this devastating loss. For one third of the Town’s population, who were Jews, it is perhaps not all that exceptional an ending for Polish Jews resident within Poland. As the horror is equally witnessed and compared from within all the other Jewish communities of Poland, and throughout Europe, so many Jewish Community’s have been singularly extinguished.

“..Life was bearable. Those who worked could live in dignity. ..Jews had somewhat of a reprieve. ..officially they could not be harassed ..cursed. ..Life under ..Russian regime was pretty good ..especially for ..youth.” Mordechai Marakel.

With this assault upon the integrity of a Jewish Community within Boryslaw, it has to be remembered, and not is isolation, that as a collective effort by Hitler’s demands so as to satiate his own level of hatred for the Jews, other’s picked up the reins of this hatred. What went beyond the bounds of humanity as the Jewish People are being hounded to extinction is the inhumanity which commands that humanity ceased to exist for all civilising purposes. Here too within Boryslaw, and in perhaps as many as a dozen aktionen in and around the City, and along with resettlement exercises completing the decimation of this Jewish Community, there was much for many to profit from, from the very essence of a former Jewish presence no longer of Boryslaw. For these Jews who were extinguished here, and from all former existence, their worth to many was a calculated one in assets stripped from the backs of a slaughtered Jewish People.

“.. My Moms Parents Malka Chill and Mordechai Chill were shot in their own backyard in 1939. Her sister Tema Chill was captured ..a Nazi killed her 5 year old Son in front of her. She said kill me too and he did.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

While Boryslaw had a very successful athletics team, and there was even a Football Team known as Kadimah, there were amongst the athletics such regulars as Duvko Gartenhaus, Ciulo and Motl Ginsburg, Bronek Jaeger, Max Krochmal, Shlomo Wagman and Izio Wegner. On the football side, which also had some mutual members from the athletics team, these were Chaim Berger, Duvko Gartenhaus, Ciulo Ginsberg, Motl Ginsberg, Mechel Grabow, Bronek Jaeger, Max Kreisberg, Max Krochmal, Shamo Okerman, Izio Parnes, Manes Pfeferbaum, Shimek Rand, Shlomo Wagman, Hesio Wechselberg and Izio Wegner. These we must seek, Always to Remember, and in order that we should choose, Never to Forget them.

“..I was 18 at ..time and kept thinking how and where could we build some type of bunker or hiding place in or around where we lived so that when ..time came ..we could get there quickly and hide” Mordechai Marakel.

On August 23rd. 1939 and in preparation for Hitler’s assault upon the integrity of Poland, and Poland is to be partitioned in connivance with and in accordance with the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact that was signed by the then German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and his Russian counterpart Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Firstly though, with the arrival of a Division of the Wehrmacht on September 12th. 1939, many Jews of Boryslaw were considering a future in hiding as many were being rounded up. The occupying German Army now seized many local Jewish towns people for their slave labour battalions and work details. Of course, looting went hand in glove with all such occupying force and was a regular occurrence.

“..1940 ..when ..Miriam married Leon Shorr in Boryslaw ..I was 16. Her husband was a senior worker in ..oil refinery where he earned a good salary. ..1941 ..they had their firstborn Daughter ..just when ..between ..U.S.S.R. and Germany started. I liked Miriam and her family very much. They lived on our street ..Lukasiewicza Street ..Boryslaw ..just in front of ..police headquarters.” Marcus Markel.

For all manner of Jewish property, goods, valuables and foodstuffs to be stolen, was an act of aggression aimed directly at the Jewish People. Of course, this not only incentivised the local non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainian nationalists to follow suit, and with German approval, emboldened them to both rob and brutalise their Jewish Neighbours. On September 17th. 1939, with the Russians march into Galicia, they occupy Lvov, and the rest of Galicia east of the San River, a slight reprieve for the Jewish People here. However, there is no let up in the brutal treatment of the Jews to the West of the River as such attacks on the Jewish People that had been evident here in Boryslaw, and in 100’s of other Jewish Shtetl was unrelenting.

“..My parents were hidden by a Polish woman and her daughter under ..floor where there was a root cellar with his sister and her husband. They were ok for a while as my Father owned an oil well.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

All Villages, Towns and City’s of Poland ensured all hope would be extinguished and for the sporting Jews of Boryslaw, the continuation of such physical and sporting activity was thwarted. As for the rest of the Jews of Poland, who were immediately threatened by the Germans and even their former neighbours, life was becoming an unbearable drudgery. Unspeakable horrors confronted the Jews on their doorstep and a daily basis and as elsewhere, many Jews of Boryslaw were killed. With the arrival of the Russians forces though, who according to the pact with Hitler took Eastern Poland under its control, they arrived on September 24th. and this brought a temporary halt to these anti-Jewish hostilities.

“..Grandmother’s Sister Regina, a pharmacist, lived with her family in Warsaw. She died with all her family in Treblinka.” Marcus Markel.

However, not all went well for those Boryslaw Jews who had once owned or even worked in the Oil industry, which Russia now sought to nationalize. On November 1st. 1939 with the Russian occupation of Galicia dominant, this now becomes part of the Ukrainian SSR, a satellite of Stalin’s sphere of influence. In the Summer of 1940, there is an influx of Polish Jews from Western Poland into Boryslaw but these are sent to the interior of Russia, and throughout the period of 1940, and with Russian influence, the shift of power moved away from both Jews, and their non-Jewish Polish neighbours. With a more focused drive to endorse a more Ukrainian based influence in the area, Jews and non-Jewish Poles alike are under Ukrainian influence.

“..There were human issues in our first and second bunker. ..many bunkers fell apart because of friction and personal issues among ..occupants. Many people lived together within a very small space and under a lot of pressure. Discipline was one of ..main issues.” Arnold Distler,

With Hitler’s sudden move and his lightning attack on Russia with Operation Barbarossa June 22nd. 1941, Jewish existence within Boryslaw, as with all of Poland, was thrown into an even greater scale of confusion. The escalation of fear and then atrocity grew with such intensity, the belief amongst most of these Jews of Boryslaw was swayed away from civilisation’s lessons. No longer would culture be seen as their saviour as it was forfeited to an abandonment of all that had civilised much of such society. Humanity was totally abandoned by the Nazi’s and the most flagrant excesses of bestiality was brought to bear on an innocent Jewish Community fully fixed upon the idea of human beings acting humanely.

“..My father’s Parents were Raisel Krochmal and Moshe Krochmal. Claire Krochmal and Kivi Krochmal were his siblings. My parents were hidden underground in a vegetable cellar and my Mom was pregnant and lost a son. She used to send things but I do not know ..names of ..Mother and Daughter who hid them since I never could talk about it. My Parents said they would never set foot there again. My Dad owned an oil well and his Father worked in a bank. My Mom’s dad had a confectionary shop on a bridge. When they emerged ..Poles were very cruel.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

Much of Jewish Youth from Boryslaw, at least those that could do so, either sought to join the Russian forces, and against Hitler, or were simply persuaded to flee East toward inner Russia. The warning signs were compounding much of what Jewish existence had been attempting to come to terms with. With the almost immediate arrival of der Einsatzgruppe a week later into the City, these Hitlerite special murder squads, who would deal more methodically with the Jewish People, saw to the escalation of fear as it grew toward its more rampant and terrifying atrocity. The Germans had arrived back into Boryslaw June 30th. 1941 and at 8:00 pm, and on the morning of July 1st. 1941, the renewal of Hitler’s Final Solution for all the Jews here and for the rest of Europe, was fully engaged and put back into operation.

“..My father started thinking and planning for a hiding place immediately after ..move to ..ghetto. Based on my Father’s plan ..we dug a huge hole in ..yard and covered it with logs. We worked day and night until ..hole was covered and ..interior was also ready. ..Germans knew that almost every house had a hiding place.” Bezalel Linhard.

With the Russians retreating hurriedly, the NKVD blew up the power station in Boryslaw and even set alight to some of the oil wells, all of this in terms of what Stalin demanded would be a scorched Earth policy. Also, with the retreating Russian intelligence agents destroying any evidence of their former presence, they murdered 20 of the arrested local Ukrainian nationalist militia, These, who they had previously arrested and imprisoned led to a counter reaction which fell heavily upon the Jews once the Russians had departed. As the Jews were collectively blamed for this particular atrocity, the renewed excesses reminded Boryslaw’s Jews, they were given any due consideration. This led, on July 2nd. 1941 to 300 of Boryslaw’s Jews being murdered in the centre of City, and just behind the Butcher Shop in the businesses own Slaughterhouse.

“..Frida married a farmer whose name was Jagel. They were not as prosperous. They worked very hard on their farm where they had horses ..poultry ..and dogs. They had 2 Sons ..enlisted in ..Soviet Army in 1938. One of my Aunt Frida’s Sons fought with ..Soviet armies during ..war and therefore survived. My Aunt ..Frida ..her Husband ..and their other Son died in Belzec near ..end of 1942.” Marcus Markel.

Although this Slaughter was with German encouragement, it was not quite the connivance needed by the local populace to act with their intense and already heightened hatred toward their own Jewish Neighbours. The motive of profit was always at the heart of such an abiding hatred and sure enough, all over Poland, and not just here in Boryslaw, so called christian belief was torn asunder in order to steal, abuse and Murder the Jews of Poland. There were groups of non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians, and all the while the Germans looked on, as the actions of the NKVD saw the Jewish People of Boryslaw to clear out the murdered bodies of the 20 Ukrainian nationalists from the prison and along Panska Street, they are forced to wash them before burial. The Jews had to prepare these Ukrainian nationalists for their burial, and all the time they were being brutally beaten and even killed.

                            The Statue.

“..The earth almost shivers with loving engines

every living nerve of the earth breathes of oil

no, not breathes

listen clearly how it thunders

with lungs full of Carpathian air

eagerly-widening in pink

loudly pulsates rhythmic labor

through the sleepless rattling apparatus

cuts the day with a bell

in oil bathed marble

chisels your luminous statue.” Juliusz Wit.

Attempts by many Jews to build such hiding places that would secure, for some of these hugely intimidated Jews, a sanctuary, a bolt hole that might even save them, were already under construction. Not only were these hiding places secured in the local forest but also in the Ghetto, yet to become established, and in the middle of the City itself. As we read through those impassioned words, we recognise the name Juliusz Wit, a poet who will be well known to those of Boryslaw, and who was later murdered for being a Jew. The passage depicts the soul of Jewish Boryslaw before it was terminally removed and deposited in so many spaces unknown even to those who seek them out.

“..This camp was under ..jurisdiction of ..Drohobycz Gestapo and Hilderbrant came for inspections local police conducted inspections of ..primarily by officer Nemetz ..who also commanded ..Ukrainian police. In spite of lavished on them ..they always found irregularities and would punish and kill those parasites who could not work because of weakness and disease. We were led to and from work under guard and it was forbidden to leave We worked ..received no wages. On ..contrary ..there were those who paid private employers out of pocket to get work permits. We lived 5 to a room in crowded conditions ..but .. place was relatively clean and warm. ..letter R was attached to our chest that was supposed to protect us from being caught on ..streets and gave us a false sense of security. ..R was clearly designated for professionals ..but was often obtained through bribes.” Mates Heilig.

On July 5th. 1941, and satisfied with the excesses enacted upon the Jews by the locals, the Germans themselves drove through the streets of Boryslaw shooting wildly at Jews wounding and killing many of them. It must become obvious to those who choose to read of these excesses to know, Jews in Boryslaw were not as easily identifiable as might be suggested and reliance upon local knowledge from both non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians would point out who their Jewish neighbours were. Of course, the dead Jews are left where they fall are either mortally wounded or later buried in the Jewish Cemetery after being shot there. A week later, on July 12th. 43 Jews of the Intelligentsia are rounded up by the Ukrainian police and are tortured. 23 of these are then removed to the Bronica Forest, forced to dig their own graves and are shot into them.

“..It was decided to leave for ..surrounding forests. ..we sneaked from at night ..especially on ..night between Saturday and Sunday build ..bunker. ..Construction took about a month. When ..bunker was dug ..covered ..hidden ..camouflaged ..sleeping bunks ..stove ..pots ..heating materials ..water were installed. On an especially dark night we sneaked out of ..We led ..women to a bunker in ..woods where they were left alone under ..ground ..alone until April 1944. ..We had advance knowledge of ..future liquidation of ..A few days before ..we smuggled 9 more people to ..bunker ..among them a 13 year old orphan boy. And so 13 people began their lives underground a residence ..5 meters by 2.5 meters. supply came from thefts at night and goods purchased at inflated prices from a bribed Ukrainian peasant. ..A month before liberation our bunker was discovered. By Germans and Ukrainians with dogs.” Gustek Halpern.

The reprieve for the remaining captive Jews lasts until July 22nd. when the remaining 20 Jews are also Murdered in the Bronica Forest. On Friday July 25th., the Boryslaw Judenrate is created with Michael Herz as the Judenrate Chairman and Heinrich Engelberg and Herz Goldmann on the Committee. There are plans for a Ghetto, and these are to be sought from the most rundown parts of the City. Under Michael Herz, the Boryslaw Judenrate will be tasked with the matter of establishing the space for then Ghetto, provisioning for it and ensuring, from the headquarters he established in the former Hebrew school, compliance from a Nazi directive that would not allow any deviation. The Judenrate, given no choice but to confirm they had no choice, will seek to alleviate as much of or even any part of the Jewish suffering they can.

“..In ..long corridors of ..second floor people sold cakes that ..women had baked and couples were intimate ..even openly. People gambled for money.” Bezalel Linhard.

Eduard Goldmann is the liaison between the Judenrate and the German Security Police and the task has many of those same risks apportioned to the Judenrate itself. When Herz went into hiding September 1942, he was replaced by Heinrich Kahane. Gradually, all Jews are subjected to more and more restrictions, properties confiscated, businesses aryanised and plundered for all their worth. Those homes and premises, previously owned by Jews who had been Murdered already, were often left derelict. As Jews are forbidden to attend Cinema’s or Theatre and refused entry to all public buildings, the separation of Jews out of society is increased. Jews can no longer own Cars nor travel on Public Transport.

“..It was obvious ..Germans would kill all ..Jews. It was clear that first they would eliminate ..Women ..Children ..Older People ..then ..Young People’s and workers’ turn would come. There was no longer any doubt. So even though we did not know for sure where they took ..2 transports of Jews from ..2nd. and 3rd. Aktions ..Gentiles rumoured that ..Jews were deported for extermination. Having no choice ..we got used to such rumours and accepted ..fact that those who were gone would never return”. Mordechai Marakel.

The further confiscation of Jewish goods, furs, jewellery, radios and telephones, can no longer be owned by Jews as next in the Nazi sights are Jewish legal rights which are to be denied to them. Also, rationing was intensified for all Jews as non-Jewish locals moved quickly to capitalise on this with plundering what extra worth they could gain for a slice of bread. On August 1st. 1941 a local Jew by the name of Jonas is tasked with Heading the Jewish Order Police and on November 22nd. 1941 Michael Herz is ordered to inform the Judenrate that Boryslaw must round up 1,000 of its unemployed Jews. With these selected must be their Rebbe and other religious, others of their intelligentsia and those who are considered unfit for the Labour gangs.

“..What did our palace look like. ..entrance was an opening of about half square meter. Inside it was dark and ..smoke from ..stove stung our eyes. We were given 2 wet wooden bunks. It was wet and mouldy everywhere ..mud was ankle deep ..Children were crying. We would go out for a little while after dark.” Tamar Sokol-Diamont.

Word however, had reached Michael Herz of a reprisal action that had been conducted in Drohobycz, and the opinion of the Judenrate collectively is to not comply. This brings the might and terror of the Nazi officials onto Boryslaw’s streets and they immediately set about rounding up any Jew they see until they have gained their tally of those 1,000 Jews to be found. With their search, both relentless and ruthless, the shock of the assault makes future considerations of engaging in the Nazi list, a more tempered effort. The essential need to Survive was met by many who sought differing ways to do so, and as Boryslaw’s Youth grouped themselves and planned to cross the Romanian and Hungarian borders, while those Jews choosing to remain within the confines of Boryslaw, sought their own ways to remain somehow inconspicuous.

“..After 5 or 6 weeks in ..bunker we heard ..sound of a forester approaching. He wanted clothing. I told him I would get him new clothing. I brought him pants from ..bunker. He leaned his rifle on a tree. His legs became caught in ..pants as he was trying to pull them up. I jumped on him and started choking him of ..People from ..bunker finished ..job.” Arnold Distler.

Tragically, all too many of the Jews who sought routes out of the City and who sought the assistance of local smuggler’s, these Mountain tour guides, were either intercepted enroute and delivered back to the Nazi’s or were betrayed by their paid helpers. Many though, who sought out their own journey’s, ever fraught with danger, many were caught by local farmers, foresters or travelling sales people. They too were handed over to the Nazi’s and murdered. Many hid out in the Forests in flimsy dug outs, where they sought to secure some form of sanctuary for themselves and the Women and Children that had come along with them. Of course, food and water, the 2 most essentials to life and living were difficult if not impossible to come by and many conceded their way back to the seeming secure area of the City.

“..100 People were pushed into each freight car. Women ..Children ..crying ..SS were herding them in while screaming their commands. Those who were not fast enough were beaten with clubs and rifle butts. They were using dogs and many Jews were bitten. ..Ukrainian police especially excelled in this. was crowded. There was no place to sit on ..floor. Only 2 openings at of ..wrapped in barbed wire ..only source of clean air and ..only contact with ..outside world. We relieved ourselves through 2 holes in ..floor of Those that could not reach them relieved themselves where they were. Between ..Ukrainian police were keeping guard and would shoot towards us from time to time for no apparent reason ..perhaps to dissuade us from any thoughts of escape. They wounded numerous people. During ..nightly stops they passed by and gesturing to their throats they demonstrated our fate. They demanded watches and other valuables saying that we no longer had use for them.” Mates Heilig.

The very descriptive assault upon the Jews of Boryslaw as we revisit it here, sees a compelled Judenrate unwilling to comply, forced to reconsider its strategy as the excesses of the Nazi horde takes its revenge. With the taking of both the young, the able, the strong and the capable, a fait accompli strikes at the heart of each and every Judenrate, and its members throughout Poland. Does it give up its weakest, it most vulnerable in order to save the body of the Jewish People. Here, and while I am certain The Final Solution of the Jewish Question was unknown to any Jew, in all of its systematic demands of total destruction, the deliberate lack of choice was an intentioned one. The choice then to choose those who might yet survive the strictures of all that Hitler had thus thrown at the Jews, was a heavy consideration for far too many to have to bear.

“..Yehezkel Bartel second uncle ..married Hudla Zumer in 1940. When I was 16 ..I was present at their wedding. They did not have children. In October 1942 they too were sent from Boryslaw their deaths in Belzec. ” Marcus Markel.

The eventual destruction of these 1,000 and more of Boryslaw’s Jews, ferociously removed and transported to the Tustanowicea Forest, included Jews who might otherwise have been considered for Labour details and hence, a more possible opportunity for Survival. Mine is not the reason why but to understand that the calamity that struck deep at the Jewish People, within the tenets of The Final Solution was the choices they were not free to make but were allowed to make had no possibility of altering what was already predicated upon their death warrant already issued. Those choices the Jews did not have for Surviving Hitler’s intention for them all was till an unknown commodity, even as late as the Winter of 1942. From November 27th. till 29th. 1942 more and more Jews from Boryslaw were being Murdered in nearby forests.

“..Dozens of Jews were in ..forests. ..bunkers were dug by different groups. Individuals from ..bunkers would go to ..villages to buy food. Overall was very difficult and dangerous. Occasionally they were caught by ..Germans or ..local Gentiles would catch them and give them up. ..Germans would torture a captured Jew to force him to disclose’s hiding place and sometimes ..after severe torture ..person had to lead ..Germans to ..bunker.” Mordechai Marakel.

This period, under the careful watch of Schutzpolizei Gustav Wuepper, who was in charge of the 3 day aktionen, along with the systematic liquidation of 1,500 of Boryslaw’s Jews, mostly the elderly, the infirm and the ill were taken to the local forests. These had been ripped from the arms of all they had come to know and were Murdered by an Einsatz detachment or transported further afield to the Mraznica and Tustanowice Forests, near Truskavets, and are then Murdered in their previously dug graves. For those Jews who were still left behind in the City, and were meanwhile detained without adequate food or water, these Jews of Boryslaw also greatly suffered while awaiting the same or similar atrocity.

“..ripped from Mother’s arms we never saw each other again. ..Mother was murdered in a camp.” Sabina Haberman.

Here, and we only have to imagine what Sabina Haberman felt at the time, and then on throughout the life of her Survival, and though her Mother might have been one of these on this particular transport, or other transports that alighted within Belzec, and from where none of them Survived, Sabina doesn’t know which atrocity condemns her Mother. As these food and water shortages proved, with the consequences both ravaging and thus killing all too many of what was the disappearing reservoir of Jewish Boryslaw, there was nowhere else for the surviving Jews to go. During the severe Winter of 1941 and early part of 1942, and with a typhus epidemic threatening, with food shortages impacting heavily upon all Jewish existence, nothing would alleviate Jewish suffering despite Judenrate herculean efforts.

“..Near ..end of 1942 ..Miriam was sent with her Husband and their baby Daughter from Boryslaw to Belzec.” Marcus Markel.

Also, it is clear that this struggle for the Survival of the Jews of Boryslaw, precluded the early establishment of a Ghetto here and delayed its future containment purpose. However, with all too many Jews forced to live in overcrowded and worsening sanitary conditions, it was inevitable typhus would ravage many of the Jews incarcerated here and would see the Germans moving more swiftly to contain further the Jews of Boryslaw. By March, there are plans for the Nazi’s to complete the sweep of the area of Galicia and with that, the destruction of all of the Jewish community’s there, including Boryslaw would be resolved. By July 1942 there were more than 3,000 Jews who were engaged in Judenrate workshops and German Labour Bureau, the Arbeitsamte, within Boryslaw.

“..We were pretty deep in ..forest ..there was a hiding place ..another bunker that my Father started digging ..but construction was not yet completed. was still open at That was not long after we had escaped from ..first to ..second bunker where a farmer ..from whom my Father used to buy food ..betrayed us and other Jews who were hiding nearby. He came to our hiding place with ..Germans and ..local Ukrainian police with dogs.” Wanda Wincygster.

However, on August 6th. 1942 a newer aktionen is underway and in the early morning, as some 300 of Jews from the Wolanka section of the Ghetto are rounded up and removed to the Grazyna Cinema, they are held there. Many choose, having been warned of what had happened in Drohobycz that March, to head for the Forests or other near by hiding places. Also, and throughout the period of Nazi occupation, there were continuous raids on the Hospital and the Orphanage, all conducted with utter contempt for Patient or Child and the sheer brutality for the many shot Jews is echoing throughout history. Other’s, removed still in their hospital attire, or the Children still in their bed clothes were then removed to the Cinema to await resettlement transports.

“..One of my Aunt Frida’s sons fought with the Soviet armies during the war and therefore survived. My aunt, Frida, her husband, and their other son died in Belzec near the end of 1942.” Marcus Markel.

Later on that day, there were more raids and these were begun all over the City and many more Jews are captured and detained and also shot and killed as they stood or fled. Meanwhile, the Cinema is bulging at the seams and becomes far too small a structure to contain those Jews already confined there. As a temporary measure, other attached and many local buildings are used as detention centres for Boryslaw’s Jews and their long wait begins again for the transports still to come. For the ill, the infirm, those elderly considered unable to live, and even some the Jewish Children, these were systematically were Murdered. Those selected for this ‘Special Treatment’, were dispatched and Murdered behind the Butcher shop, again in its own Slaughterhouse.

“..We simply let them spend a few nights in tents at ..mountain. I’m sure that way ..little kids will be frozen to death. And we’ll use ..old ones as work animals.” SS Obersturmfuhrer Robert Gschwendtner.

This latest aktionen was led by SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Robert Gschwendtner, who was the representative of the Higher SS Leader in Galicia, SS Brigadefuhrer Fritz Katzmann’s, and was ably assisted in the Slaughter of innocent Jews by both SS Sturmbannfuhrer Richard Rokita and SS Second Lieutenant Gustav Willhaus. As they died in ever larger numbers here, their loss was keenly felt by all Jews whose Parents or Children that had been the selected few. Many of these though, calculated to have been surplus to Nazi transportation needs, these were not as clerically accounted for by their German administrator’s. However, that cannot be said for the transports despatched by Eichmann and on the morning of August 7th. 1942. the resettlement transport of the Boryslaw’s Jews begins.

“..Germans designated certain neighbourhoods to comprise a Ghetto. It included part of Lukaszwice Street and ..main bridge area ..entire Dobry neighbourhood. All Boryslaw Jews had to leave their homes and move to ..Ghetto. Ghetto was not enclosed by a wall or barbed wire fence. ..entire area was completely open on all sides ..with free entrance and exit. However ..Jews were not allowed to live outside ..Ghetto boundaries. So those Jews who were still alive after ..second Aktion began to flock to ..Ghetto try to claim an apartment. 2 or 3 families lived in one apartment entire family lived in a single room. Almost every night ..Germans would enter ..Ghetto to rob ..if there was still anything left to take. They would beat people to death ..shoot and kill them. ..situation was unbearable. Hard work during ..without reasonable work conditions ..without enough food ..during cold Winter weather ..and on top of this hope for survival.” Mordechai Marakel.

With 6,000 local Jews, 4,000 of them from Boryslaw, the other 2,000 from the environs and surrounding Shtetl and Villages of the City, they were destined toward Belzec. Two Ghetto are established within the City limits of Boryslaw, an unfenced area redefined but not in a restricted sense. These worst areas of Boryslaw, delineated around the areas of Dobry-Wysypy, Lukaszwice Street, Miskiewicza, Potok-Gorny and the Jewish quarter of Wolanka will see the comings and goings of not Jews Boryslaw’s Jews. Again, very little food is allowed into the Ghetto and severe water shortages are apparent as ever more Jews are allowed to starve till death. By this time Walek Eisenstein has taken charge of policing the area and is now Heading the Jewish Order Police.

“..After this Aktion we came to realize what was happening. After ..previous pogrom which some 800 people ..including my Mother ..were taken from their homes ..we still deluded ourselves that they were taken to a labor camp somewhere. It was hard to imagine ..murder of innocent people for no reason ..just because they were Jews. We wanted to believe they were alive. After ..Aktion in August ..we had no more illusions. It was hard to imagine that small children and ..elderly were taken away for work. News about ..existence of Death Camps started to reach us. ..victims of August were transported to Belzec.” Mates Heilig.

For an increasingly desperate few, escape to Hungary along with the building of newer bunkers would save less than 19% of Boryslaw’s Jews. There is a call for a further 1,900 Jews of Boryslaw to be transported to forced labour camps at Janowska and there was a killing aktionen with some 800 of their Jewish community being Murdered in the nearby Forest. We marvel today at the tales of the Forest hideaways, but we can never know the utter despair that filled empty spaces with concern amidst damp, cold, isolated caverns that had shunted out all former homely existence behind. We know too that while nearby aktionen was taking place, as many Jews were within earshot, and even saw these destructive efforts and it is to these that we acknowledge an ever abiding History’s debt for a great deal of what we now know.

“..And what you do is in ..past So strange how these things can be debatable. I think since you helped me identify Belzec I could then listen to my father’s testimony and then look into tree which has shown me that there was life and humanity before ..terrible black hole in my past.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

For the engineer M. Mergenholtz, who led a 20 strong resistance group, and Lonek Hofman was amongst them, the tools of that resistance were barely the hand tools and wooden clubs they owned. On October 13th. 1942, while there is an assessment that barely 5,000 Jews are still living in Boryslaw, all of them are either working in or are restricted to the confines of the Ghetto, life for these Jews is an unremitting horror. Yet again, on October 24th. 1942 a further 1,500 Jews of Boryslaw were transported to Belzec alongside 2,000 Jews brought in from Drohobycz and outlying districts and these also are resettled at Belzec. For this particular resettlement transport, which was stage managed and under the control of Helmut Braunlich.

“..After ..third Aktion ..ghetto’s area was reduced and ..population density became even greater. ..remaining people were mostly young Men and Women who had lost their families. ..war of survival started again.” Mordechai Marakel.

Both Ghettos were now closed leaving 1,750 Jewish workers redistributed to various Camps at Janowska and the Linowska Camp in Lvov and factory workshops and more than 1,750 Boryslaw Jews awaiting their fate. and then further on into November, with some of the remnants of Boryslaw’s Jews, these too were also removed to Belzec. Don’t ever doubt there is a clear absence of humanity about, and that Belzec sits astride a pyramid of such hatred, such was this sinister place, all humanity evaporated toward the so many Jewish People who entered there.

Here, and filled with the atrocity which saw 884,700 Jews of Poland and other Country’s within Europe, Murdered as a consequence of their birth right, few places hold such an air of abject horror. I was asked many times along the route toward Belzec, a small space of such significance, we cannot truly measure the immensity of the crimes here. Of course, the entire discourse of the work involved in that 4th. Book, as to what was I going to name it gave me concerns and after visiting Belzec, I knew Belzec has to add to the consequences of railing against The Holocaust atrocity. Listening to the many non-Jewish Poles of today, signalling their discomfort with the fact of the truth of its existence, I then knew its meaning and subsequent title. The very fact that all 6 Death Camps were placed in Poland, for The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, is a clearly obvious fact as Poland was the largest Jewish Community anywhere in Europe. These facts could not suggest another title so when asked why I chose to name it Hitler’s Belzec, it was simple for me to answer, it was a Hitler construct called Belzec.

“..Germans rounded up Jews in ..Coliseum movie theatre for 3 days and then trucked ..victims to the slaughterhouse. There they were shot and buried in pits that had been pre-readied. It was ..first time the Germans killed Jews without moving them to another location. They no longer bothered hiding their true intentions” Abraham Hauptman.

On Oct 23rd. 1942 a further 1,500 of Boryslaw’s Jews are resettled to Belzec and on November 6th. 1942 2,000 more of Boryslaw’s Jews follow them there. Some Jews of Boryslaw are sent to Janowska for forced labour and from amongst those workers still left, who are being detained in the Coliseum Cinema, their Wives and Children are being rounded up. On November 29th. 1942 100’s of Boryslaw’s Jews, having spent the last 3 to 4 weeks in the Coliseum Cinema, with conditions deteriorating by the minute, conditions that are considered so bad, even the German Commissioner for the City demands their resettlement. During the coming month 300 of these Jews of Boryslaw are Murdered in the Butcher’s own Slaughterhouse.`

“..In ..Spring ..1943 ..tides of ..war on ..Eastern Front turned against ..Germans. In spite of ..relative calm was decided after many discussions that we could no longer sit back. ..Germans would not allow us to meet ..approaching Russians. They would liquidate and its inhabitants at any time they saw fit or we would be sent westward. We needed to start thinking of ways to escape. People considered hiding with ..Gentiles ..fleeing ..using false Aryan papers ..or building shelters ..bunkers ..surrounding forests. We rejected ..option of hiding among Gentiles due to both lack of confidence and lack of money. We knew of cases where Gentiles took money and property from Jews in exchange for shelter and then handed them over to ..Nazis. ..truth is that hiding Jews was extremely risky and punishable by death. Travel to western Poland with forged documents was dangerous too. So ..option of building a shelter in ..woods was that many of us chose ..even though it involved a great risk ..given ..hostility of ..locals. Most foresters were Ukrainians. They would kill those they encountered and steal their remaining property ..or give them up to ..Germans.” Mates Heilig.

At the beginning of 1943 there were barely 1,200 Jews of Boryslaw left in the City and between February 16th. and 17th. 1943 a further 600 Jews are taken away, this time from the Ceramic Works. Along with some 400 other Boryslaw Jews also rounded up, they are murdered in the Slaughterhouse at the back of the Butchers Shop. Elsewhere, the Death Camp system of 6 factories, solely built for the annihilation of the Jewish People, and Belzec is one of those included, this was the very genesis, though not the deadly model of the mechanised slaughter of the Jewish People in The Final Solution of the Jewish Question. These Death Camps, which had fully emerged prior to 1942, are the all encompassing death toll for some 4,000,000 Jews, and of course other.

“..Rosa was saved by hiding in where she worked. Later she was in a Concentration Camp and in April ..1944 was sent with ..other camp residents to Auschwitz. ..she was not sent straight to ..incinerators. She worked as a clerk because of her considerable knowledge of German and English ..became ill with tuberculosis and was put into a temporary hospital where she waited to be sent to ..incinerators. Fortunately ..Auschwitz was liberated by ..Russian Army ..January ..1945 ..her life ..saved.” Marcus Markel.

As the systematic nature of The Holocaust is being deciphered, it is essential that we recognise that these Death Camps all belonged to Hitler, erected as a consequence of his demands for the destruction of the Jews and, within Poland, as a consequence of there being 3,650,000 Polish Jews in Poland. By deed of word, and by enactment of those carefully framed words of Hitler’s all consuming hatred for the Jewish People, Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, along with Hitler, all clung together in so as to amass the greatest industrial killing of humanity in all of World History. In view of his vile hatred and the Death Camp’s location, annihilation was a certainty for all Jews sent there, as none were meant to Survive.

“..Dozens of Jews were in ..forests. ..bunkers ..dug by different groups. Individuals from ..bunkers would go to ..villages to buy food. Overall was very difficult and dangerous. Occasionally they were caught by ..Germans or ..local Gentiles would catch them and give them up. ..Germans would torture a captured Jew to force him to disclose’s hiding place and sometimes ..after severe torture ..person had to lead ..Germans to ..bunker.” Mordechai Marakel.

Of course, the fact that 3,650,000 Jews were residents of Poland might help to dislodge the myth that Hitler had not considered their establishment here or even that he himself had no hand in The Holocaust. When we consider this logically, carefully and objectively, we recognise of course his every fingerprint was written upon the very pages of this insult to our own humanity. The very dislodgement of humanity from civilisations very foundation is a deep despair and consequence of the abandonment of the Jews of Europe. Indeed, the act of defilement that is encompassed in the title of The Holocaust alone is an insight into the very intrinsic detail of Hitler’s profanity and lust for revenge and a vengeance toward all of Humanity.

“..poor ..who had nothing to barter ..suffered ..most and were dying of starvation. They wandered ..City streets hungry and no one came to their aid. Many died in ..streets. ..Judenrate cart collected ..bodies and buried them in Jewish cemetery in unmarked graves.” Daniel Hochman.

All of this hatred which Hitler spewed forth all too often and in multiple outpourings on platforms afforded him, saw in his overriding hatred that was clearly directed, specifically augmented and legislated for and against the Jewish People. The very acts of terror enacted by those who acted upon these words and gestures matched the bile of rhetoric Hitler proposed should be the horror which Hitler so proudly and loudly expressed. Of course, and in keeping with Hitler’s non-stop drive for Jewish extinction, we see that on November 29th. 1942 some 3,500 more of Boryslaw’s Jews are transported to Belzec and are murdered there. All such Death Camps were now fully operational and the grinding and relentless destruction of European Jews pounded Jewish existence into dust.

“..Due to lack of food ..filth and contaminated water ..a typhoid epidemic broke out and claimed many Jewish lives. Every day many people died of starvation in ..streets. Because of lack of food ..their faces and feet swelled and they dragged themselves until they would fall dead on ..pavement. Those were horrible sights. People screamed ..cried ..and sometimes erupted in a ghoulish laugh. At those days each person could think only about how to survive.” Mordechai Marakel.

Now, and for the remaining Jews of Boryslaw, all became crystal clear to any of those Jews who still believed in the goodness in mankind and who now sought to see. Perhaps, what they could not fathom nor believe, but what had opened itself up to their fuller recognition, and that this was a deliberate plan of annihilation of all Jews. All throughout February 1943 with those Jews of the City who were Murdered, there was a recognition that all party’s were invited to the atrocity. This was Murder of those 1,000 Jews of Boryslaw and districts was in an aktionen conducted by German Police, SD units and a contingent of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. Little more evidence was necessary of any crimes, their identity as Jews was a genocidal warrant.

“..Jews in ..Coliseum Cinema were later marched to ..Drohobycz forests and killed there. This was ..end of ..Ghetto. 800 Men and 200 Women remained in camp.” Marcus Markel.

The full remit of Hitler’s Final Solution had landed at the doors of all of the Jews of Europe, and here too in Boryslaw it was meted out in particularly brutal fashion. There were further major roundups of those remaining Jews who could be found and between May 25th. and June 2nd. 1943, those still remaining within City limits were shot, their bodies displayed across the Streets. Other’s were removed to the Forest and Murdered there. Those still remaining, the more skilled workers were reprieved temporarily and these 1,000 Jews were detained in the City’s work camp. This signals the coming dissolution of Boryslaw as a Ghetto and its Jewry, is further ransacked from life, the facts of which are that those Murdered in situ were some 700 Sick and Elderly Jews.

“..Since August 1943 about 20 people hid near ..Village of Smilna in a hut dug in ..Carpathian forests. They were people of all ages ..but no children ..both women and men from various backgrounds. They managed to organize in a way allowing a basic ..minimal existence in terms of food supply and distribution of practical social functions ..hoping to reach ..moment of liberation by ..Red Army. ..critical problem was getting food. Travel by foot was hard for people carrying 30-35 kilograms of supplies through ..mountains ..hills ..forests ..fields ..dark ..rain and sometimes in deep snow. Sudden blizzards occurred in ..Carpathians and there were cases where people lost their way and froze to death.” Abraham Hauptman.

Though some of the younger ones were also selected for destruction, including some 170 Women and Children, all of these are shot in the Bronica Forest. This aktionen took place on June 12th. 1943. With the final liquidation of the Boryslaw Ghetto, which began on June 24th. 1943, and was accomplished by July 1943, more than 18,000 Jews of Boryslaw had been Murdered. Yet, and for those still remaining, these Jews of Boryslaw were transported to the camps of Auschwitz, Majdanek, Mauthausen and Plaszow. As September 1943 drew in, the special status worker badge, ‘R’ does not safeguard Boryslaw’s Jews for ever and 800 are still Murdered in the Bronica Forest.

“..My grandmother’s second Sister Zila lived in Przemysl with her Husband and their 5 children. They all were killed in Sobibor. My grandmother Berta was driven in November 1943 to Bronica Forest where she was shot with other Jews.” Marcus Markel.

From those few remaining worker Jews, some attempt to escape and are caught by waiting non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians who savagely beat them and collect their reward. Then, on March 24th. 1944 the local labour camp in Boryslaw is being liquidated and newer Resistance plays its hand from amongst these Jews. Lonek Hofman attempts to group together a forestry detail and after shooting a Ukrainian forester, a local militia is formed and along with the Nazi’s, they comb the forests and capture many of the Jews who sought to flee, amongst them, Lenek Hofman. All are shot. However, for the last remaining Jews of Boryslaw, 522 of these were taken to Plaszow Camp where some of them found their way to Birkenau for destruction.

“..2 homeless orphans ..without a Mother or Father ..wandering inside ..ghetto that was no more. We hid at ..sight of anything or anybody ..scared by our own shadow. What if some ..identifies us and points saying ..Here are some dirty Jews. We would be doomed.” Tamar Sokol-Diamont.

Any Jews of Boryslaw, along with many other Polish Jews still remaining in Plaszow, will be steadily moved westward to avoid the Russian capture of Hitler’s evident bestial truth. Meanwhile, The Final Solution of the Jewish Question in Boryslaw, and its environs, was being brought to its Judenfrei climax and is fully in evidence from April 1944. On May 23rd. 1944 any fit Jews from Boryslaw, still able to work, these are taken to the Railway Station for transport to the Death Camp at Majdanek. Those unable to work are locked in the Coliseum Cinema, a transit camp between death in the Butcher’s own Slaughterhouse or the Forests were they were murdered. The Jewish Order Police are ordered to then bury their Community’s bodies in the Forest and they too are shot into the graves.

“..I continued to work at ..warehouse. On one of his periodic visits patron ..Siegismund ..took me aside for a long talk. He told me that he and his family were being transferred to Lvov. He suggested that I join his family in order to stay alive and told me that ..Jews of Boryslaw had no hope of survival. I was shocked to hear these words. I was 18. I told him that I had Parents and felt responsible for them.” Marcus Markel.

On July 21st. 1944, assisted by many local groups, including the nationalist Banderists, further sweeps of the areas around the City are made in a search for any Jews who had thus far escaped the roundups. Weeks away from liberation, many of these captured Jews were Murdered and by sheer luck, with an approaching Russian liberation force, some of Boryslaw’s Jews Survived. The Russians arrived on August 7th. 1944, and with some 200 Jews of Boryslaw emerging from bunkers within the City and forests and a further 200 or so returning from mostly Russia and even some Jews returning from Hitler’s Concentration Camps, some still saw hope in establishing their former lives. In all respects though, the Jewish community of Boryslaw had ceased to exist. Here, were as many as 1,000 Jews who Survived, though all too many were forced out of their former homes and businesses by non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians.

“..Germans moved ..remaining few Jews into a forced labor camp in Mraznica. In ..past ..Koszary was a place of tenements and stables owned by ..Silvaplana oil company.” Mates Heilig.

Of these Survivors, it should be remembered, and in more than 2 periods of threat against the Jews in the area, the industrialist Berthold Beitz saved more than 250 Jews. These were from the August 1942 roundup for Belzec and 150 from the October 1942 transport to Belzec. He also managed to save Mother’s and Their Children from the killing operation in the City in August 1942. Both he and his Wife Else are recognised as Righteous Amongst the Nations. For those whose remembrance is abruptly challenged to memory, for the descendants of Mark Krochmal and Arlene Krochmal whose entire Families were murdered, we make a choice to add to their memory, so that they are never forgotten and are always remembered in some way.

“..In 3 things a man is known ..his true nature ..revealed 1 his cups or when drunk 2 anger or ..loses his temper 3 his spends ..or donates money.” Talmud.

For all too many of these Jews, murdered within reach of their own homes or who were forcibly transported out and then perished in the system of Camps designed to hold them, we choose to Remember them. For those worked to death, or indeed those in the Death Camp’s like Belzec, many of their names are unknown and may never be resurrected in forgotten memories. Their memory has always been important to me, so as to ensure that in stating what I consider is my search, I do not omit one single name that might become presented to us. Tragically, there are far too many of those Jews who otherwise might be lost to us, their names never to be mentioned in the history they too belong to.

“..When ..war ended my Parents and Family members emerged. People had taken everything and wouldn’t give anything back. They joined an underground.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

In my recent Book: Hitler’s Belzec, Boryslaw featured heavily and knowing that I only found the traces of 14,500 Jews from Boryslaw who were annihilated within Belzec, is a sadness. In the grand scheme of The Holocaust, it is just as important to know, from these 14,500 Jews of Boryslaw’s 20,500 Jews, that I have recorded the names of but 6 of them within the pages of Hitler’s Belzec. We know that these 6, who did Not manage to Survive Hitler’s full intention for them, are here at Belzec, while so many more are lost even in knowing they are in one of his other Death Camps.

I) Mindl Abel, Boryslaw,

II) Sheva Avraham, Boryslaw,

III) Roza Glazer, Boryslaw,

IV) Milka Szor, Boryslaw,

V) Ecia Weissbaer, Boryslaw and

VI) Ryfka Weissbaer, Boryslaw.

Amongst these also, are those Jews of Boryslaw who are known to have been Murdered, amidst a combination of Einsatz Aktionen and pogrom’s conducted by non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians. For those Jews, who had shone a light on Boryslaw, its diversity, it Educational Standard and Athleticism and Culture, we recognise what they have been deprived of. For us, and in order to ensure the future gains that are to be made from the knowledge they have afforded us, we stretch whatever memory we can gain to bring them forward. For a far greater number of Boryslaw’s Jews, and who died as a consequence of the brutality inflicted upon them, there are as many as 19,500 and more of Boryslaw’s Jews that did Not Survive.

“..I don’t know if you would be interested in listening to my Dad’s Testimony. My Son posted it on Facebook a few months ago and it was ..first time I could look at it. I drove my parents to do it but I couldn’t listen. Way too painful. Now with some of my own healing I was able to. He died in 1996. Sounds crazy right that I couldn’t look. I was their only Child born to them when they were 37 and never thought it could possibly happen. They lost a Son not fully born in hiding.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

Tied into this figure is an uncertainty as to whether some Jews are from outside the area, who are included and there are those not included that should be. Also, and with the emerging figures for the births to those Jews who are lost to us during the period, this too is a catastrophe which further obscures the true assessment necessary to be honouring the totality of those Jews Murdered. In effect, Boryslaw has an open vista as to what happened to practically all its Jewish Citizens, and though all too many of the names are hidden from view, there is no secret here as to what was clearly accomplished and by all of those who sought out these Jews for Murder, Annihilation, Destruction, a forgotten mass of individual Jewish People Slaughtered.

“..In ..meanwhile people died everyday of starvation and disease.” Joseph Kitai. Both in massive killing operations, along with starvation and disease in the Ghetto, these Jews of Boryslaw were left to expire or forced to die in open air pits and in Death Camps or Concentration and slave labour Camps. Many were led away by transportation to both Belzec and Birkenau for their immediate annihilation or toward Auschwitz, Mauthausen and Plaszow for debilitating death by slave labour. It is true that many of these Jews chose to die in place of safety, responsible to Child or to Parent, an obligation borne out of Love, Respect and Human Decency. We are made aware, and by those who know and knew their story that both Fanka Bleiberg and Ruchka Gartenhaus were Sister’s, both were Murdered behind the Butcher’s shop and that Malka Chill and her Husband Mordechai Chill were Murdered in their own home.

“..When I watched my Father’s testimony I was so amazed at how he could talk without breaking down each moment. It was very important to him that ..World learns from remembering that it should never happen again..” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

Tema Chill, who was Malka Chill’s Sister was also Murdered along with her 5 year old Son. Dr. Michal Friedlaender, Marek Rattner, Bruno Schulz were Murdered in 1942. Baruch Wahl was Murdered in an Einsatz Aktionen and Juliusz Wit was Murdered by the Ukrainians acting for the German. Josek Wolanski and his Father were Murdered around the July 1944 purges and his Mother was Gassed in Belzec. Maciek Zwilich too was to add to the shame of loss ordained and commissioned by Hitler and carried out by legions of human beings who left all of their humanity behind them. Individually, these Jews of Boryslaw, who represent but a tiny microcosm of all that The Holocaust means for 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews of Europe, is none the less pivotal to understanding the entire horror as we approach it.

“..My mother Lea Markel managed to survive Auschwitz. She died in Haifa in 1992 at .age of 90. She had Grandchildren and Great- Grandchildren and lived her last years in a good way..” Marcus Markel.

There is the case of Dinka Rapp, who for reasons of her own respect for herself and for what her life had meaning to afford, and while she attracted the intention of the supposed german elite, she too could have saved herself momentarily. Such was the attention that surrounded Dinka, for such was her beauty, that if she had agreed to sleep with a German officer, she might have been saved for the while. But such is the perversity of the images thrown up in The Holocaust that these glimpses are both transitory and elusive and almost illusionary to those of us searching through the debris of their existence. Mindful too that the attention which so many like Dinak attracted, was against the aryan principle called Rassenschande, in which they disgraced the corrupted ideal of racial purity.

“..Thank you. ..I know how hard you have worked to document ..lives of those murdered. My childhood was not really a childhood and I grew up with so much pain and love. Now I can see ..dark hole filled with names and a life that existed before. My Parents were so badly scarred. Even those who Survived were hurt beyond belief.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

For Dinka, as she spat in face of the would be defiler who then Murdered her, there must have arose within her a satisfaction that all resistance belongs to those who do not comply. For Hertz Schaller and Betka Held, both having already Survived, it is a further tragedy that for Betka, who had escaped to Kazakhstan, and who chose to return, she was Murdered in Boryslaw, on December 3rd. 1945. Here, and this is but a few pages I deliver on the torment for the Jews of Boryslaw, and for those still left behind to try and accumulate as much evidence of those who remain hidden beneath the deadly detail that is The Holocaust, there will be no final settlement with that bloodied past. There are in fact 9,275 Names of those Jews of Boryslaw who were Murdered in The Holocaust and while these represent 42% of those former Jewish lives extinguished, those that are recorded at:

offer those who Survived, a glimpse of what we choose to share and to know and to come to terms with. But such is the extensive search to know essentially, who is lost to us, far too many names are gone, missing, forever failed by an inadequate memory that will not give up its hidden detail to any of us.

“..Growing up I tried to avoid talking about it since it was so all encompassing and thought with ..death of my Parents I could finally put it to rest. It still stayed with me and ..pain as a giant black hole like a wound remained. There was no past beside it. Finally now I can face ..brutality and acknowledge that this did happen to my family.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

None of these Jews are left in Jewish Boryslaw.

Balka Abraham, Shewa Abraham, Klara Ajzensztajn, Leon Ajzensztajn and Tina Ajzensztejn.

Berta Berger, Bianca Berger, Chaim Berger, Czarna Berger, Gusta Berger, Joachim Berger, Hilde Berger, Hinda Berger, Laura Berger, Lea Berger, Lola Berger, Margalit Berger, Ozjasz Berger, Pinkas Berger, Zeev Berger, Lota Bergstein, Klara Birman, Abe Bleiberg,Artur Bleiberg, Ida Bleiberg, Eitel Bleiberg, Ester Bleiberg, Fania Bleiberg, Fanka Bleiberg, Golda Bleiberg, Jacob Bleiberg, Janek Bleiberg, Jeshozua Bleiberg, Joachim Bleiberg, Lea Bleiberg, Leo Arie Bleiberg, Minna Bleiberg, Moshe Bleiberg, Rachel Bleiberg, Rosa Bleiberg, Sender Bleiberg, Zvi Bleiberg, Dawid Bokser, Isaac Bokser, Izak Bokser, Isio Bokser, Josef Bokser, Lea Bokser, Leon Bokser, Moshe Bokser, Selig Bokser, Tema Bokser, Temi Bokser and Chana Brodfeld.

Amalja Malka Chill, Avraham Chill, Baruch Chill, Kivi Chill, Kiwno Chill, Mordechai Chill, Saul Chill, Tema Chill and Her Son.

Arnold Distler, Chana Distler, Clara Distler, Izhak Distler, Jacob Distler, Joseph Distler and Rosa Dornfeld.

Dawid Egid, Herman Egid, Max Egid, Yona Egid, Antonina Egit, Ducek Egit, Ignatz Egit, Leon Egit, Matatyahu Egit, Mordekhai Egit, Moshe Egit, Sheindl Egit, Tzila Egit, Cipe Eisenberg, Hela Eisenberg, Helena Eisenberg, Hinda Eisenberg, Sheina Egit, Toni Eisenberg, Yehoshua Eisenberg, Adolf Eisenstein, Aron Eisenstein, Baruch Eisenstein, Berko Eisenstein, Bernhard Eisenstein, Bubek Eisenstein, Cesia Eisenstein, Chaim Eisenstein, Chaja Eisenstein, Chana Eisenstein, Estera Eisenstein, Frederyk Eisenstein, Hersh Eisenstein, Hinda Eisenstein, Imek Eisenstein, Izrael Eisenstein, Jakub Eisenstein, Joachim Eisenstein, Leon Eisenstein, Leontyna Eisenstein, Maurycy Eisenstein, Mina Eisenstein, Miriam Eisenstein, Mordekhai Eisenstein, Moritz Eisenstein, Moshe Eisenstein, Nachum Eisenstein, Ozjas Eisenstein, Pepka Eisenstein, Rosa Eisenstein, Salomon Eisenstein, Shmariahu Eisenstein, Tonia Eisenstein, Tonka Eisenstein, Umek Eisenstein, Walek Eisenstein, Froim Eizenberg, Emilie Engelberg, Heinrich Engelberg, Henryk Engelberg, Maria Engelberg, Roman Engelberg and Romek Engelberg.

Henrik Feferbaum, Losia Feferbaum, Samuel Fridlaender, Elimilekh Fridlender, Joseph Fridlender, Khana Fridlender, Moshe Fridlender, Rakhel Fridlender, Rut Fridlender, Sarah Fridlender, Shmuel Fridlender, Tzila Fridlender, Yekhezkel Fridlender, Ada Gingold-Friedlender, Adela Friedlander, Arie Friedlander, Chana Friedlander, Cifka Friedlander, Ciwia Friedlander, Emanuel Friedlander, Freida Friedlander, Henka Friedlander, Hesia Friedlander, Khala Friedlander, Leo Friedlander, Marjem Rachel Friedlander, Matilde Friedlander, Dr. Michal Friedlander, Moritz Friedlander, Moses Friedlander, Rachel Friedlander, Rozia Friedlander, Sabina Friedlander, Salka Friedlander, Shmuel Friedlander, Smilek Friedlander, Tilda Friedlander, Tonia Friedlander and Tzirel Friedlander.

Salamer Galpern, Berta Garber, Chune Garber, Lwewer Garber, Malka Garber, Mania Garber, Sabina Garber, Bernard Gartenhaus, Dora Gartenhaus, Duvko Gartenhaus, Rachela Gartenhaus, Ruschka Gartenhaus, Sarah Gartenhaus, Shoshana Gartenhaus, Yakob Gartenhaus, Hersh Gintzburg, Yeta Gintzburg, Chaim Ginzburg, Ema Ginzburg, Genia Ginzburg, Gitel Ginzburg, Herman Ginzburg, Klara Ginzburg, Mates Ginzburg, Miriam Ginzburg, Mordekhai Ginzburg, Mundzo Ginzburg, Natan Ginzburg, Rut Ginzburg, Sara Ginzburg, Schifra Ginzburg, Adela Goldman, Avraham Goldman, Berta Goldman, Blanka Goldman, Edward Goldman, Ignatz Goldman, Lipa Goldman, Mair Goldman, Mande Goldman, Menache Goldman, Mordechai Goldman, Mosze Goldman, Seder Goldman, Serca Goldman, Szlomo Goldman, Szmuel Goldman, Tuncia Goldman, Wolf Goldman, Yakow Goldman, Antonina Goldmann, Edouard Goldmann, Herz Goldmann, Chaim Graber, Dawid Graber, Ema Graber, Ester Graber, Minia Graber, Mechel Grabow, Bernard Greber, Cadok Greber, Chaim Greber, David Greber, Ejdel Greber, Golda Greber, Hendryk Greber, Herman Greber, Kivi Chill Greber, Leon Greber, Marie Greber, Mina Greber, Moses Greber, Regina Greber, Rosa Greber, Wolf Greber and Yoel Greber.

Fischel Haberman, Frida Haberman, Gitel Haberman, Henrik Haberman, Hirtzel Haberman, Jesek Haberman, Joseph Haberman, Jurek Haberman, Leon Haberman, Osias Haberman, Sala Haberman, Yehoshua Haberman, Yosef Haberman, Abraham Halpern, Adela Halpern, Berisch Halpern, Chana Halpern, Estela Halpern, Faivel Halbern, Faiwell Halpern, Feiga Halpern, Herzel Halpern, Isser Halpern, Jakob Halpern, Jakow Halpern, Joseph Halpern, Leon Halpern, Markus Halpern, Mina Halpern, Moshe Halpern, Nechemje Halpern, Pepa Halpern, Ratzi Halpern, Regina Halpern, Salka Halpern, Sarah Halpern, Sheindel Halpern, Shlomo Halpern, Wilhelm Halpern, Yosef Halpern, Zosia Halpern, Pnina Hauptman, Ana Heilig, Eliahu Heilig, Hana Heilig, Heinrich Heilig, Lea Heilig, Lola Heilig, Mates Heilig, Matilda Heilig, Rebeka Heilig, Arieh Held, Betka Held, Mosze Held, Natan Held, Rebeka Held, Regina Held, Rivka Held, Michael Herz, Alter Hircz, Mala Hircz, Sonia Hircz, Julius Hirsch, Avraham Hochman, Daniel Hochman, Icchak Hochman, Genia Lanz-Hochman, Ester Hochman, Hana Hochman, Herman Hochman, Sara Hochman, Hela Hofman, Leon Hofman, Leonid Hofman, Lonek Hofman, Luna Hofman, Pesza Hofman, Berl Hokhman, Dov Hokhman, Khala Hokhman, Rela Horowic, Khana Chana Horowitz and Simon Horowitz.

Arnol Jaeger, Bronek Jaeger, Hana Jaeger, Manes Jaeger, Marie Jaeger, Michael Jaeger, Mozesz Jaeger and Rosza Jaeger.

Heinrich Kahane, Abraham Koch, Antonina Koch, Dawid Koch, Jchak Koch, Leon Koch, Pepa Koch, Salomon Koch, Dawid Kreisberg, Ilona Kreisberg, Leiser Kreisberg, Max Kreisberg, Sara Kreisberg, Szymon Kreisberg, Volf Kreisberg, Bronia Krochmal, Bubah Krochmal, Bubek Baruch Krochmal, Clara Kiara Khaia Krochmal, Felicjan Krochmal, Fridrich Krochmal, Gizela Krochmal, Henka Krochmal, Jakub Krochmal, Jetti Doncia Krochmal, Josef Krochmal, Juda Krochmal, Kalmen Krochmal, Kivi Krochmal, Kuba Krochmal, Lorka Krochmal, Marcus Mordekhai Krochmal, Max Krochmal, Mendel Krochmal, Moshe Moses Krochmal, Rachela Krochmal, Raisel Reizele Krochmal, Rut Krochmal, Ruth Krochmal, Roza Krochmal, Saly Krochmal, Szoszana Krochmal, Tzvi Krochmal, Yehuda Krochmal and Yehudit Krochmal.

Chewka Lerner, Adela Linhard, Basia Linhard, Busia Linhard, Emanuel Kinhard, Gitl Linhard, Henia Linhard, Herman Linhard, Ignacy Linhard, Jacob Linhard, Khana Linhard, Lea Linhard, Lusia Linhard, Maurycy Linhard, Roitzl Linhard, Tuvia Linhard, Udel Linhard, Yitzkhak Linhard, Jechiel Linhart, Chana Linherd, Michel Linherd, Motl Linherd and Szlomo Linherd.

Jehezkel Markel, Shamal Markel, Zalman Markel, Fania Markiel, Moses Markiel, Szanka Markiel, Golda Maryl, Rachel Mendelsohn and Klara Montag.

Shamo Okerman.

Hela Parnes, Ignacy Parnes, Izak Parnes, Izio Parnes, Raphael Parnes, Yaakov Parnes, Manes Pferferbaum and Golda Polak.

Aron Rand, Bernhardt Rand, Israel Rand, Melekh Rand, Mendel Rand, Shaul Rand, Shimek Rand, Yaakov Rand, Dina Rapp, Dinka Rapp, Elazar Rapp, Jacob Rapp, Mathild Rapp, Reizl Rapp, Gitel Ratner, Marek Ratner, Mikhael Ratner, Abraham Rattner, Chaim Rattner, Gitla Rattner, Rywa Rattner, Tzila Rosenbaum, Regina Rosenman and Pinia Rothstein.

Aleksander Schaller, Antonina Schaller, Chewe Schaller, Golda Schaller, Hertz Schaller, Leon Schaller, Lusia Schaller, Marcus Schaller, Mordechai Schaller, Sara Schaller, Taube Schaller, Zdzislaw Schaller, Zishe Schaller, Lea Sheindl, Leib Scheler, Bruno Schulz, Miriam Schwarz, Leon Shorr, Miriam Shorr and Daughter, Dora Slowik, Cyla Spindler, Adassa Sterbach, Regina Steuerman and Chaja Szwimer.

Shlomo Wagman, Baruch Wahl, Hesio Wechselberg, Izio Wegner, Josek Wolanski and Mother and Father.

Hudla Zumer, Aleksander Zwilich, Celina Zwilich, Hanka Zwilich, Maciek Zwilich and Rosalie Greber, Regina Greber, Rosa Greber, Wolf Greber and Yoel Greber.

Why Does Poland not accept any Responsibility in The Holocaust

Uncategorised Posted on Tue, July 07, 2020 21:09:15

{#February 29th. 1936 cardinal Hlond, primate of Poland issues a pastoral letter calling for discriminatory measures against the Jewish People. This incites a series of coordinated assaults on Jews in Poland.}

My responses to those numbered by jeffrey will be annotated {#01 – #15} and captions I present will be {#between}

There are 6,992 non-Jewish Poles who are Righteous Amongst the Nations so it is difficult dealing with those who deal in obfuscation. For my part. Nowhere have I ever stated that all non-Jewish Poles are guilty. What I have said, in line with the factual truth, and there is a deficit in moral probity, which you are lacking, and it is that not all non-Jewish poles are innocent. I undertook my visits to centres which seek to promote such education, as many Polish Survivor Jews were adamant they could never return to Poland as they were betrayed. I have found Poland willing to tackle what Poland needs to, which is the forms of distortion you are presenting over my words. I, as an Historian am willing to qualify all I have said, and have every proof I have ever uttered to back it up. You, on the other hand. Can never suggest you have been other than slanted in your view and absent in its presentation. I have sought the Truth for myself. If there is any untruths in any of the words of any one of my Books, I have not done my research.

The whole point to my effort, 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews of Europe, 3,000,000 of whom are Polish Jews. That fact alone should compel Poland to correct the grave wrong in legislating against History. The distortion of any part of that truth will corrupt every part of Polish History. I have no bias here, merely a sought after truth, the facts of which contain the veracity I deliver. That truth ensures that while not all victims in WWII were Jews, All Jews in The Holocaust are the 6,000,000. I also hold with the fact that not all non-Jewish Poles are guilty, but neither are All non-Jewish Poles innocent. [#March 3rd. 1937. Polish government seeks to revoke Citizenship of Polish Jews in Germany.} Herein lies the lack of truth that is being presented on a site called Polish – Jewish Dialogue Committee and I detail the communication I have been engaged in with one Jeffrey Cymbler.

{#June 16th. 1937 “..No place for Jews in Poland.” General Lucjan Zieligowski.}

Patrick Dempsey wrote the following comment:

“..3,000,000 Polish Jews were Murdered. What did Poland do to stop this!”

I tried to respond to Patrick but my response was too long to post. So I am posting it now here. Delighted to have anyone comment upon or add items to this list:

Patrick, as an historian, I am certain that you know that “Poland” ceased to exist when in September, 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union invaded and conquered Poland. The Polish government was exiled. The government-in-exile was based in France during 1939 and 1940, first in Paris and then in Angers. From 1940, following the Fall of France, the government moved to London, and remained in the United Kingdom until its dissolution in 1990.

{YES. I know all of that!}

{#In 1938 alone, 40% of all Property in Warsaw was Jewish owned with 40% of all non-Jewish poles employed in Jewish owned industrial concerns. 80% of skilled workforce in Poland were Jews.

1. From its headquarters in London, the Polish Government in Exile commanded the underground Polish Home Army. The Polish Home Army sent detailed intelligence communications back to London about the Holocaust. Lack of international effort to aid Jews resulted in political uproar on the part of the Polish government in exile residing in Great Britain. The government often publicly expressed outrage at German mass murders of Jews. The Polish Government in Exile then compiled and published and disseminated in 1942 at the beginning of the implementation of the Final Solution the book “The Extermination of the Jews in Nazi Occupied Poland”. The world, including your beloved Churchill, ignored this information.

{#01From September 1st. 1939 the formative Einsatz was engaged in the obliteration of a Jewish presence within Poland. As we all know, the Polish Home Army, the AK (Armia Krajowa) was formed in February 1942. Polish Jewry was being decimated for almost 30 months. As for the ‘booklet’, issued December 10th. 1942 arrives much after what was happening to Polish Jewry to continue.}

2. In December 1942, the Polish government in exile pleaded with the Allies to halt the execution of the remaining 2/3 of the Polish Jewish population. That plea made it to only PAGE EIGHT of the Jewish New York Times.

{#02 Here we have Poland pleading to save what was left of 3,650,000 Polish Jews. 1,000,000 had already been annihilated}

{#03 “..never in ..history of mankind ..never anywhere in ..realm of human relations did anything occur to compare with what was inflicted on ..Jewish population of Poland.” Jan Karski.}

3. In 1942 Jan Karski was selected by Cyryl Ratajski, the Polish Government Delegate’s Office at Home, to perform a secret mission to prime minister Wladyslaw Sikorski in London. Karski was to contact Sikorski as well as various other Polish politicians and inform them about Nazi atrocities in occupied Poland. In order to gather evidence, Karski met Bund activist Leon Feiner and was twice smuggled by Jewish underground leaders into the Warsaw Ghetto for the purpose of directly observing what was happening to Polish Jews.

{#03 As we know Jan Karski met with representatives of Polish Jewry to gain first hand proof of what was well known about The Final Solution of The Jewish Question. We know too that Jan met with Menachem Kirszenbaum and Leon Fajner and undertook trips to both the Warsaw Ghetto and the Camp at Izbica, and not Belzec as has been said.}

4. Jan Karski met with Polish politicians in exile including the Prime Minister, as well as members of political parties such as the Socialist Party, National Party, Labor Party, People’s Party, Jewish Bund and Poalei Zion. He also spoke to the British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, giving a detailed statement on what he had seen in Warsaw and Belzec. In 1943 in London he met journalist Arthur Koestler, author of Darkness at Noon.

{#04 As I have stated, I clearly doubt Jan visited Belzec, though the Camp at Izbica was close by?} {#On a monthly basis during 1941, and in the Warsaw Ghetto alone, and excluding those Jews being ritually Murdered in the Ghetto, the totality of Jewish Death through Starvation and Disease is: January 900,

February 1,023,

March 1,668,

April 2,655,

May 5,821,

June 4,290,

July 5,550,

August 5,560,

September 7,545,

October 4,614,

November 4,841, and

December 4,966.}

5. Karski then traveled to the United States, and on July 28, 1943 Karski personally met with Roosevelt in the Oval Office, telling him about the situation in Poland and becoming the first eyewitness to tell him about the Jewish Holocaust. During their meeting, Roosevelt asked about the condition of horses in Poland. Roosevelt did not ask one question about the Jews and did not give a shit about the Jews.

{#05 There is nothing Jan can have told FDR that the OSR’s had not already informed him of hitler’s clear intention}

{#”..Poland ..home of ..largest Jewish population in Europe ..chosen by Hitler as ..central slaughter house for all Jews driven there from other countries and as ..greatest concentration camp for Jews. In Poland Hitler established ..arena where ..doomed Jews were subjected to ..most cruel manifestations of his antisemitic ..racial theories and where ..sadistic instincts ..were let loose without restraint. ..facts show ..Poland ..selected as where promise of ..extinction of European Jewry should be fulfilled.” Jacob Apenszlak.}

6. Karski went on to meet with many other government and civic leaders in the United States, including Jewish Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, Cordell Hull, William Joseph Donovan, and Rabbi Stephen Wise. Frankfurter, skeptical of Karski’s report, said later “I did not say that he was lying, I said that I could not believe him. There is a difference.” You want to blame a government? Blame the USA!

{#06 “..In November and December 1941 began ..slaughter of Jews in ..Warthgau. ..slaughter means of gas. ..a special gas chamber car ..used ..90 people ..loaded at one time. ..victims buried ..Lubartow Forest. ..1,000 ..gassed daily. In Chelmno ..November 1941 to March 1942 all .Jews from Kolo ..Dab ..Bugaj ..Izbica 5,000 in all ..with 35,000 from Lodz Ghetto and a number of Gypsies ..gassed.” Szmul Zygielbojm.}

7. Karski presented his report to media, bishops of various denominations (including Cardinal Samuel Stritch), members of the Jewish Hollywood film industry and artists, but without much result.

{#07December 1941 “..Jews receive half which ..poles receive. ..poles receive grams of bread daily ..Jews receive 100 grams ..every other day.” Dr. Witold Majewski.}

{#“..There is a difference between ..German orchestrated systems of terror against ..Poles and ..Jews. ..Germans want to ruin ..Polish state as a state. ..with regard to ..Jews ..they want to devastate ..biological substance of ..Jewish Nation. If ..Germans do not change their method of dealing with ..Jewish population ..if there is no effort at Allied intervention ..whether through reprisals or other action ..barring some unforeseen circumstance ..within 18 months of ..time I left ..Homeland ..Jewish People of Poland will cease to exist.” Jan Karski.}

8. The Provisional Committee to Aid Jews (Polish: Tymczasowy Komitet Pomocy Zydom) was founded on September 27, 1942, by Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz. The founding body consisted of Polish democratic Catholic activists associated with the Front Odrodzenia Polski, Polska Organizacja Demokratyczna, Zwiazek Syndykalistów Polskich and PPS-WRN. The Provisional Committee was financed partly by the Department of Social Services (Departament Opieki Spolecznej) and the Department of Internal Affairs (Departament Spraw Wewnetrznych) of the Polish Government in Exile. The Provisional Committee may have been the first formal institution in modern Polish history to be operated in an atmosphere of mutual trust by Polish and Jewish organizations of a broad political and socioeconomic spectrum. One of its vice-presidents was a member of Bund, Leon Feiner. Its secretary was Adolf Berman, who represented Zionist organizations. The Provisional Committee comprised Polish underground organizations that recognized the authority of the Government in Exile. Therefore, it did not include the communist Polish Workers’ Party (PPR), which provided similar aid to Jews. {#08 It was necessary to create ‘an atmosphere of mutual trust by Polish and Jewish’ organisations even though there seems to be some insistence that Polish Jews were not treated as a separated out entity.}

9. On September 27, 1942 Zegota – full codename: the “Konrad Zegota Committee” was the Polish Council to Aid Jews with the Government Delegation for Poland (Polish: Rada Pomocy Zydom przy Delegaturze Rzadu RP na Kraj) was founded. It was an underground Polish resistance organization and part of the Polish Underground State. It is estimated that up to 60,000 Jews were saved by Zegota. Operatives of Zegota worked in extreme circumstances – under threat of death by the Nazi forces, and sometimes in the midst of a hostile population. Their work required exceptional bravery, and many were recognized as Righteous Among the Nations after the war. Zegota was the brainchild of Henryk Wolinski of the Home Army (AK). In 1963 Zegota was memorialised in Israel with the planting of a tree in the Avenue of the Righteous at Yad Vashem. Zegota was supported by the Home Army, which provided facilities for forging German identification papers. Zegota also forged about 50,000 other documents such as marriage certificates, baptismal records, death certificates and employment cards to help Jews pass off as Christians. Zegota’s children’s section in Warsaw, headed by social worker Irena Sendler, cared for 2,500 of the 9,000 Jewish children smuggled out of the Warsaw Ghetto. Many were placed with foster families, in public orphanages, church orphanages, and convents. Zegota repeatedly asked the Polish Government-in-Exile and the Government Delegation for Poland to appeal to the Polish people to help the persecuted Jews. The Government in Exile gradually increased its funding for Zegota throughout the war.

{#09 September 27th. 1942 The Council for Aid to Polish Jews, known as ‘Zegota’ was founded by both Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz.}

{#”..beginning of October 1942. In two and a half months one district ..Nazis had committed 300,000 murders.” Jan Karski.}

10. Witold Pilecki was a Polish cavalry officer, intelligence agent, and resistance leader. Pilecki was a co-founder of the Secret Polish Army resistance group and later a member of the Home Army (Armia Krajowa). He was the author of Witold’s Report, the first comprehensive intelligence report on the atrocities committed at the Auschwitz concentration camp. Pilecki volunteered for a Polish resistance operation that invo Awwww lved being imprisoned in the Auschwitz concentration camp in order to gather intelligence. At Auschwitz, he organized a resistance movement within the camp which eventually numbered in the hundreds, and secretly sent messages to the Western Allies detailing Nazi atrocities at the camp. Poland’s Chief Rabbi Michael Schudrich writes in The Auschwitz Volunteer: Beyond Bravery: “When God created the human being, God had in mind that we should all be like Captain Witold Pilecki, of blessed memory.”

{#10 Septemeber 1940 Witold Pilecki (aka Tomasz Serafinski) enters Auschwitz. On March 18th. 1941 Pilecki reports to Polish Government in Exile, London, on Auschwitz Camp Conditions. Information which had previously been dispatched to Zwiazek Organizacji Wojskowej, ZOW and onto Warsaw through October 1940.}

11. Aleksander Lados was a Polish diplomat, who 1940–45 headed the Legation of Poland to Switzerland. Lados was a member and de facto leader of the Lados Group, also known as Bernese Group, a secret action by the Polish diplomats and Jewish organizations who helped save several hundred Jews from the Holocaust by providing them with illegal Latin American, mostly Paraguayan passports. During his de facto ambassadorial post in Bern, Lados headed secret operation “Passport Issues” aimed to provide Jews in German-occupied Poland with Latin American passports strictly co-operating with representatives of the Jewish organizations in Switzerland. The blank passports were bought between Dec. 1941 and Autumn 1943 from the honorary consul of Paraguay Rudolf Hüggli and filled out by Lados’ sub-ordinates, consul Konstanty Rokicki and sometimes also by a Polish-Jewish diplomat Juliusz Kühl. Lados himself intervened directly with the Swiss Federal Counselor Marcel Pilet-Golaz to turn a blind eye to the illegal procedure. Other people included in the clandestine Lados Group included Lados’ deputy counsellor Stefan J. Ryniewicz and Jews Chaim Eiss and Abraham Silberschein, members of Jewish organizations whose main task was to smuggle lists of beneficiaries and copies of illegally-obtained passports between Berne and German-occupied Poland.

{#11 No one doubts the very brave interventions of individuals in saving Jews. Aleksander Lados, a member of the Bern Group is amongst The Righteous Amongst Nations which clearly acknowledges this and why 6,992 individual non-Jewish Poles are recognised.}

12. Polish Delegate of the Government in Exile residing in Hungary, diplomat Henryk Slawik known as the Polish Wallenberg, helped rescue over 30,000 refugees including 5,000 Polish Jews in Budapest, by giving them false Polish passports as Christians. He founded an orphanage for Jewish children officially named School for Children of Polish Officers in Vác.

{#12 Again! No one doubts the very brave interventions of individuals in saving Jews. Henryk Slawik is amongst The Righteous Amongst Nations which clearly acknowledges this and why 6,992 individual non-Jewish Poles are recognised.}

13. in 1943 a Jewish affairs section of the Polish Underground State was set up by the Government Delegation for Poland; it was headed by Witold Bienkowski and Wladyslaw Bartoszewski. Its purpose was to organize efforts concerning the Polish Jewish population, to coordinate with Zegota, and to prepare documentation about the fate of the Jews for the government in London.

{#13 The vast majority of the 3,000,000 Slaughtered Polish Jews had been eviscerated in the x6 Death Camps placed in Poland, Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka.}

14. The Polish government and its underground representatives at home issued declarations that people acting against the Jews (blackmailers and others) would be punished by death.

{#14 July 22nd. 1943 In a Radio Broadcast Zegota reported that few Jews remained in Poland.}

15. General Wladyslaw Sikorski, the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces, signed a decree calling upon the Polish population to extend aid to the persecuted Jews; including the following stern warning. “Any direct and indirect complicity in the German criminal actions is the most serious offence against Poland. Any Pole who collaborates in their acts of murder, whether by extortion, informing on Jews, or by exploiting their terrible plight or participating in acts of robbery, is committing a major crime against the laws of the Polish Republic. Warsaw, May 1943”

{#15 July 22nd. 1943 In a Radio Broadcast Zegota reported that few Jews remained in Poland which makes Sikorski’s letter rather superfluous.}

Looking Back Into the Abyss

Uncategorised Posted on Thu, June 25, 2020 20:30:04

“..traveling criss crossing Poland looking for surviving Jews ..we found them. ..sometimes these meetings were ..packed with emotion ..I lack ..words to describe it. ..idea ..we are ..Survivors couldn’t sink in.” Leah Hammerstein Silverstein.

There has been no other pathological consideration, let alone such a massive hatred, nor has there ever been an enactment that was so genocidally given over to a body of People, other than The Holocaust to the Jewish People. As this was proposed by Hitler, as a solution to a Jewish question, so Hitler rendered to the very Jewish People he sought to eradicate, die Endlosung der Judenfrage. What such a term gained, in a momentum that was to become The Holocaust, was the total eradication, annihilation and destruction of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe.

“..Where they burn books ..they will also ultimately burn people.” Heinrich Heine.

History must not then become a series of predictions, but since Hitler managed to string words together, and as far back as the 1910’s, and catapulted them onward, no one should have been surprised that a malfeasant Austrian soldier would set about to devour what was best of humanity. Suggesting that he would irrevocably remove all Jews, targeting solely the Jewish People, is an admission of the guilt he did not stay around to contend. Here then, on Tuesday September 16th. 1919, Hitler penned a letter to a fellow rank and file soldier, Adolf Gemlich, what proved, in response to the requirement for an answer to the Jewish problem, what would be a deadly reckoning.

“..Herr Gemlich. ..antisemitism based on purely emotional grounds will find its ultimate expression in ..form of ..pogrom. ..ultimate objective must ..irrevocable removal of ..Jews.” Adolf Hitler.

That confronting would become a systematically industrialised, unprecedented and unparalleled Slaughter in all of our history, and would present humanity with a struggle that is The Holocaust. There are 3,000,000 Polish Jews I could never ask this question of, and far too fewer Surviving Polish Jews available to respond to its searing pain. But, and what they all have in common, is their status as Polish Jews who are the remnants of a Polish Jewry decimated during the period of The Holocaust.

“..flames could be seen from 15 or 20 kilometres ..people knew ..human beings were being burned there.” Adolf Bartelmes.

The question I have asked of some of those Polish Jews, those who have Survived, was related to looking back, and then for those seeking to quell the homesickness they felt. It seemed pertinent to me, given my earlier christian upbringing, to consider how long we must look back to what, and for what we have lost. For the Polish Jew, it is a home which does not exist in their past and for the Polish Jewish Survivor, this fact remains in the light that shines through to that dark period in our time. For those Polish Jews who can look back to that former home, which has been purloined, stolen from them and expropriated from them, what will the World withstand in accepting this terrible wrong.

“..During ..war these relationships became even more hostile. A large segment of ..Polish population was displeased with their neighbours help to ..Jews during ..war ..and for many it seemed even as an unpatriotic step. Therefore ..some segments of ..Polish population took an active part in ..hunt for ..Jews.” Jan Grabowski.

Of course, most of this search I have made, is also to ensure that the Jewish Survivor does not remain fearful of those who are differing to them. I hope I show each Survivor, purposefully, that not all of those who might resemble the criminals who acted against them, are anything at all like those who were active against their Jewish neighbours, friends and citizenry. For me, and my journey does not solely belong to a promise made to a Survivor, but it was for me a personal effort to somehow touch something tangible and possibly bring a newer perspective back from those visits in Poland.

“..Article 2a ..crimes committed by Ukrainian nationalists and members of Ukrainian units collaborating with ..Third Reich constitute acts committed by Ukrainian nationalists between 1925 and 1950 which involved ..use of violence ..terror or other human rights violations against individuals or population groups. Participating in ..extermination of ..Jewish population and genocide of citizens of ..Second Polish Republic in Volhynia and Eastern Malopolska ..lesser Poland ..also constitute a crime committed by Ukrainian nationalists and members of Ukrainian units collaborating with ..Third Reich.”

As I was thinking Death Camps, and even Ghetto’s, the hoped for response I had sought to receive would never salve much of the angst I had heard, particularly from those who suffered for being the Polish Jews who Survived to hear their legacy denied. So much more too, of the veritable anger itself, from Survivors and their Descendants that was directed toward Poland, and toward their former non-Jewish Polish neighbours, I could not ignore the nature of it. To any of those non-Jewish poles who participated at all, regardless of when and where they acted against their own Jewish Citizens, the crime remains criminal.

“..Courage is never alone ….it has fear as its ..companion. An act deserves to be called courageous if ..performed in spite of fear. ..greater ..fear ..more courageous ..actions that defies it. ..only when fear and anxiety rule ..courage can ..assert itself.” Shlomo Breznitz.

From that extensive, though now dwindling Jewish grouping of Polish Survivor’s, I listened to what had little subsided in 70 or 80 years of a racism that was antisemitic in content. So I resolved to see for myself if antisemitism was still prevalent in Poland, knowing too well this present Polish government did not reduce my documented concern. As all manner of bigotry, bias, racism and antisemitism is usually quite similar in its inflection, the fear of The Holocaust period is generated in Polish Jewry’s troubling recollection.

“..I spoke with my Cousin who survived ..massacre of ..Jews in Sokoly ..Poland ..that night that Tokele was murdered. My cousin was fortunate as having gone to get some hot water to wash ..Sabbath dishes. While out fetching hot water ..Yaffe Cousin ..saw her nephew Shaikie go to visit ..Gritzik house to see of and that’s ..last time she saw him alive.” Avigdor Ben-Dov.

Here again though, time echoes the hatred that was expressed so evocatively which no longer needs the massive fears around todays christian holidays. So as to prompt perpetually any Jewish fears, the growing coming together of Jewish concern and Christian acknowledgement should deny that the breathing space it has previously devoured. But for those christian feasts, which were always highest on the list of such concerns of a Polish Jewry that was forced into a Survival mode, Polish Jews might well have fared better than they did.

“..No place for Jews in Poland.” General Lucjan Zieligowski.

To mark the antichristian morality, which supposed christians regularly expressed, this runs contradictory to all tenets of a belief system founded on anything ethically moral. By 1938 of course, all manner of language can be used to dispel the scent of hatred, and while it is applied to what antisemitism represents in the hatred of a People for being Jews, its disguise soon slips, and as it was presented by General Zieligowski. Today too, even under this proposed article 2a that this present Polish government unwisely renders, it is discernibly obvious that the extermination of the Jewish population is to be depicted as an isolated incidence without Polish no-Jewish intervention.

“..I can remember early as 1932 ..Storm Troopers came marching by singing when Jewish blood splatters from ..knife.” Otto Frank.

For that which ensures words are not separated from those whose Jewish citizens are faced with a genocide within Poland, for Jews and non-Jews alike, these efforts clearly forge a Hitler tract that is RACIST. For me, as we isolate those hatreds in that search for the one specific detail which exacerbates the Jewish tragedy, this has to be the christian feasts, and the Easter period in particular. That which has served to heighten that Jewish concern, and from such a response as is given by newer Polish articles, Jewish Poland has newer concerns engaging it.

January 30th 1939 “..result of a war will be ..annihilation of ..Jewish race in Europe.” Adolf Hitler.

During this highly charged un-christian time, all Jews from all over Poland were at the hands of a rabble, whose lesson from any renewal, was always hate. It is also clear too that where christianity had dispersed the hatred for the wider Jewish community, be that in Poland, Germany or elsewhere, Jewish People were at the forefront of all aspects of a controlled and contorted anti-christian response. It beggars belief that people can go straight from the pulpit to the killing field and in swift order, ignore all moral efficacy in betraying, abusing and even murdering their Jewish neighbours.

“..Great things are happening ..this action ..we have dared to take is of enormous value. ..Jewish self defence has become a fact.” Mordechai Anielewicz.

When, on good Friday April 23rd. 1943, what remained of the Jewish World was fully awakened to the destruction they faced, it was far too late. Warsaw was decimated. Its Jews, continually consumed in the flames of Treblinka, clearly recognised that with only Hungarian Jewry still holding on to life, the World of Jewry was ravaged. It was significantly recognised too, and tragically so, that it was far too late for most of the 3,000,000 Polish Jews, and as many as 1,000,000 other Jews from all over Europe already consumed.

“..On where for 400 ghastly days ..blasphemy of Treblinka tormented human history there is now a monument. It shows in ..centre an enormous rock topped by a menorah to symbolise ..300,000 martyred Jews of Warsaw. ..rock is surrounded by huge slabs of concrete from which rises a forest of 1,000’s of granite pillars of varying shapes and sizes ..representing cities ..villages ..and shtetlach los in ..Holocaust. On 150 of them are carved ..names of ..localities from which ..murdered Jews came. ..massive pillars bear ..names of ..Country’s of ..victims origin.” Alexander Donat.

These Jews, now annihilated, simply eviscerated from existence, and who were systematically obliterated, have still left an indelible stain upon the conscience of the free World. That all being said, the christian World is also answerable, at that very moment, when perhaps the reality for the Jews facing extinction was not quite as well known to them as it was to Allied intelligence sources, is such an accusation of their individual governments. For us though, those whose search is conducted so as to deliver the memory of as many Jews as can be salvaged from Hitler’s intention to conceal their existence, we strive with purpose to light the way through these hours of darkness.

“..Cautious estimate of ..number of ..Jews gassed ..Birkenau ..April 1942 ..April 1944 by Country of origin ..Poland ..transported by truck 300,000 Jews ..transported by train 600,000 Jews Holland 100,000 Jews Greece 45,000 Jews France 150,000 Jews Belgium 50,000 Jews Germany 60,000 Jews Yugoslavia } Italy } Norway } 50,000 Jews Lithuania 50,000 Jews Bohemia } Moravia } Austria } 30,000 Jews Slovakia 30,000 Jews Camps for foreign Jews in Poland 300,000 Jews Total 1,765,000 Jews.” and we call this ‘The Auschwitz Protocols’.

Then, when on good Friday April 7th. 1944 we become aware that such is the detail of the industrial scale of the destruction, we know that there is a protocol written which asserts this. Of course, these Auschwitz Protocols had been delivered to the knowing World by Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler, and the World which allowed what had already happened, was still allowing the Slaughter to continue. It is now for the World in history, particularly the very abundant resource that is the history of The Holocaust, to ensure memory does not distort that very truth to seek to cover for its criminal negligence.

“..a rush to get everything down in writing before ..generation of survivors dies away. There is also a search for knowledge and understanding by ..descendants of survivors ..leading ..young to rediscover their Jewish heritage. Jews are proudly calling themselves Jews once more. ..young people of today will be ..leaders of generation. They and people of all nations have an obligation to protect ..memory of The Holocaust.” Ann Kazimirski.

With apathy and indifference the level of Jewish destruction was unparalleled in all of history. While it is true that memory, particularly the Survivor’s memory, is maintained so that their testimony is ensured and that all other recollection is not lost in any distortion of the very integrity which the Survivor has brought to us. In that, we must never shirk from our own responsibility in relating these very cruel details, all that has emerged and may still re-emerge, in accusing all those who are the accused must be brought to the bar of judgement.

“..In Majdanek and everywhere in Poland. They gave what is in humanity. I have it all my soul ..letters written to me by many. Everything is possible spite of other manifestations. I ..myself have never experienced any animosity toward me and what I represent. There is always ..goodwill and hope.” Halina Birenbaum.

We, who search in particular for those crimes against the Jewish People, simply because they were Jews, and more critically, because we saw them as too different or too unworthy of our concern, has fully taken my attention. I am not and have never been a person to give over to hatred and for any part of who I am, I am bemused by those who inarticulately allowed for the rise of such an immense hatred to happen. From ordinary people, who turned into an abhorrent species of persons, The Holocaust atrocity does much to represent who I am.

“..attempts by members ..German General Staff to whitewash their complicity in these atrocities ..or by German historians to exculpate ..regular German Army ..should not be allowed to cover up ..fact of ..vital ..significant economic ..strategic advantages ..Nazi establishment together with ..German Army and its General Staff derived from this unprecedented ..unparalleled mass murder and robbery.” Rudolf Vrba.

What we must do more of, so as to extract all that we can from what remains of what we know, is in a soul searching review of the very patent lack of humanity which betrayed all that should have been our concern for these Jews. Of course, we will never again know from 6,000,000 Jewish People what they must have considered are our truly brutal and immoral failings. Unless we present what existed for these Jews, before they were annihilated, will require us to recognise the anti-Jewish Pogroms existing in Poland. What might be an affront to the present, tracing back to the ignoble deeds of so many and the emerging annihilatory practice, cannot ever be shelved in favour of blanching this searing truth.

“..Written by ..Sonderkommando ..Crematorium II August 5th. 1944 ..Zalman Lewental ..Ciechanow ..Poland. No one can imagine exactly how things happened ..for it is unimaginable that a precise account of our experiences can be given. ..We ..a small group of grey people ..will give historians a ..hard time ..also ..psychologists who want to know ..investigate ..mental condition of ..people who tackled this dismal ..dirty work. ..who knows whether these investigators will fathom ..truth ..whether anyone will be able to thoroughly.” Zalman Lewental.

Admittedly, from the historical perspective which seeks any review of an ugly arena, we are presented with inhuman deeds committed by actual human beings. Wherever these hate filled individuals emerged from, those who acted simply because the human beings they murdered are Jews, have left a stench of hatred to further infect those who now seek to lessen their definite impact on The Holocaust atrocity itself. In that respect, we should never shy away from those infernal and inhuman words, the very terms of which are meant to depict the full horror. In all its intimate detail, The Holocaust must add details which simply cannot be ignored or displaced because of their ugly and offensive meaning.

“..Americans ..British in these regions. ..Why did they not drop ..bombs on ..horrible tomb ..60 kilometres from their Northern Frontier. They could have wrecked SS barracks ..ramps ..crematoriums ..roads ..rail track. Why didn’t they.” Alfred Wetzler.

Of course much that is related to the Slaughter of 6,000,000 human beings for being Jews, ensures we will confront the wrongs we know where present. For those with the ability to do the right thing, in words and images that express a clear hatred for what civilises us, too many chose silence. There will be times also when we can look further back, and beyond the period we seek to gain evidences for, and from all of history, and then we must attain the ability to deliver those pertinent lessons that the past must always ensure. It is always my intention, in informing upon this past, and with what we must recognise are the inconsistencies in what is being depicted, relayed and testified to, no bias must enter nor censorship be delivered.

“..people should be forced to see this and be shocked and offended by it.” Wilf Mandel.

For my part, how could any Jew, let alone a Survivor Jew who knows the truth of The Holocaust, be shocked by any imagery and scenes of the horror, when they were its unwilling witnesses. I have contended with this in my own accusation and that being silenced must never ensure words are allowed to be hidden. For those, who do not see the atrocity is not just contained in any photograph of the vileness of human depravity, but it is expressed in the lives lost that it represents, truth must be expressed as it is. From what we must retain in learning, historians of The Holocaust have, and always will have, those examples afforded us to ensure we know what it is we are looking at and what we must gain from sight of its relevance to all of history.

“..Progress ..far from consisting in change ..depends on retentiveness. When change is absolute there remains no being to improve and no direction is set for possible improvement ..and when experience is not retained ..infancy is perpetual. Those who cannot remember ..past are condemned to repeat it.” George Santayana.

Of course, there are a myriad of reasons why the individual Survivor cannot continually face the totality of the horror to be so visually presented, they live with it. I fully understand and appreciate such reasoning. But, it is essential that while the Jewish People forever reflect upon the terror this atrocity means to them, the World must identify similarly with the very atrocity we allowed to happen with our structured indifference. With both the past enjoined and the present learning from it, the recollections of those delivering their testimonies to evidences they witnessed and experienced will always become a little more than the trace we would otherwise be left with.

“..I wanted only to tell to get above ..past and ..present bring closer for today’s people ..history and characters whose only trace in is my recollection. I want them to live as long as I am alive. Doing it by letting people know about ..tragedy that was done by hate and fascism.” Halina Birenbaum.

What we learn today say, of this date when on July 10th. 1941, of the 1,600 of Jedwabne Jews who were murdered at the time, Poland does not seek to fully recall its truthful detail. Almost the entire Jewish Population were driven from their homes and all too many of them were burned to death in a barn by their erstwhile non-Jewish neighbours. Of course, the argument resounds that the non-Jewish poles were under duress. But these non-Jewish poles, guided by their Nazi instigators, are these same local non-Jewish polish neighbours who clearly then added collusively to the sought after victory Hitler had wished to gain.

“..burning alive of ..Jewish population ..forcibly herded by Poles into a barn indisputable.” Josef Glemp.

What we have then, as we are now 80 years on from that infamous, collusive and collaborative effort to secure The Final Solution for Hitler, within Poland and by some non-Jewish poles, is an apology from the churches representative in Poland. Of course, what the church had previously forgot to acknowledge, was everything it knew its congregation had been involved in. Even when the Church in Poland countenanced such actions, no faith remains of a system which would excavate the meaning of any god from such ungodly terms.

“..My Grandmother ..Chana Yenta Wasersztajn ..stayed behind. I know that poles killed all ..Jews ..I know who killed my Grandmother ..her Daughters ..her entire family. He appropriated her home and now lives in this house.” Ester Migdal.

Then, prior to that 60th. anniversary, on March 4th. 2001, and while parts of what Glemp states are removed from his intention to apologise, we see the church’s continued stoking of the antisemitism that drove much of catholic Poland forward. When we recognise too that the church in Poland, and in many other Country’s throughout Europe, the christian churches fully failed to stand up to their own christian values. What we then see in the human status of beings, who are decreased to a differing position that appeared illusionary, the power they usurped over their Jewish brethren, has diminished all of christianity’s meaning.

“..illusion that we all did not share ..same fate. That until ..last moment ..even if one knew that there was a Ponar ..they always gave us a spark ..this distorted hope ..that possibly you would be exempt. ..frightful illusion produced frightful results of people wanting to prolong of some at ..expense of others ..and depriving ..masses of any possibility of a different attitude. Only a minority that felt itself possibly less stricken ..less misled ..less under shock ..due to its past ..its education and its adherence to certain movements which trained people to give a personal example ..perhaps only they could cope with it. And it is not ..evidently ..a matter of chance from where ..people came in every Ghetto who formed ..fighting nucleus. Perhaps it arose from ..fact that they experienced less degradation ..that they were less panic ..stricken ..and they knew better how to live in ..Ghetto as free men in every respect.” Abba Kovner.

It would appear that the exemplary in those times, for those who will always deliver the evidence necessary to illuminate the darkness, and will shed light on a fate not just restricted to the Jewish People, but exclusive to Jews everywhere in Europe, will mock the stability of anything civilisation proposes. I have immersed myself in the horrors of The Holocaust for more than 25 years now and still find it difficult to understand why a World, which stood idly by, allowed this all to happen.

“..Bundists did not wait for ..Messiah ..nor did they plan to leave for Palestine. They believed that Poland was their country and they fought for a just ..socialist Poland which each nationality would have its own cultural autonomy ..and in which minorities’ rights would be guaranteed.” Marek Edelman.

The World of such an intolerable indifference to all human persistence has failed monumentally to acknowledge its immense guilt in what it knew and failed to act upon. Slowly emerging though is the guilt and apology for that, and for Country’s like France, that apology is a necessary contingent in any form of contrition. For the rogue nature of its citizenry, which Poland must also recognise, even though it might consider its past behaviour was a lesser conspiratorial effort than France’s, all wrongs require all responses to it.

“..These dark hours forever sully our history and are an insult to our past and our traditions. ..Yes .. criminal folly of ..occupiers was seconded by ..French ..French state.” Jacques Chirac.

These dark hours are not merely a sullying of France’s collusive affront to decency, it is also a damnable indictment of the collaborative effort in Hitler’s Final Solution of The Jewish Question. What I find deeply upsetting, given any inference whatsoever, is the usage of terms consigning 6,000,000 Jews to oblivion without acknowledgement of the guilt to be owned by more than have accepted it. I deliberately took myself away for a period and researched where a Jewish Community was not only corralled, it was ‘herded together and transported in cattle trucks’ and we know their destination, either one of the 6 Death Camps erected in Poland for their deliberate slaughter.

“..It is with sorrow ..with hope that we ..disclose ..deliberate slaughter of more than 1,000,000 innocent ..defenceless men ..women ..children. ..tragic fulfilment of a program of intolerance and arrogance. Vengeance is not our goal ..nor do we seek merely a just retribution. We ask this Court to affirm by international penal action man’s right to live in peace and dignity regardless of his race or creed. case we present is a plea of humanity to law.” Benjamin Befell Ferencz.

But, and it is in terms such as these, be it herding together of a People or the Slaughter of that People in which the hatred which fully sought to categorise a Jewish People, that we recognise them as The Holocaust. The Jews of Europe, designated as other than we are and while some of these hate filled advocates of Hitler’s effort who still now seek to dehumanise our effort on their behalf, these deniers must be confronted wherever we find them. For me, and should we consort to relinquish our hold upon this space of community, where a body of People are owed by all as we demand a called for life, it is a life that we all earn as human beings and for which was denied finally to 6,000,000 Jews of Europe and because they were Jews.

“..Sometimes I am asked if I know ..response to Auschwitz ..I answer that not only do I not know it ..but that I don’t even know if a tragedy of this magnitude HAS a response. What I do know is that there is response in responsibility. When we speak of this era of evil and darkness close and yet so distant ..responsibility is ..key word. ..witness has forced himself to testify. For ..youth of today ..for ..children who will be born tomorrow. He does not want his past to become their future.” Elie Wiesel.

The historical term that is The Holocaust is allocated to such a classification which is clearly defined in all that Hitler proposed for the Jewish People. Today there is an attempt to it being diluted of them, or being slowly denied for them. In a space voided of any place to recognise their very existence, we have far too many empty spaces and the soil of which disposes of the blood and ash of too many 1,000,000’s of these Jewish People. What is still a fertile ground for breeding future hatred is warped by the hatred firmly affixed to an immense loss. So only those, given the knowledge of what this following evidence presents, will know the loss this represents for the 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews.

“..Only one thing remained reachable ..close and secure amid all losses ..language. ..In spite of everything remained secure against loss. had to go through ..own lack of answers ..through terrifying silence ..through ..thousand darkness’s of murderous speech. It went through. It gave me no words for what was happening ..but went through it. Went through and could resurface ..’enriched’ by it all.” Paul Celan.

The Jewish People today, their very identifiable reference point to a well spoken and pronounced humanity, must never allow what we all must learn from to alter who they must be. But here we are again, once more looking back at the lost Community’s of Jewish existence, their excellence dissipated and disappearing while many seek to restore what must not be lost. In those same community’s, and with those very cross fertilisation of differences, where their Jewish neighbours were extinguished because of those very differences, we must now look upon the values that are to be set by civilisation so differently.

“..United States organized a conference in Evian ..France ..July 6th. 1938 discuss ..Jewish refugee crisis. There were a lot of lovely speeches ..America did not let any additional Jewish refugees in ..every other country in attendance followed its lead. ..29 countries ..none of them ..except ..Dominican Republic ..wanted any more Jews. Hitler saw this. Four months later came Kristallnacht. ..again world reaction. Hitler tested ..and at every step ..he saw ..truth ..World did not care. ..he knew ..he could build this factory of death. Evian led to Auschwitz. Kristallnacht led to Auschwitz. World antisemitism led to Auschwitz.” Ronald S. Lauder.

It is evident that the interminable question as to why The Holocaust happened will never be answered and with the loss of why, any such differences will continually persuade People to act without concern toward each other in those same spaces blotted by atrocity. In the realm of The Holocaust, it was a World’s lack of response which led to such a catastrophic event leading to a Jewish antecedence which was meant to end. What the forces of Hitler’s hatred focused upon was an extermination programme that the World knew of and were more than aware of. “..task of history is to stand above ..laws of nature and above human weakness and pass on ..truth to ..future.” Maria Hochberg-Marianska.

On the 75th. anniversary of the liberation of Birkenau and Auschwitz, we are once more brought back to recognise that the intolerances toward the Jewish People were not confronted by the World at the time. While it remains patently obvious that Hitler in word and eventual deed had meant and would ensure was a final resolve that would be his literal solution to the Jews, the World was fully awake to this notion of annihilation. So we pass along the truth no matter how ill it judges the past and in order for humanity to make better choices than those afforded by bias, bigotry and hatred.

“..For many parts of ..Polish society it is very difficult ..since for decades they were victims themselves ..of ..Nazis. ..countries around Poland ..Ukraine ..Baltic States ..same level of public debate about their relationship with their own Jewish minority.” Jan Grabowski.

It is essential for us too to recognise that at every point along Hitler’s trajectory in life, where he sounded the clarion call to more and further abuse of the Jewish People, be that in 1919, 1939, or as we recall here in 2020, Hitler delivered his only programme of completion. Albeit with an immense intolerance, it was the indifference of a World that is clearly what delivers that guilt of the World to this overall catastrophe. Steeped in such a total disrespect for life, which all intolerances have always presented, the delivery against the Jewish People was an unprecedented and unparalleled failure of anything approaching humanity.

“..A person can choose to hate. A person can choose not to use hateful speech. Hitler did not start with weapons. He started with hate. And then he proceeded to use hateful speech. A person can choose to not become a perpetrator or a bystander oppressor cannot succeed on his or her own. When someone is being victimized whether by a schoolyard bully or a maniacal national leader those who are not victims make ..choice to join ..bully or to become ..bystander who does nothing.” Ben Lesser.

We therefore cannot ignore the lessons of the past in order to refute or impend the truth of the lessons we have chosen to ignore. For instance, the example set at the Evian Conference, when the World could have acted to give relief to those suffering Jews from the continuing abuse, which was as yet but the moral consideration of the conceived threat that a refugee status had presented itself and to German Jewry, was at variance to civilisations key principles of human concern. Clearly, that opportunity was glazed over in favour of the abject abandonment of 11,293,300 Jews of Europe, as The Wannsee Conference would later define.

“..As a child of ..Jewish people who ..grace of God ..for ..past 11 years has also been a child of ..Catholic Church ..I dare to speak to ..Father of Christianity about that which oppresses 1,000,000’s of Germans. For weeks we have seen deeds perpetrated in Germany which mock any sense of justice and humanity ..not to mention love of neighbour. For years ..leaders of National Socialism have been preaching hatred of ..Jews. But ..responsibility must fall ..after all ..on those who brought them to this point and it also falls on those who keep silent in ..face of such happenings. Everything that happened and continues to happen on a daily basis originates with a government that calls itself ‘Christian.’ For weeks not only Jews but also 1,000’s of faithful Catholics in Germany ..and ..I believe ..all over ..have been waiting and hoping for ..Church of Christ to raise its voice to put a stop to this abuse of Christ’s name.” Edith Stein.

What we must remember now is that 6,000,000 Jews are the least of that number to have suffered the consequences of the World’s failing. Believe me, and I know full well the great hurt I do to the Jewish Survivor who have to witness what I place before their field of view. However, any anticipated respite in the threats made against them, and while my own accusation is presented for them, it is essential we too are the burdened. What we must witness by the realisation of such a human devastation, is as it should be, a deeply wounding grief for all of us also.

“..I reached ..decision with a heavy heart ..having followed ..recent developments in Hungary with great concern. ..history cleansing campaign of ..past few years calculated to whitewash ..historical record of ..Horthy era ..including ..changes ..legalised ..sinister measures that were subsequently taken to absolve Hungary from role it had played in ..destruction of close to 600,000 of its citizens of ..Jewish faith.” Randolph L. Braham.

Of course there is still that consensus, even in 1939, that the World of Jewry was not so under threat that the statistician of the time might become certain of the numbers of Jews threatened. The Jewish population was some identifying 16,600,000 Jewish souls. There was also the fact that some 16,728,000 Jews existed who were facing the preached for hatred of them. In that number too, 3,650,000 were Polish Jews who were closely betrayed by all too many of their own non-Jewish neighbours. In this! No one says that all non-Jewish Poles acted against their Jewish Neighbours, but all too few responded to the catastrophe to consume 3,000,000 Polish Jews.

“..Nazis were responsible for this tragedy it is they who murdered most of 3,000,000 Jews who lived in Poland before World War II. ..Germans were able to mobilize segments of ..Polish society to take part in their plan to hunt down ..Jews and help them carry out their Final Solution.” Jan Grabowski.

It remains a fact that, without the evidence of non-Jewish Poles, many more of the Jews of Poland could Not have been recognisably identified as Jews. I have listened to the many Survivors of Polish Jewry who insist there was a huge betrayal by their former gentile neighbours, and even friends. Reminding myself as I search in this dreadful past, I am certain that the Jewish People can never quite look back without the sense of loss that their loss entails. Such then is the certainty of that Jewish loss, all ensures I too must look back in search of what we all have left behind and this gains for me an insight into the descent of humanity toward ignominy.

“..We feel ourselves linked together ..we cannot break free of our past. That we cannot forget.” Yehuda Adelman.

For me too it is quite simple, as I still somehow feel I am keeping memory alive, and that for a Murdered Jewish People, they are prevented from disappearing from us entirely. But, as we attempt to retrieve from an almost fragmentary set of images that the atrocity presents to us, and we attempt to restore a vibrancy that has all but vanished, we are not recovering anything that was truly lost. The memories, the images, the testimonies and the fragmentary attesting to a vanished existence of these human beings, who have been totally eviscerated, 6,000,000 Jews of them at least, our humanity remains in tatters along with them.

“..I do not ..cannot know what I would be today if I had not been in ..Camp. No man knows his future. ..a man sets out ..almost never are our choices between ..two alternatives. ..every choice is followed by others. ..if I had not lived ..Auschwitz experience ..I probably would never have written. ..years have passed ..interposed ..artificial memory ..a defensive barrier ..between my ..normal present and ..dramatic past. ..I survived ..due good luck. survive with ..precise purpose of recounting. ..helped by ..determination recognize always companions ..myself ..not things. avoid humiliation and demoralization which led so many to spiritual shipwreck.” Primo Levi.

In all, and but for a few spaces in time, we have a disconnect that is so immense that the abyss we have been thrown into will never free us from its brutal reality. However, to simply restore an impression from the memory of a Survivor, which adds further to what might be lost otherwise, it is as essential that we must ensure this all adds more of the remembrance necessary to deliver a memory that is not all brutalised. In all of that though, how can we ever know the very Jewish loss that The Holocaust missing, or the Survivor’s role, maintains in presenting for us such a tragedy.

“..vast area of Europe seized ..held by ..Nazi’s and their accomplices during WWII contained approximately 8,300,000 Jews. ..estimated that 6,000,000 perished by Nazi lethal devices ..disease ..starvation. Considering that Hitler mobilised all of German’y resources for ..avowed purpose of annihilating ..Jews ..and that in this work he found helpers and collaborators among ..native population in almost all Nazi occupied countries is indeed a miracle that more than 2,000,000 remained alive.” Dr. Philip Friedman.

Nowhere within Poland is free from the feverish attempt to destroy all that Polish Jewry once presented to the World, and along with as many as a further 2,000,000 Jews of Europe, has saturated the land with their blood. Even when all empathy, and our own sympathy is engaged, as we submerge ourselves, employed as we are in the retrieval of this horror, what wholly belongs to these Jews crosses over to accuse us deliberately. For the dwindling handful of Survivors, whose frightening glimpse of their past, which they afford us, they not only preserve the link to the past our research aims to add to, it enriches our search.

“ all young people ..hope that they will keep ..past alive in their memories ..and that they will never experience ..what my generation has had to live through.” Helga Weiss.

Perhaps too, that while there are still many of you who do not know me enough to understand exactly why this journey is so important to me, I hint at the pain of their loss becoming mine. There can be no suggestion that we do Not know all of those who were the non-Jewish Poles who saved their Jewish Neighbours, Cousins, Friends, Employer’s or fellow Human Beings. But what we do not know either are the very many who betrayed the tenets of any humanity they supposedly were signed up to in christianity. Wherever they stood, and as they sought to trade their Jewish Cousins in to their Nazi cohorts, they have betrayed the very credentials we assign to all or any of humanity, a humanity forgotten.

“..I saw a flood once in ..mountains. Wooden huts ..torn from their foundations were carried above ..raging waters. One could still see lighted lamps in them ..Men ..Women ..Children in their cradles were tied to ..ceiling beams. Other huts were empty inside ..but one could see a tangle of arms waving from ..roof branches blowing in ..wind waving desperately toward heaven ..toward ..river banks for help. At a distance could see mouths gaping ..but one could not hear ..cries because ..roar of ..waters drowned out everything. And that’s how ..Jewish masses flowed to their destruction at ..time of ..deportations. Sinking as helplessly into ..deluge of destruction. And if ..for even one of ..days of my life ..I should forget how I saw you then people ..desperate and confused ..delivered over to extinction ..may all knowledge of me be forgotten and my name be cursed like that of those traitors who are unworthy to share your pain.” Rachel Auerbach.

I know my research appears almost limited to 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews in need of Remembering, and that is the choice I have made proudly. This effort has always been in order to add to what is essential in recalling the Jewish past being a part of our historical past. For that reason, I know what YadVashem is involved in, and in acknowledging all of these 6,900 non-Jewish Poles for their Righteous status, I have no need to do more than is being done. For me then, the test for the historian is not just in the search for the past and its lessons, which can never be assumed, but in what must always be extracted.

“..proof ..which we have no right to consider as unfeasible out of prejudice ..has been supplied still remains for us by digging deeper into ..analysis to ask why ..out of all ..imaginable psychological attitudes ..these particular ones ..imposed themselves. soon as we admit that a mental or emotional reaction is not self-explanatory ..we are forced make a real effort to discover ..reasons for it. history elsewhere ..causes cannot be assumed. They are looked for.” Marc Bloch.

From the intrinsic details of the minutae of the evidence, which their truths are the very enriched integrity of, theirs are the prevailing testimonies afforded to us as and when they are delivered by the Survivor. What I am involved in, purely to add to the memory of these 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews, 3,000,000 of whom were Polish Jews, is in Remembering them and bringing that memory forward. It clearly has not served the Survivor well, those of them who sought any form of Justice, as they have continually looked back for an absented justice. While we should also all ask the Children of the guilty so as to find out all they can for themselves from the not too distant past, what did their Parents do to stem the flow of Jewish blood.

“..I don’t think there is any other solution than constantly coming to terms with ..past ..learning from it. point in minimizing guilt in order to make it easier for sons ..daughters to bear ..failure of ..fathers ..grandfathers ..their mothers ..grandmothers.” Simon Wiesenthal.

For history, it is simply for the science to ensure that the lessons then exacted by their Parents upon the Jews that they helped to destroy, is a learned lesson that is not to be repeated. My work is detailed in the memory of the 6,000,000 lost and I am accusing all of those who collaborated or colluded in their destruction. If that was non-Jewish Poles, I will recognise that fact and point to those non-Jewish Poles who acted outside their supposedly religious conviction. I know very well the many Poles who effected my passage through Poland on those many occasions while I visited all the x6 Death Camps there.

“..poor people are being shipped off to filthy slaughterhouses like a herd of sick and neglected cattle. But I’ll say no more on ..subject. My own thoughts give me nightmares!” Anne Frank.

They are an extraordinary People as I met with them, borne out of times when they too were under great pressure to survive. But this alone cannot dismiss the fundamental humanity in each of us to act, with humanity, with compassion, with concern, and if that is to appropriate in a catholic country, it is with a christian conscience. However, what this Polish government seeks to engender is to pander to a right wing attempt to bury the truth behind mealy mouthed words and denial of a truth the Polish People are all too able to deal with. In line with German attempts to do the same in coming to terms, the lessons of the past must signal out intention to move integrity forward.

“..massacres of ..Jews ..reached fearful ..execrable forms and proportions. Incredible slaughter takes place every day.” Giovanni Battista Montini.

No media site which I wish to belong to can be open to debate on the subject of The Holocaust. While Montini as a future Pope knew in 1943 what we are beginning to learn and accept what they knew as a Church, I make that statement without equivocation. No if’s. No but’s nor even any maybe’s. I am fixed in my assessment that The Holocaust is the worst atrocity ever to touch our own humanity. That 6,000,000 Jews of Europe were destroyed as a consequence of that absenting of the humanity civilisation must demand and this is clearly an accusation of what we formerly considered was civilisation, and what that actually means.

“ own objectives. As a Survivor’s daughter I have ..responsibility to keep my Father’s story alive. I want to encourage ..other children of Holocaust survivors to do ..same. Our parents survived for a reason so they could bear witness to a history that cannot repeat itself. ..only way that will happen is to continue documenting and sharing their stories ..even after they are no longer here to tell them. By doing that we can carry on their legacy and make certain ..dying words of 6,000,000 Jews Zachor matters.” Gail Lesser-Gerber.

1) Birkenau, the Death Camp at Auschwitz where 1,100,000 Jews were Murdered was in operation from October 1941 until November 25th. 1944, a period of some 37 months.

2) Treblinka where 900,000 Jews were Murdered was in operation from July 22nd. 1942 until August 2nd. 1943 a period of some 13 months.

3) Belzec where 884,700 Jews were Murdered was in operation from March 17th. 1942 until December 1942 a period of some 8 months.

4) Sobibor where 250,000 Jews were Murdered was in operation from May 1942 until October 14th. 1943 a period of some 17 months.

5) Majdanek, where an estimated 200,000 Jews were Murdered, was in operation from July 21st. 1941 until July 23rd. 1944 a period of some 36 months.

6) Chelmno, where 152,000 Jews were Murdered, was in operation from December 6th. 1941 until August 1942 and again from May until August 1944 a period of some 11 months.

While debate might rage over the final assessment to be made of that total atrocity, we accept 6,000,000 slaughtered Jews as a figure in relation to those Jewish People who might be in an accounted for loss. But, the assessment cannot be that final and conclusive detail we must seek as all humanity must demand. Of course, defeat is never on the lips of those willing to continue the fight, and for a lasting memory for 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews, we do not concede ground in acknowledging that we will never know the exact loss in life to the Jewish People.

“..never ..down in ..entire blood ..stained road travelled by this people ..never since ..first days of its nationhood ..has any man arisen who succeeded in dealing it such grievous blows as did Hitler’s iniquitous regime ..and Adolf Eichmann as its executive arm for ..extermination of ..Jewish people. In all human history there is no other example of a man against whom it would be possible to draw up such a bill of indictment as has been read here. ..most terrible crimes of those fearful figures of barbarism and blood lust ..Jenghis Khan ..Attila ..Ivan the Terrible ..telling of which curdles our blood and makes our hair stand on end with horror ..deeds ..that have become ..a proverb and a taunt ..and an everlasting abhorrence ..nations ..these almost seem to pale into insignificance when contrasted with ..abominations ..murderous horrors ..which will be presented to you in this trial.” Gideon Hausner.

However, this is not a fight we can afford to lose nor should we ever abandon the Jewish cause simply because too many wish to see that actual history is so distorted that it is prepared to deny the very truth which history demands. Through words, no matter their validity, they must never shroud the truth in the accumulation of intention to describe their honest veracity. Along with the science of history, we must not confine the chronological lineage of yesterday that links to that past. As history changes course, to then, as it will, we ensure tomorrow’s lesson is to be gained from today as we have learned all that needs to be changed.

“..There is a difference between ..German orchestrated systems of terror against ..Poles and ..Jews. ..Germans want to ruin ..Polish state as a state. ..with regard to ..Jews ..they want to devastate ..biological substance of ..Jewish Nation. If ..Germans do not change their method of dealing with ..Jewish population ..if there is no effort at Allied intervention ..whether through reprisals or other action ..barring some unforeseen circumstance ..within 18 months of ..time I left ..Homeland ..Jewish People of Poland will cease to exist.” Jan Karski.

Of course the lines in history linking past and present are not a demarcation line, as deftness draws driven lines through it as examples criss cross a broader tableau of human existence. For us to afford both the lessons learned and the ideologies unlearned, we reach the same consensus which Jan Karski clearly states. While it is essential in recognising that while not all victims were Jews, All Jews Were Victims. Also, and in that clear assessment we have to acknowledge, here in Poland and elsewhere, that while not all non-Jewish Citizens were guilty, not all non-Jewish Citizens of Europe were innocent.

“..I didn’t want to go back to Poland. Poles were killing a lot of Jews who returned to claim property ..other possessions. My Parents were dead. There was nothing to go back to.” Bianca Lerner.

For me personally, I brought with me to Poland this contention that so many Polish Jewish Survivor’s reside with, and I found some of the most cooperative Poles willing to point me toward the answers I sought. For me, there is absolutely no comparison from the past that conveys us to the truth of The Holocaust, irrespective of the notions of states become deft at contorting that past. In its experimental stage, history either gifts us the wrongs righted or the failed comparisons to be analysed incorrectly and these, which are corruptly interpreting skew history for ever.

“..Our strength is our quickness and our brutality. Jenghis Khan had millions of women and children hunted down and killed ..deliberately and with a gay heart. History sees in him only ..great founder of States. What ..weak Western European civilization alleges about me ..does not matter. I have given ..order ..and will have everyone shot who utters but one word of criticism ..that ..aim of this war does not consist in reaching certain geographical lines ..but in ..enemies’ physical elimination. Thus ..for ..time being only in ..East ..I put ready my Death’s Head units ..with ..order to kill without pity or mercy all men ..women ..children. ..Only thus will we gain space that we need.” Adolf Hitler.

Taken from the past, so as to stage manage an aim to suit an insincere objective, we have Hitler recognising what Jenghiz Khan achieved and employing the efforts of der Einsatzgruppe to achieve such excesses in graver depravity. Also, what the Armenian Tragedy afforded him in what he became capable of against the Jewish People, comparison is disingenuous to the very struggle for the Jewish People so systematically targeted. So we remember in all of history that no other atrocity bears its resemblances to what the Jews of Europe encountered and not simply in terms of numbers but in mechanised, industrialised, systematic and sought out a slaughter that has never before been contemplated.

“..Who still talks nowadays of ..extermination of ..Armenians.” Adolf Hitler.

Finally, we are here to remember the massive loss to those Jewish Community’s which no longer exist in any substantial way. For these, we will never leave them behind in our recollection of what is meant, when we seek to discuss that there are 6,000,000 individual Jews of Community who are Always to Remember, Never to Forget, who were so totally destroyed, we cannot envisage all of who they were. But, and they are clearly Remembered collectively, and as we do not know all of them individually, as to who they all are, we choose not to forget that they were a body of People who once lived amongst us.

Aachen, Aalborg, Aarhus, Aba, Abadia, Abramowo, Abertamy, Adamow, Adampol, Adony, Aglona, Agriogala, Alderney, Aleksandrow, Aleksinac, Alexandrem, Alkmaar, Alytus, Amsterdam, Andrzejow, Angers, Annapol-Rachow, Annopol, Antopol, Antwerp, Apatin, Aradac, Arendelovac, Arandelovo, Argel, Athens, Atmicetka, Augsburg, Augustow, Aumale, Aurelow, Auschwitz.

Babiak, BabiYar, Baden, Bad-Kissingen, Bad-Voeslau, Baczki, Badzanow, Baligrod, Bamberg, Bar, Baranow, Bardejov, Bedkow, Bedzin, Beikovska, Belchatow, Beltinci, Belz, Belzec, Belzyce, Berdychiv, Berehove, Berezhany, Berlin, Berndorf, Berzovitza, Bezdziedza, Bialaczow, Biala-Rawska, Bialobrzegi, Bialy-Kamien, Bialystok, Bibrka, Biecz, Bielsko-Biala, Bielsk-Podlaski, Biezdziedzia, Bila-Tserkva, Bilgoraj, Bircza, Birkenau, Biskupice, Biszcza, Bitburg, Bitola, Blaszki, Blazowa, Blizne, Blizyn, Bobowa, Bobrka, Bochnia, Bohorodczany, Boiany, Bolechow, Bolekhiv, Boleslawiec, Bolimow, Bolszowce, Bordeaux, Borszczow, Boryslaw, Borzna, Bratslav, Brest-Litovsk, Brzeziny, Brzeznica, Brigel, Brody, Broniszow, Brussels, Brzesko, Brzeszow, Brzezany, Brzeznica, Brzozdowce, Brzozow, Brzuchowice, Buchach, Buczacz, Budaniv, Budzanow, Bukachivtsi, Bukaczowce, Bukowa, Bukowsko, Burdyakovtse, Bursztyn, Burzenin, Buszcza, Bychawa, Bytom.

Cappelin, Chalons, Charloi, Checiny, Chelm, Chelmno, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Chernobyl, Chmielnik, Chodel, Chodorow, Chorbrzany, Chorostkow, Chortkiv, Chyrow, Cieszanow, Cluj-Napoca, Codorow, Cologne, Copenhagen, Corfu, Cracow, Crete, Czarna-Dunajec, Czeladz, Czemierniki, Czernelica, Czernowitz, Czestochowa, Czolhany, Czorsztyn, Czortkow, Czudek, Czyzew.

Dabie-Miasto, Dabrowice, Dabrowa-Gornicza, Dabrowa-Tanowska, Dalnicz, Dawid-Grodek, Debica, Delatyn, Derazhnia, Diekirch, Ditchkov, Dobczyce, Dobra, Dobromil, Dobrowa, Dolina, Domardz, Dorohusk, Dortmund, Dresden, Drohobycz, Drzewica, Dubienka, Dublin, Dukla, Dukla-Rysztak, Dunaivtsi, Dynow, Dzialoszyce, Dzialoszyn, Dzierkowice.

Echternach, Edingen, Einartshausen, Eisenstadt, Ejszyszki, Erdmannrode, Esch.

Fajslawice, Falenica, Felsberg, Felsztyn, Filipow, Firlej, Folwarki, Fordon, Frampol, Frankfurt, Fryszak, Fuerth.

Gabin, Gaia-Vilkia, Garbatka, Garwolin, Gdow, Gdowca, Gelsenkirchen, Germakowka, Ghent, Gidle, Gielniow, Gimbsheim, Gliniany, Glowaczow, Glogow, Glogow-Malopolski, Glowno, Golcowa, Golina, Goraj, Gora-Kalwaria, Gora-Wisniowa, Gorlice, Gorodenka, Gorzkowice, Gostynin, Gowarczow, Grabow, Grabowiec, Grajewo, Graz, Greiz, Grevenmacher, Grocholice, Grodek, Grodek-Jagiellonski, Grodzisk, Grodzisk-Mazowiecki, Gromnik, Grybow, Grzymalow, Guernsey, Gura Humorului, Gushtyn, Gwozdziec, Gwoznica.

Hague, Hainault, Halicz, Halych, Hancewicze, Henrykow, Hermanowicze, Hinkowce, Holeszow, Holobudy, Holyn, Horodenka, Horodlo, Horodok, Hornostaypil, Horyniec, Hotin, Hrubieszow, Hubicze, Huczko, Husiatyn, Hussakow, Huzele.

Ignalino, Ignatowka, Ilnik, Ilow, Ilza, Indura, Innsbruck, Inowlodz, Ivano-Frankivsk, Iwaniska, Iwieniec, Iwje, Iwniki, Izabelin, Izablonka, Izbica, Izbica-Kujawska, Izbica-Lubelski.

Jablonka, Jablonow, Jadow, Jagielnica, Jamnica, Janow, Janowska, Janow-Lubelski, Janow-Sokolski, Jarczow, Jaroslaw, Jasienica-Rosielna, Jasienika, Jaslo, Jassy, Jastrzebia, Jawornik-Polski, Jaworow, Jaworzec, Jedlicze, Jedwabne, Jejse, Jekabpils, Jelgava, Jezierna, Jezierzany, Jezow, Jody, Jordanow, Jozefow, Justingrad.

Kadzidlo, Kalisz, Kalno, Kalusz, Kalynivka, Kamanets-Podolski, Kamiensk, Kamionka-Strumilowa, Kanczuga, Karolowka, Karwodrza, Katowice, Kattowitz, Kazimierz-Dolny, Kerry, Khorostkviv, Khotyn, Kiel, Kielce, Kielczyglow, Kiernozia, Kiev, Kikol, Klagenfurt, Kleck, Kleczew, Kleparow, Kleszczow, Klimontow, Klodawa, Klodno, Klwow, Knihiczyn, Kobryn, Kock, Kolaczyce, Kolbuszowa, Kolki, Kolno, Kolo, Kolomyja, Kolumna, Koluszki, Komancza, Komarno, Komarow, Komarow-Osada, Komianka-Strumulawa, Komsomolske, Koniecpol, Konin, Konskie, Konskowola, Konstantynow-Lodzki, Koprzywnica, Kopyczynce, Korczyna, Korolevo, Korolowka, Koropce, Koropiec, Korycany, Kos, Kosin, Kosiv, Koslov, Kosow, Koszyce, Kovel, Kovno, Kowale-Panskie, Kozienice, Kozlowa, Kozminek, Kozowa, Krakowiec, Krasniczyn, Krasnik, Krasnobrod, Krasnosielc, Krasnystaw, Kremenets, Kreszow, Kristonopel, Kromolow, Kroscienko, Krosniewice, Krosno, Krowica, Krylow, Krynica, Krysnica-Zydroj, Krystynopol, Krzeszow, Kulikow, Kupel, Kuppenheim, Kutno, Kuty.

Labowa, Lacka-Wola, Lacko, Lancut, Lapanow, Lask, Laszki-Gorne, Laszczow, Laubersheim, Leczna, Leczyca, Lelow, Lendava, Lesko, Leszniow, Letychiv, Lezajsk, Lida, Liege, Limanowa, Linz, Lipochova, Lisia-Gora, Lityn, Liubar, Liubomyl, Lodz, Lomazy, Lomza, Lopatyn, Lopuszka-Wielka, Losice, Losyach, Lowicz, Lozisht, Lubaczow, Lubartow, Lublin, Lubycza-Krolewska, Lutomiersk, Lutsk, Lututow, Luxembourg, Lvov, Lvovo, Lyszkowice.

Madenica, Magierow, Majdanek, Majdan-Gorny, Majdan-Krolewski, Majdan-Tatarski, Makariv, Makow-Podhalanski, Malapolska, Malines, Malkinia, Malyj-Gwozdziec, Marculesti, Mariampole, Markowiec, Marseilles, Medenica, Medenice, Medzhybizh, Mendrowitc, Melnytsia-Podilska, Mersch, Michow, Miechow, Miedzyrzec-Podlaski, Mielec, Mielnica, Mikolajewo, Mikolajow, Mikulince, Minsk-Mazowiecki, Mlawa, Modliborzyce, Modrzejow, Modliborzy, Monasterzyska, Mosciska, Mosty-Male, Mosty-Wielki, Mstow, Mszczonow, Mukachevo, Murafa, Muraska-Sobota, Mysienica, Myskow, Myslenice, Myslowice.

Nabburg, Nadvirna, Nadworna, Naisanz, Naklo, Naleczow, Naliboki, Namur, Narajow, Narol, Nawaria, Nemyriv, Niebieszczany, Niebylec, Niemirow, Niepolomice, Niewiadowka, Niewiarow, Nivra, Nizhyn, Novohrad-Volynskyi, Novoselitsa, Nowe-Miasto, Nowotaniec, Nowy-Dwor, Nowy-Korczyn, Nowy-Pohost, Nowy-Sacz, Nowy-Targ, Nowy-Wisnicz, Nowy-Zmigrod, Nur, Nuremberg.

Obertyn, Odrzywol, Odelsk, Olesko, Oleszycek, Oleszyce, Oleszynce, Olhopil, Olkusz, Olpiny, Olyka, Opatow, Opoczno, Opole-Lubelski, Oryszkowice, Orzechowka, Osjakow, Ostend, Ostroleka, Ostrow, Ostrow-Mazowiecka, Ostrowiec-Swietokryzski, Oswiecim, Ottynia, Ozarow, Ozeryany, Ozorkow.

Pabianice, Pajeczno, Palesnica, Paradyz, Parzeczew, Parczew, Pavoloch, Peczenizyn, Pelkin, Perehinsko, Piaski, Piaski-Luterskie, Piatek, Piatkowa, Pidkamin, Pieczychwosty, Pielnia, Pilawa, Pilica, Pilzno, Pinsk, Piotrkow-Kujawski, Piotrkow-Trybunalski, Pistyn, Pithiviers, Piwniczna, Plawno, Pliskov, Plock, Plonsk, Plotnica, Plusy, Podbuz, Poddebice, Podgaytsy, Podhajce, Podwoloczyska, Pohrebysche, Polaniec, Polonnoye, Pomortsy, Pomorzany, Ponary, Poninka, Potylicz, Praga, Praszka, Premishlan, Probuzna, Proszowice, Pryluky, Przeclaw, Przedborz, Przedecz, Przemsyl, Przemyslany, Przeworsk, Przyglow, Przysucha, Pulawy, Pultusk, Punsk, Pustelnik, Pysznica, Pyzdry.

Rabka, Rachmastrivka, Raciaz, Radevits, Radom, Radomsko, Radomysl nad Sanem, Radomysl-Wielki, Radoszyce, Radymno, Radziechow, Radzilow, Radzyn-Podlaski, Rakow, Ranizow, Rawa-Mazoiecka, Rawa-Mazowiecka, Rawa-Ruska, Redange, Rejowiec, Rembertow, Remich, Rhodes, Rietavas, Riga, Rohatyn, Rokietnica, Rokitno, Romanov, Ropczyce, Ros, Rouen, Rovno, Rozadow, Rozan, Rozdol, Rozhniativ, Roznow, Rozprza, Rozwadow, Rozyszcze, Ruda, Ruda-Opalin, Ruda-Pabianicka, Rudki, Rudnik nad Sanem, Rulzheim, Rumbuli, Rusiatycze, Rusinek, Ruzhyn, Rybnik, Rychwal, Ryglica, Rymanow, Rzeszow, Rzgow.

Sadagora, Sadowa-Wisznia, Salzburg, Sambor, Sandomierz, Sandz, Sanniki, Sanok, Sasow, Satu Mare, Savran, Sawin, Schodnica, Sedziszow, Sedziszow-Malopolski, Sejny, Seletin, Sharhorod, Shchirets, Shepetivka, Shpykiv, Shumskoye, Sidra, Siedliszcze, Siauliai, Sieniawa, Siennica-Rozana, Sieradz, Sighet, Skala-Podolska, Skalat, Skalbmierz, Skawina, Skierniewice, Skole, Skopje, Skryhiczyn, Skrzynno, Skulsk, Skvyra, Slavuta, Slawkow, Slesin, Slomniki, Slonim, Slopnice, Slupca, Sniatyn, Snikovska, Snitkov, Sobibor, Sobota, Sochocin, Sokal, Sokolow, Sokolow-Malopolski, Sokolowa-Wola, Sokoly, Sompolno, Sosnovoye, Sosnowiec, Sosnowica, Srocko, Stalowawola, Stanislawczyk, Stanislawow, Staporkow, Stara-Syniava, Stargard, Starokonstinntyniv, Stary-Sacz, Stary-Sambor, Staszow, Staw, Stawiszyn, Stebnik, Steniatyn, Stepan, Stip, Stojanow, Storozhynets, Strelisk, Stremieszyce, Strezliska, Strossov, Strusow, Strykow, Strzeliska-Nowe, Stryj, Strzylki, Strzyzow, Strzyzow nad Wislokiem, Suchystaw, Sulejow, Sulmierzyce, Suprasl, Suwalki, Sviv, Swieciany, Swierze, Swilcza, Swir, Szadek, Szczawnica, Szczebrzeszyn, Szczercow, Szczerzec, Szczuczyn, Szczurowa.

Tarczyn, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnobrzeg-Dzikow, Tarnogrod, Tarnopol, Tarnow, Tarnowska, Tartakow, Telechany, Teniatskya, Teratyn, Tlumacz, Tluste, Tokarnia, Tomaszgrod, Tomaszow-Lubelski, Tomaszowka, Tomaszow-Mazowiecki, Toporow, Torczyn, Torun, Touste, Trawniki, Treblinka, Trembowla, Trochenbrod, Truskawiec, Trzceniec, Trzcianne, Tsygany, Tuchinka, Tuchow, Tuliszkow, Turek, Turilche, Turka, Turobin, Tyczyn, Tykocin, Tylicz, Tyrawa-Woloska, Tyszowce.

Uchanie, Uhnow, Ujazd, Ulanow, Ulaszkowice, Ulazow, Ulucz, Uniejow, Urycz, Urzedow, Uscieczko, Ustjanowa, Ustron, Ustrzyki-Dolne, Usznia.

Valona, Vandziogala, Vienna, Vilna, Virbalis, Volkovtse.

Wabrzezno, Wachenheim, Wachock, Wadowice, Waeka, Wagrowiec, Warka, Warsaw, Warta, Wasosz, Wawolnica-Opole, Wessola, Widawa, Widze, Wieliczka, Wielkie-Oczy, Wielopole-Skrzynskie, Wielun, Wieruszow, Wiltz, Witkow-Nowy, Wizna, Wladyslawow-Russocice, Wloclawek, Wlodawa, Wloszczowa, Wlyn, Wojslawice, Wola-Janienicka, Wola-Krzysztoporska, Wola-Zglobienska, Wolborz, Wolbrom, Wolica, Worms, Wroblik-Szlachecki, Wurzburg, Wysokie-Lubelska, Wysokie-Mazowieckie, Wyszkow, Wyszogrod, Wyzwa-Nowa.

Yedinitz, Yeziorany.

Zabie, Zablotow, Zabno, Zabrowtowka, Zagorow, Zagorz, Zakliczyn, Zaklikow, Zakopane, Zakroczym, Zakrzowek, Zakszowa, Zaleszczki, Zambrow, Zamosc, Zarki, Zarnow, Zaslaw, Zawada, Zawichost, Zawiercie, Zbaraz, Zborob, Zborow, Zdunska-Wola, Zeldec, Zelow, Zgierz, Zhovka, Zloczow, Zmigrod, Zmigrod-Nowy, Zolkiew, Zolochev, Zolynia, Zurawno, Zwierzyniec, Zychlin, Zydaczow, Zydanow, Zyrardow, Zyrmuny, Zywiec.

Here, it might appear improbable that there is a threat that a non-Jew poses to those whose subject is the denial of The Holocaust. But the latent hatred is a sinister threat! In terms of of the truth, the abrogation of their deceit causes a terminal offence. For me though, as we stroll through the omission of names, forever forgotten in the conflagration, we deal with Community, no longer vibrant nor alive, extinguished as its Jewish presence was obliterated. So while it is not amazing to history to accept that some 50/70 million people are dead from within World War II, in a vaguely assessed detail, we are commanded to accept that some 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews, a conservative estimate we cannot begin to assess, we adhere to its confines.

“..When I stand before you lead ..Prosecution of Adolf Eichmann ..I am not standing alone. With me are 6,000,000 accusers. ..they cannot rise ..and point an accusing finger. ..For their ashes are piled up on ..hills of Auschwitz and ..fields of Treblinka ..and are strewn in ..forests of Poland. Their graves are scattered throughout ..length and breadth of Europe. Their blood cries out ..but their voice is not heard. ..I will be their spokesman and in their name I will unfold ..awesome indictment.” Gideon Hausner.

Israel’s Proclamation of Independence

Uncategorised Posted on Thu, May 14, 2020 12:31:57

“..task of history is to stand above ..laws of nature and above human weakness and pass on ..truth to ..future.” Maria Hochberg-Marianska.

There was no liberation of the Jews from The Holocaust, as their destruction continued and did not end at the Victory in Europe or even Victory over Japan day celebrations they could not fully endorse. As the World came to terms with the less than fuller extent of World War II’s cost, the Jewish Survivor found themselves cut off from former homes. Surviving Jews were exempted from any semblance of normality that the existence they had previously enjoyed might have suggested. In Poland especially, the very term Pogrom did not disappear from the vicinity of that great hatred, so clearly expressed from within Poland even prior to Hitler’s assault upon Polish sovereignty.

“..Let me explain that even though I had been in Auschwitz I did not know about ..gas chambers. Can you imagine that. We thought ..when we were there ..that our parents and ..children were taken to camps which were much better. We assumed that they couldn’t live through we were in. It was not until a large contingent from Auschwitz came to Belsen that I had to give up that idea that they were safe. I met 2 women in their 30’s who spoke Hungarian and they asked if it was true that ..Hungarian transports were so severely selected people to ..camps and ..others to be gassed. I said ..What are you saying. ..And they looked at me as if I were foolish ..but they didn’t want to destroy my hope and so didn’t try to explain. I ran back to ..tent and collapsed. I think I cried for weeks. I finally realized that everybody was killed.” Maria Frank Abrams.

In places like Dabrowa-Tarnowska, Grodno, Przemysl and Przytyk local Jews were set upon, beaten and Murdered by their erstwhile non-Jewish but Polish neighbours. For Polish Jewry especially, hatred was still held out to all of those Polish Jews who had deemed it prudent to have Survived Hitler’s intention for them. While we can remember Chelm, Cracow, Kielce, Lublin, Radom and though we might forget to recall the name of Sokoly, I am influenced to ensure Sokoly is never forgotten. From the very moment I commenced this particular journey, and in the name of a 4 year old Jewish Child, Sokoly has become central to the remembrance of all too many extinguished Jewish Communities.

“..long lines of good ..innocent people ..accompanied by crying children ..walking on and on ..ordered about by a handful of men who bully and beat them until they nearly drop. No one is spared. ..sick ..elderly ..children ..babies ..pregnant women ..all ..marched to their death. ” Anne Frank.

For 6,000,000 Jews, thrown to oblivion as the vestiges of a hatred we recognise still to this day, Hitler dismembered what was a vibrant Jewish World and afterwards, what remained of Polish Jewry was not considered worthy of saving. For an innocent Jewish Girl, Tovah ‘Tokele’ Olshak, I have always felt personally concerned that her loss should be so gravely undermined by the terms denial seeks to present to the World. I have concentrated those efforts that are necessary, in order to add to the memory of the 6,000,000 Jews lost to us, whether we consider it our concern or not. While combating the spuriously directed hatred, so engraved into the minds of deniers, the hatred is still unwilling to deliver some peace to the memory of these 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews of Europe, of which Tovah is one.

“ of ..women ..children ..old people ..700 of them ..taken to ..wooden barn. ..forced inside. ..Nazis opened gasoline cans ..spread gas all around ..barn ..and set it on fire. Flames soon gutted ..entire structure.” Yehuda Adelman.

My birth place of Ireland has taught me at least, that the island of Ireland belongs to the Irish People and any nation is always built upon the needs of those People it seeks to represent. But that is Not to say that any national status can be gained at any or all costs. Nor by any means, which would demonstrate a lack of the essential needs for those who seek a state that presents for them their desire for peaceful coexistence, can peace be ignored. For 4,000 years of Israeli History, what informs us of their right of return is the same ideal that must be used to settle all issues of Home, Status and a belonging to ones own.

“..About 2,000 Jewish Men ..Women ..Children murdered in ..first aktion. ..shot ..buried in a mass grave on ..Fedor Hill. Some ..buried in ..Jewish cemetery.” Alicia Appleman-Jurman.

Again, that is Not to say status can come at any or all costs and while Israel has been assailed for all 72 years of its existence as a State, it is duty bound by its own Historical legacy to act in accordance with those principles it has adopted for all of its People. However, and in the place of Israel, and I openly admit that I am a supporter of Jewish existence, the Jews are a Race of People worthier of a World that has remained indifferent to them. For more than the 2,000 years expressed in no christian ideology of concern, where no moral adherence to their struggle to persist has been audible above a whisper, Israel has furrowed a lonely path.

“..And what of them ..little children. ..little ones ..and those smaller still who not long ago were to be seen in ..arms of their mothers ..smiling. ..prattling at strangers. ..waving their tiny hands. ..O ..unrecognizable world in which these children and their mothers are gone.” Rachel Auerbach.

As an historian, what I hope I am at all times is honest and truthful, ever searching for why hatred is all too easily adopted. It is evident in all the years of our own History that, in order to subjugate People, oppress People or in the case of the Jewish People, extinguish their very existence, we have left our conscience at the doors to destructive spaces. For me, pressed by a publisher to consider writing on the Irish struggle for a solution that would be whole on the island of Ireland, I deferred. It was apparent to me, while not wanting to be accused of any form of bias, that an Irish former catholic could not navigate himself away sufficiently from that accusation of bias to allow my words to be honestly read.

“..Bitterness ..pain fill ..Children’s recollections of those poles who hunted them ..betrayed them ..handed them to ..common enemy ..of cruelties perpetrated by other children ..of every human ignominy. ..there are few such testimonies ..reason ..simple ..painful ..children ..are not here to record their stories.” Maria Hochberg-Marianska.

The essential in writing for me, and it is my only aim to write with integrity, and as such I will respond honestly, could not be left open to the vexation of such as the accusation that bias would infer. To what I consider is factually incorrect, either historically biased or indeed a lie, I will not consider other than what is essential in what I write and that is the Truth. I have no wish ever to conflate my work with the perception others might see, as they do in their antagonism for the State of Israel. A moral vacuum was created after The Holocaust, due both the intolerable atrocity and the indifference shared along the margins of the overall annihilation of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe.

“..As our Children cried underneath ..gallows ..wrath of we did not hear.” Natan Alterman.

As an earlier student historian of military conflict, I could no longer allow World War II to detain my search, as our very humanity had been obliterated in the midst of what I would consider was a camouflage to Hitler’s larger aim in The Final Solution of the Jewish Question. Then, as I moved searchingly toward The Holocaust, which threatened the very basis of all civilisation, I found myself both as a writer and as a human being. Of course today there are all too many who would use the precepts of The Holocaust to formulate their own analogy toward these courses of human events. With the sheer weight of the denier lobby, a virus is putting us under fire, a continuance of the very hatred that consumed these Jews.

“..There was also resistance of ..spirit. Some children in ..ghettoes and camps were taught illegal classes. Just to stay alive one more day was an immense struggle for ..humans.” Inge Auerbacher.

In the midst of this Second World War, there is the analogy of such a hatred that was enveloping 6,000,000 Jews, and in a newer conflagration, that it is to be recognised as more than the biblical proportions which could identify it. What brings about the discipline of the historical scientist is the surety of the factual integrity being maintained so that only the truth brings us forward into certainty. Regardless of how we perceive history or regard The Holocaust, any lie against what rages to threaten us, this virus of such a rancid hatred, all too recognisable to the term antisemitism, causes much for us to be very concerned with.

“..Day and night ..dragged off. ..deprived ..of ..possessions. Families ..torn apart ..all ..separated. Children coming home ..find ..their parents have disappeared. Women return find ..their families gone.” Anne Frank. Violence has always been extorted by various nations in exerting conflicts into becoming wars that the ordinary citizen will undoubtedly pay for, and with their lives. Today is clear, that for us to learn from this regressive history, it must teach us the value of shared community and the humanity we are concerned with. For far too long, regarded as indigent, the paucity of our learning ensured, in the ignorance expected, there has always been a certainty for the elitist route of progression that will deliver us to painful struggles and death. Whether we see it or not, we are a World People or we contort to the narrowest view which benefits only the narrow minded.

“..I shall never forget this scene. ..this was no march to ..carriages ..but rather a mute protest ..against this murderous regime. ..a procession human eye has ever witnessed. ..They were going to their death with eyes full of contempt for ..murderers. Seeing Korczak. ..Germans asked ..who is this man. ..I could no longer contain myself. I tried to hide of tears running from my eyes.” Nachum Remba.

So for those, totally fixated on the gains that are established, so as to maintain the not so common good, these leadership miscreants are the custodians of a self interest at an elitist core. I recall, that whilst the ordinary human being, who sought to admonish the ruling bourgeois, and it was the ordinary human being who had fallen, it was those who had already decided and had defined their petty nature in our demise. For me, and on confronting what Hitler attempted for all the Jews of Europe, I have encountered a similar form of hatred which spells out the antisemitism of hatred that the Jews of Europe faced.

“..Reminiscences make a sad ..depressing ..literature.” Januscz Korczak.

Tragically too, what the World remained indifferent to, and as the Surviving Jews were incarcerated in former camps or deprived of any right to return to former home, once more the World was found lacking. Today, marking what for Surviving Jews must have given them the only hope Europe had not presented to them, is spelled out in a further 72 years of continued assault against their integrity. With the creation of the State of Israel, a Homeland that the Surviving Jews and World Jewry could call their own, the escalation of attacks upon all Jewish integrity has grown. Once more, and here, the historian must defend his position, and I will resolutely.

“..My dear ..we are well. I work a little at ..orphanage while Korczak is doing a great deal. I have not arrived because I do not want to leave without Children. Yours ..Stefa.” Stefania Wilczynska.

As a being of human contention, I cannot simply resort to the abuse and accusation, as some do, to avoid any articulation of the promotion of personal concerns against biased positions. Honestly, I do not have an opinion in history and use merely the factual truth to add any form of discourse necessary to convey what has been done, achieved and was wrongly conducted against these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. Don’t get me wrong. Where I disagree is in the treatment of The Holocaust narrative by those whose agenda is both self serving and concealing of any part of the integrity already brought to the table.

“..There are 2 Billion People in ..World ..and I constitute a community many 1,000,000 times greater ..therefore I have ..right ..I have ..duty to look after my own trillions toward which I have certain responsibilities. Januscz Korczak.

The Holocaust is a unique atrocity in all of History and it does not warrant any comparison with any other genocides, perceived or otherwise in all of our history together. However, I see the evil than mankind does and what is an absent in all such expression is the empty rhetoric of the hater. One cannot measure loss of human life nor existence in any way that detains loss within figures, to contain human expressions of loss statistically. Humans are not so easily confined. For me, I see the good in people, and while I suggest that no evil cannot be brought forward without the willingness of those who engage in it to do so, we allow humanity to emerge as a necessary conduit to what will civilise more of us.

“..After my Mother was Murdered ..I was deported together with my Father to Transnistria. We have spent many weeks on a penal trek of sorts. For days we have been slogging along roads deep in mud ..a lengthy convoy surrounded by Romanian and Ukrainian soldiers who flog and shoot at us. Father holds my hand tight feet no longer touch ..ground. ..sound of ..water slices at my legs and my hips. It’s dark all around ..apart from Father’s hand I don’t feel a thing. Truth to tell ..I don’t feel his hand either ..since my hand is already partly numb. If I move just a little I’ll surely drown. Even Father won’t be able to pull me out. Lots of Children have already drowned this way. I fall asleep ..still clutching his hand. But not for long. While the sky is still dark ..soldiers light up ..convoy with sniping and gunfire. Father holds my hand and tugs me. ..mud is deep and I can’t feel ..bottom. I’m still half asleep and tremendously afraid. It hurts. I call out. Father hears my call and answers at once.” Aharon Appelfeld.

It is also essential that there can be no parallels with drawn with terms of The Holocaust, as that which has confiscated 6,000,000 Jewish lives remains incomparable. I have learned My lessons from history and how to treat people respectfully has its own skill set. The historian must defend his position, and I will do so with a respect which such science demands, and which is expected of all of those of any being of human contention. For all human beings, historian or otherwise, we cannot simply resort to abuse and accusation, as some deniers do, so as to avoid the articulation of a promotion of personal positions.

“..For long months we had been suffering because was deaf and dumb to our unparalleled tragedy. We complained about Polish public opinion ..about men in contact with ..Polish government in exile. ..why weren’t they reporting to ..story of ..slaughter of Polish Jewry. We accused Polish liaison men of deliberately keeping our tragedy quiet that their tragedy might not be thrown into ..shade. it seems that all our interventions have finally achieved their purpose. There have been regular broadcasts over ..English radio ..last few weeks ..treating of ..cruelties perpetrated on Polish Jews ..Belzec. Today ..a broadcast summarizing situation ..700,000 ..number of Jews killed in Poland was mentioned. ..broadcast vowed revenge ..a final accounting for all these deeds of violence. Oyneg Shabes has fulfilled a great historical mission. It has alarmed to our fate ..and perhaps saved 100’s of 1,000’s of Polish Jews from extermination. ..I do not know who of our group will survive work through our collected material. thing is clear to all of us. Our toils ..tribulations ..devotion and constant terror ..have not been in vain. We have struck ..enemy ..hard blow. ..not important ..revelation of ..incredible slaughter of Jews will have ..desired effect ..whether or not ..methodical liquidation of entire Jewish communities will stop.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

I honestly do not have an opinion in history, as I keep stressing, but all too often, while merely advancing the factual truth, that this might suggest there is an emotion missing. The weight of 6,000,000 losses deeply affects me, and I realised that in such an immense and overwhelming response in each of the 6 Death Camps I visited. With any responsibility for memory comes a concern, and we have to know that it is focused upon the very People we seek to remember. In the case of the Jewish People, who are The Holocaust, Holocaust denial is a hatred that adds to the treachery of the humanity already confronted by the catastrophe for the Jews.

“..I saw a flood once in ..mountains. Wooden huts ..torn from their foundations were carried above ..raging waters. One could still see lighted lamps in them ..Men ..Women ..Children in their cradles were tied to ..ceiling beams. Other huts were empty inside ..but one could see a tangle of arms waving from ..roof branches blowing in ..wind waving desperately toward heaven ..toward ..river banks for help. At a distance could see mouths gaping ..but one could not hear ..cries because ..roar of ..waters drowned out everything. And that’s how ..Jewish masses flowed to their destruction at ..time of ..deportations. Sinking as helplessly into ..deluge of destruction. And if ..for even one of ..days of my life ..I should forget how I saw you then people ..desperate and confused ..delivered over to extinction ..may all knowledge of me be forgotten and my name be cursed like that of those traitors who are unworthy to share your pain.” Rachel Auerbach.

That denial makes a liar of all of those Allied troops who fought and died to inform us, does not matter a jot to those whose hatred transcends all human concern. That so many Allied troops died to defeat such a tyranny, The Holocaust itself becomes an immense meaning in why they fought and died against such hatred. So as we arrive up to a date we are presented with, are we to then deny to history that the State of Israel has been assigned by a Covenant that is 4,000 years older than their abandonment by us in The Holocaust. We know all too well why the present day State has been afforded its mandate to a return and it is on the backs of these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, Slaughtered as we dithered, as we neglected and stood aside as they were obliterated.

“..One of our companies held out for 40 minutes and another ..for more than 6 hours. ..mine set in ..brush makers area exploded. Several of our companies attacked the dispersing Germans. Our losses in manpower are minimal. That is also an achievement. Yechiel fell. He fell a hero ..machine gun. I feel that great things are happening and what we dared do is of great ..enormous importance. Beginning from today we shall shift over to ..partisan tactic. Three battle companies will move out tonight ..with two tasks ..reconnaissance and obtaining arms. Do you remember ..short range weapons are of no use to us. We use such weapons only rarely. What we need urgently ..grenades ..rifles ..machine guns ..explosives. It is impossible to describe ..conditions under which the Jews of the ghetto are now living. Only a few will be able to hold out. ..remainder will die sooner or later. Their fate is decided. In almost all ..hiding places in which 1,000’s are concealing themselves it is not possible to light a candle for lack of air. With ..aid of our transmitter we heard ..marvellous report on our fighting by ..Shavit radio station. ..fact that we are remembered beyond ..Ghetto walls encourages us in our struggle. Peace go with you friend. Perhaps we may still meet again. ..dream of my life has risen to become fact. Self defence in ..Ghetto will have been a reality. Jewish armed resistance and revenge are facts. I have been a witness to ..magnificent ..heroic fighting of Jewish men in battle.” Mordechai Anielewicz.

It is an intolerable hatred that any form of racism presents to us and we do not draw ethical nor moral conclusions from history without the efficacy which restores principles to the narrative debate responding to all hatreds. In 1948, that Jewish Covenant, a well defined Christian surety, enable all Jews, and not just Survivoral Jews, to have a home that had been there’s since many forms of civilising influence had already pointed them toward it. I took a risk with my choice to comment, to write and accuse and I gambled that the World had not become jaded by what I have to say. Health has impacted upon my ability, so to now do other than write ensures my time is representative more fully of what I initially assumed would be a witness phase with 3 Books to write.

“..As long as we live ..they too will live ..for they are now a part of us. As we remember them.” Felicia Carmelly.

It has been a rather nuanced journey, interspersed with many accusations, threats and devious methods to undermine the effort I see that is necessary in memory. Why would so many miscreants object to naming an austrian corporal in the title of my 4th. Book. Unless it is due to an accusation of his inhuman treatment and Slaughter of these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. Or is the name of Belzec so shocking in terms of The Holocaust which confined so many more Jews. This miniscule hater, with a well known forgery for a War causing 50/70 million deaths in WWII, deserves nothing but our contempt a despising of his very presence in our World.

“..On ..October 5th. 1942 ..I visited ..building office at Dubno foreman told me that in ..vicinity of Jews from Dubno ..had been shot in 3 large pits ..each about 30 metres long ..3 metres deep. About 1,500 persons ..killed daily. All be liquidated. As ..shootings had taken place in his presence he was still very upset. Moennikes and I went straight to .. pits. Nobody prevented us. I heard a quick succession of shots from behind one of ..mounds of earth. ..people off .. lorries ..women ..children ..all ages ..undress upon ..order of ..SS man ..who carried ..whip. They had to put their clothes on separate piles clothing ..underclothing. I saw ..heap of shoes ..800 to 1,000 pairs ..great piles of clothes and undergarments. Without screaming or weeping these people undressed ..stood in family groups ..kissed each other ..said their farewells ..waited for a sign from another SS man ..who stood near ..pit ..also with ..whip in ..hand. During ..15 minutes that I stood near ..pit ..I did not hear anyone complain or beg for mercy. I watched a family of about 8 ..woman ..both about 50 ..with their children ..aged about 1 ..8 ..10 ..and 2 grown up daughters ..about 20 to 24. An old woman with snow white hair was holding ..1 year old child in her arms ..singing something to it ..tickling it. ..child was crowing with delight. and wife were looking on with tears in their eyes. ..father was holding ..hand of a boy about 10 ..speaking to him softly. ..boy was fighting back his tears. ..father pointed to ..stroked ..boy’s head and seemed to explain something to him. At that moment ..SS man at ..pit shouted something to his comrade ..who separated off about 20 persons and ordered them to go behind ..mound of earth. Among them .. family I have mentioned. I still clearly remember a dark haired ..slim girl who pointed to herself as she passed close to me and said ..’23’ I walked to ..other side of ..mound and found myself standing before an enormous grave. ..people lay so closely packed on top of ..other ..only their heads ..visible. Nearly all had blood running over their shoulders from their heads. Some ..still moving. Some lifted an arm and turned a head to show that they were still alive. ..pit was already two-thirds full. I estimated that it already contained about 1,000 people. I looked round for who had shot them. He was ..SS man ..sitting on ..edge of ..pit ..legs dangling into it. He had a sub machine gun ..smoking a cigarette. ..people ..completely naked ..went down ..steps ..cut in .. clay wall of ..pit ..climbed over ..heads of those already lying there indicated by ..SS man. They laid down in front of ..dead or injured people. Some of them caressed those who were still alive and spoke to them softly. Then I heard a series of shots. I looked into ..pit and saw ..bodies were twitching or ..heads lay motionless on top of ..bodies which lay before them. Blood was pouring from their necks. I was surprised I was not ordered away ..but saw there were also 2 or 3 uniformed policemen standing nearby. batch was already approaching. They climbed into ..pit lined up against ..previous victims and were shot. When I walked back round ..mound I noticed another lorry load of people ..had just arrived. included sick ..infirm people. A very thin old woman ..with terribly thin legs ..was undressed by others who were already naked ..while 2 people supported her. ..woman appeared to be paralysed. ..naked people carried ..woman around ..mound. I left with Moennikes ..drove back to Dubno. ..morning of day ..I visited ..saw about 30 naked people lying near ..pit ..about 30 to 50 metres ..from it. Some ..still alive ..looked straight in front of them with a fixed stare ..seemed not to notice ..chillness nor ..workers of my firm who stood around. A girl of about 20 spoke to me and asked me to give her clothes and help her escape. At that moment we heard a fast car approach and I noticed it was an SS detail. I moved away to my site. 10 minutes later we heard shots from ..vicinity of ..pit. Those Jews who were still alive had been ordered to throw ..corpses into ..pit then they themselves had to lie down in ..pit to be shot in ..neck.” Hermann Graebe.

I require your assistance more and more, and will judge where I belong in these Community’s I am attached to by the response to that need. There has Never been any other demand than to see in my work a very passionate response to a graver wrong no man has done against their fellow man. It is difficult at times to navigate the personal attacks as how else am I to be recorded, as I criticised for writing the words of concern for so many People abandoned with little or no concern for them. For me, unless the words I write are read, they remain isolated from those who might be otherwise critical of their content. I am not a Jew. There is No reason I should be.

“..In ..second chamber army of teenage girls sheared ..newcomers’ body hair with scissors and razors. Some left their ‘clients’ cut and bruised ..others tugged while cutting our hair. ..girl who attended to me was by no means an expert hairdresser ..but it appears she wanted me to look dignified. She did not seem to remember how mercilessly her hair had been shorn. I smiled and whispered ..Bog zaplac May God reward you. It came naturally ..expressing all my appreciation for a human being who had appeared at ..bottom of ..pit and shone a bright light in ..darkness.” Pearl Benisch.

But the violence that was state sponsored is an affront to all of humanity and as it contorts to suppress newer dissent, what Hitler sought from violence, as he used it to fight a World War. This premise in conflict was as a camouflage to cover his more directed aim, The Final Solution of The Jewish Question. The World recognises that differences are best resolved when nations require the written word to end the act of conflict. But while the strife continues, the attention of any Peoples is diffused and distracted by government hoping control will be maintained, even if truth concerning past endeavours seals the pact we have with the truth we must see as essential.

“..Salaspils ..largest of ..Camps. ..authorities do not encourage remembering. No where on monuments it mentioned that Jews died there.” Maja Abramowitch.

I do Not seek to waste my words but they can be wasted. People who do not understand the loss to humanity involved in 6,000,000 Jews being Slaughtered, are not my readers. They will never appreciate why I endeavour to recall, remember and accuse in the name of all humanity thrown aside as these Jews are thrown headlong into oblivion. If, or when I compose 6,000,000 words on such an atrocity, I will Never come to terms with the bitter sadness such inhumanity will undoubtedly present. I expect you all to be mortally offended by what I place before you but please see past the word or the image to know the gravity of intolerance that lays unhidden behind the scene.

“..anyone ..attempting to write ..on ..nature of Nazism ..will not be able to express ..truth ..Nazism’s cruelty and barbarism. writer among ..gentiles is qualified for this task. ..a Jewish writer who lives of his people ..who feels ..suffers their agony ..cannot find a true path here. Only one who feels ..taste of Nazi rule ..only one who ..bared his back to ..lashes ..only ..a writer ..if he is a man of sensitivity ..might be able to.” Chaim Aron Kaplan.

Know too that my words alone cannot offend the sensitivity of anyone who knows their effect is meant to remind us of all that is lost. I recall reading from Maria Marianska, one of the earliest chroniclers of the Jewish Children in The Holocaust. Her pains taking and evidential collection of Children’s experience ensured I know why my effort is essential to the Jewish life that was lived and that it is not further degraded. What comes of the wasted energy of those who seek to secure any reason for us not to remember that there was once many more Jewish People amongst us and we choose to recall them to both honour them and accuse their abuser’s.

“..a powerful ..pitiless fact ..thick grass is growing over ..mounds ..ditches ..pits that are ..common graves of ..murdered Jewish Children.” Maria Hochberg-Marianska.

It is impossible for me to consider that anyone, knowing Hitler’s mein kampf existed in this world, that a World could not know the hatred of Hitler’s intention. I have perhaps given all, and all too often at times, and sometimes that is without respite, but I would not change the course of any part of that. While it still amazes me though that my work does continually add confusion to the essential of remembering, there is in those asking why I continue in such past memory, that 6,000,000 Jews are no more speaks more volumes than my words have yet to do. My very effort to recall as many of these 6,000,000 human beings cannot be diminished by anyone questioning any part of my commitment.

“..In spite of everything I still believe ..people are really good at heart.” Anne Frank.

True, I am having to slow things down, but I am none the less committed, and wholly fixed to the cause which 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews have presented to me. For me too, cutting back on the essential that has always driven me toward too many sites that are seeking to destroy the memory essential in recalling all we have lost, with the same or similar seeming vindication for their hatred, I am assured my words remain essential. I not here merely judging that the tutoring of our compassionate concern must be raised above the clamour to silence a charitable duty. I have stood up to so much and even those who still see the atrocity is the pictures I present, have simply not looked at the progress of their delivery, the rounding up, the hounding, the accumulation of hatred that so destroyed 6,000,000 Jews of Europe.

Always to Remember, Never to Forget.

“..If there were only one decent German ..then he should be cherished despite that whole barbaric gang ..and because of that one decent German it is wrong to pour hatred over an entire people.” Etty Hillesum.

The Proclamation of Independence on behalf of the Provisional Government of Israel Tel Aviv, Israel May 14th. 1948, 5th. Iyar 5708.

The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel

The Land of Israel was the birthplace of the Jewish people. Here their spiritual, religious and political identity was shaped. Here they first attained to statehood, created cultural values of national and universal significance and gave to the world the eternal Book of Books. After being forcibly exiled from their land, the people kept faith with it throughout their Dispersion and never ceased to pray and hope for their return to it and for the restoration in it of their political freedom. Impelled by this historic and traditional attachment, Jews strove in every successive generation to re-establish themselves in their ancient homeland.

In recent decades they returned in their masses. Pioneers, defiant returnees, and defenders, they made deserts bloom, revived the Hebrew language, built villages and towns, and created a thriving community controlling its own economy and culture, loving peace but knowing how to defend itself, bringing the blessings of progress to all the country’s inhabitants, and aspiring towards independent nationhood. In the year 5657 (1897), at the summons of the spiritual father of the Jewish State, Theodore Herzl, the First Zionist Congress convened and proclaimed the right of the Jewish people to national rebirth in its own country.

This right was recognized in the Balfour Declaration of the 2nd November, 1917, and re-affirmed in the Mandate of the League of Nations which, in particular, gave international sanction to the historic connection between the Jewish people and Eretz-Israel and to the right of the Jewish people to rebuild its National Home. The catastrophe which recently befell the Jewish people – the massacre of millions of Jews in Europe – was another clear demonstration of the urgency of solving the problem of its homelessness by re-establishing in Eretz-Israel the Jewish State, which would open the gates of the homeland wide to every Jew and confer upon the Jewish people the status of a fully privileged member of the community of nations. Survivors of the Nazi holocaust in Europe, as well as Jews from other parts of the world, continued to migrate to Eretz-Israel, undaunted by difficulties, restrictions and dangers, and never ceased to assert their right to a life of dignity, freedom and honest toil in their national homeland.

In the Second World War, the Jewish community of this country contributed its full share to the struggle of the freedom- and peace-loving nations against the forces of Nazi wickedness and, by the blood of its soldiers and its war effort, gained the right to be reckoned among the peoples who founded the United Nations. On the 29th November, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution calling for the establishment of a Jewish State in Eretz-Israel; the General Assembly required the inhabitants of Eretz-Israel to take such steps as were necessary on their part for the implementation of that resolution. This recognition by the United Nations of the right of the Jewish people to establish their State is irrevocable.

This right is the natural right of the Jewish people to be masters of their own fate, like all other nations, in their own sovereign State. Accordingly we, members of the People’s Council, representatives of the Jewish Community of Eretz-Israel and of the Zionist Movement, are here assembled on the day of the termination of the British Mandate over Eretz-Israel and, by virtue of our natural and historic right and on the strength of the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly, hereby declare the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. We declare that, with effect from the moment of the termination of the Mandate being tonight, the eve of Sabbath, the 6th Iyar, 5708 (15th May, 1948), until the establishment of the elected, regular authorities of the State in accordance with the Constitution which shall be adopted by the Elected Constituent Assembly not later than the 1st October 1948, the People’s Council shall act as a Provisional Council of State, and its executive organ, the People’s Administration, shall be the Provisional Government of the Jewish State, to be called “Israel.”

The State of Israel will be open for Jewish immigration and for the Ingathering of the Exiles; it will foster the development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants; it will be based on freedom, justice and peace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel; it will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex; it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture; it will safeguard the Holy Places of all religions; and it will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations. The State of Israel is prepared to cooperate with the agencies and representatives of the United Nations in implementing the resolution of the General Assembly of the 29th November, 1947, and will take steps to bring about the economic union of the whole of Eretz-Israel.

We appeal to the United Nations to assist the Jewish people in the building-up of its State and to receive the State of Israel into the community of nations. We appeal – in the very midst of the onslaught launched against us now for months – to the Arab inhabitants of the State of Israel to preserve peace and participate in the up building of the State on the basis of full and equal citizenship and due representation in all its provisional and permanent institutions.

We extend our hand to all neighbouring states and their peoples in an offer of peace and good neighbourliness, and appeal to them to establish bonds of cooperation and mutual help with the sovereign Jewish people settled in its own land. The State of Israel is prepared to do its share in a common effort for the advancement of the entire Middle East. We appeal to the Jewish people throughout the Diaspora to rally round the Jews of Eretz-Israel in the tasks of immigration and up building and to stand by them in the great struggle for the realization of the age-old dream – the redemption of Israel. Placing our trust in the Almighty, we affix our signatures to this proclamation at this session of the provisional Council of State, on the soil of the Homeland, in the city of Tel-Aviv, on this Sabbath eve, the 5th day of Iyar, 5708 May 14th. 1948.

David Ben-Gurion, Daniel Auster, Mordekhai Bentov, Yitzchak Ben Zvi, Eliyahu Berligne, Fritz Bernstein, Rabbi Wolf Gold, Meir Grabovsky, Yitzchak Gruenbaum, Dr. Abraham Granovsky, Eliyahu Dobkin, Meir Wilner-Kovner, Zerach Wahrhaftig, Herzl Vardi, Rachel Cohen, Rabbi Kalman Kahana, Saadia Kobashi, Rabbi Yitzchak Meir Levin, Meir David Loewenstein, Zvi Luria, Golda Meir Myerson, Nachum Nir, Zvi Segal, Rabbi Yehuda Leib Hacohen Fishman, David Zvi Pinkas, Aharon Zisling, Moshe Kolodny, Eliezer Kaplan, Abraham Katznelson, Felix Rosenblueth, David Remez, Berl Repetur, Mordekhai Shattner, Ben Zion Sternberg, Bekhor Shitreet, Moshe Shapira and Moshe Shertok.

BELSEN 75 years ago Today

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, April 15, 2020 12:43:03

“..I could write ..hundred’s ..thousands of pages ..and I would never manage to exhaust all ..misery bring out all ..bitter details of our existence. Especially if I were to begin to enumerate all ..cases of personal disaster ..tragedy of former lives ..great individual sufferings that came before this ..collective misery would be endless. ..volume of man’s pain is immense ..impossible to measure this ocean of suffering ..abyss of ..human soul under terror and torture is unfathomable. To try to describe all this ..a useless endeavor. ..far exceeds my capabilities.” Hanna Levy-Hass.

I promised a Survivor of Belsen I would visit all x6 Death Camps within Poland, assured that these were the Death Camps intended solely for the Slaughter of all Jews. This does not mean in the slightest that the Concentration and Labour Camp system did not also mean death and destruction to those Jews who entered them. However, that was the difference I placed before all considerations of what was and remains these x6 Death Camps in Poland. It remains an unequivocal resolve by Hitler and his legions that wherever the Jew was found, the Jew would remain, deceased.

“..We travelled by train in 3rd. class passenger coaches ..arrived early in ..morning at another camp ..Belsen. ..We had never heard this name before and had no idea what it was like. soon as we marched into ..we could see that it was even larger than Westerbork ..and much worse. ..barbed wire ..guard towers ..electrified fences ..SS ..with bloodhounds ..machine guns ..searchlights. ..a real concentration camp.” Paul Oppenheimer.

While the ultimate intention was always the destruction of all the Jewish People, these x6 industrial complexes were soley erected to ensure every ounce of Jewish existence would be obliterated within them. Once ready to make the journeys, and while it was much more than preparedness allows, I was not at all prepared for what over comes one human being in places were 1,000,000’s of other human beings will no longer leave. That was the overriding memory as I stood at the gates of each of these places, known to ignominy as Auschwitz, Belzec, Birkenau, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka.

“..German people could have tried to save those people ..but maybe they were afraid for themselves. I feel afraid when I hear people say The Holocaust never happened. I feel nothing but pity for ..ignorance of such people ..shame on them ..they should know better. ..1,500,000 ..Jewish Children were murdered by ..Nazis 1,000’s of other innocent children perished because they were considered not worthy of a life. Why would I hate these people? That would make me ..same as them and I will never be that.” Tomi Reichental.

While No Jew was ever meant to escape the clutches of the industrialised process of annihilation in each of any of the Camps, Death Camps and otherwise, some did, far too many did not. I would suggest the burden of being able to present myself before them all, knowing full well they would remain as I walked back out at the end of my visits, was deeply overwhelming. But this is not my journey through the Jewish hell on earth as just these x6 Death Camps represent. It is to add to what I know all added to the destructive process which added to at least 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews, and Belsen was an able assistant in this atrocity we know is The Holocaust.

“..during ..German occupation of Holland ..Germans decided to concentrate ..Jewish population in Amsterdam East. I was 11 years old. ..We saw families dragged from their homes ..never to be heard of again. ..God only knew what was happening to them.” Hetty Verolme.

On October 25th. 1943, some 1,700 Jews who were being detained within Belsen, held as exchane hostages to a World’s indifference toward them, were deported to Auschwitz and oblivion within Birkenau. Then, on October 28th. 1944 as Hitler’s 1,000 year reich was nearing its end, 988 years short of that aspiration, a major selection from amongst the Jews of Birkenau sees 8,000 deported toward the Concentration Camp at Belsen. Amongst these are Anne Frank and her Sister Margot Frank who had both been transported to Auschwitz at the end of October 1944. Wednesday August 30th. 1944

“..children who know no joy. Fear ..nothing but fear ..these poor little mortified creatures ..standing ..hours ..bodies filled with terror ..gazefixed ..awaiting whatever might happen. They bury their heads in an old rag up against ..adults ..seeking shelter from ..cold and ..fear. ..their eyes remain wide open ..alarmed those of a hunted animal.” Hanna Levy-Hass.

They were now brought to Belsen Concentration Camp near Hannover in Germany and where already there was a typhus epidemic ready to take them. The outbreak, which broke out shortly thereafter, as the lack of any humanitarian concern for those interned there, would see many more 1,000’s of lives ravaged by disease, hunger and always the starvation. Death for so many, including Margot, just a few short days before Anne herself, and who both succumbed to their same debillitating effects, were merely weeks away from freedom.

“..My Sister Margot was born in Frankfurt am Main ..Germany ..1926. I was born ..June 12th. 1929. I lived in Frankfurt until I was 4. Because we are Jewish father immigrated to Holland in 1933.” Anne Frank.

It is uncertain when Anne actually died though this is more likely to have been sometime toward the end of February or the beginning of March. However, the liberation of Belsen should have been effected on April 12th. 1945 whilst the stench of the destruction was filtered through to Allied High Command. The forces of General Miles Dempsey, CO British 2nd. Army had driven the German Army back to Germany. The ring of allied fire had signalled its arrival for quite a number of days around Luneberg Heath and for the SS contingent of Belsen, they were fully aware of what approached them.

“..This human mass is heterogeneous. It is piled together here force violence this small patch of dirty ..humid ground ..forced to live in ..most humiliating conditions and to endure ..most brutal deprivations ..that all human passions ..weaknesses have unleashed themselves ..taking on beastly forms.” Hanna Levy-Hass.

Lead units of the 11th. Armoured Division, had sought in the intervening period, allowed for the SS to relinquish its tenuous hold and from April 12th. till the command post at Belsen was handed over, April 15th., this short period secured more Jews would die. Of course, the certainty that more Nazi evidence was consigned to the inferno and, the future prospect for any Jewish Survivor of Belsen was weakened, indefensibly. Both Anne and Margot’s bodies are interred some where in a mass grave, no marker to show exactly where! Belsen was liberated on April 15th. 1945 by the British Army.

“..Conentration Camp is not more and only ..silent mass graves tell ..terrible story of what took place there during ..barbaric regime of ..Nazis. I had great resrvations about entering Belsen once again ..but did not rekindle ..horrors. was as if those mass graves were telling me ..We are at peace now.” Hetty Verolme.

On April 15th. 1945 the British Army liberated Belsen as 13,000 Dead Jews lay as they fell and History records tht both Anne and Margot Frank are amongst them. It is now believed that Anne succumbed to the appalling conditions sometime prior to the end of March, though exactness is not as reliable as it should be. Some 50,000 Jews and others were murdered here. While 40,000 inmates are freed, the Jewish Survivor is still dying at the rate of 600 or 700 per day. The toll for all who died here, is incalculable! On April 17th. 1945, this is what Richard Dimbleby saw and recorded:

“..Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people. You could not see which was which except perhaps by a convulsive movement or ..last quiver of a sigh from a living skeleton too weak to move. lay with their heads against ..corpses and around them moved ..awful ghostly procession of emaciated ..aimless people with nothing to do and no hope of life. Unable to move out of your way ..unable to look at ..terrible sights around them. There was no privacy ..nor did men or women ask it any longer. Women stood and squatted stark naked in ..dust trying to wash themselves and to catch ..lice on their bodies. Babies had been born here ..tiny wizened things that could not live. A mother driven mad screamed at a British sentry to give her milk for her child and thrust ..tiny mite into his arms and ran off crying terribly. He opened the bundle and found had been dead for days. This day at Belsen was ..most horrible of my life.” Richard Dimbleby.


Diary of a Young Girl Anne Frank.

Diary of Bergen-Belsen 1944-1945 Hanna Levy-Hass.

From Belsen to Buckingham Palace Paul Oppenheimer.

I Was a Boy in Belsen Tomi Reichental.

The Children’s House of Belsen Hetty Verolme.

“..Nothing is left of ..stench of rotting corpses. Now only ..memory remains ..and we who bear it.” Paul Oppenheimer.

Rivka Yosselevska

Uncategorised Posted on Mon, March 16, 2020 19:35:23

One of the most gruelling, if not compelling Testimony’s on the human disregard for another human life which has ever been delivered anywhere by anyone, has been afforded to us all by a Woman, and not just any Woman. For Rivka Yosselevska is a Jew, a Mother, a Daughter and a Grandchild, and such is the delivery of the atrocity she describes, the suggestion of any humanity that supposedly civilises us is put into question.

Her vivid memory, of the scene in a ravine close by to her home in Mizoscz, delivers her terrifying account and shakes the very bedrock of the term humanity. For me, nothing accosts my sense of humanity more than the thought that any human being can so disregard another Human Beings life, they steal it, take it away from them or destroy it. Given the gravest depravity ever witnessed in all of History, The Holocaust provides ample proof that humanity has been mortally scarred by what we have come to learn of its passage through our time.

So while I relay barely an essence of what Rivka has borne through her life as a Survivor, No one, and I mean absolutely No one must see in The Holocaust other than the condemnation for those who committed these crimes. That the very shameful display of disregard, intolerance and even indifference to the Jewish struggle, and not just for life, but for the entirety of Jewish existence itself, marks this single episode as one amongst the many we have even as yet failed to identify.

Here I stand before History though, to attest to what the shameful disregard for human life must look like and what the 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews would resemble on any given day and within any place of extermination and annihilation. We should have no place within that shameful delivery of atrocity upon atrocity, other than as the final witnesses to the descent of all humanity into that abyss, as accusers of the perpetrator’s. What I present here, the evidence of just one dark scene, so despairing, is at Mizoscz in the Volhynia, close to Rovno, Rowne.

This depiction though is merely a fraction of what is contained within that overall abyss which swallowed not just 6,000,000 Jews but what civilisation represents and culture here denegrates. Mizoscz is a town of some 2,000 Jews, in existence as a Town for Jews since the 1700’s and which soon became 1,700 Jews as with the arrival of the Germans on June 27th. 1941, 300 Jews moved to the Russia side of the border. Life for the Jews here was not to be a pleasant one and accounts of atrocity are as similar as they were to be found, wherever the Germans entered into a Shtetl, Village, Town or City where the Jewish People sought to reside.

The Hitlerite search for Lebensraum was the camouflage by which The Final Solution of The Jewish Question would be led. There were pockets of Jewish resistance in the Town and these were continuous, and depending on the application of its interpretive meaning, or which one wishes to give to it, set the Jews of Mizoscz on a headlong confrontation with the German capacity for cruelty, bitterness, assault and Jewish death. But, what flared in the Ghetto on October 14th. 1942, was open and direct but was swiftly quashed by an Einsatz detachment which left 200 Jews Dead.

The remainder of the Jewish People of Mizoscz, mostly Women and Children and the Elderly were taken to be Slaughtered in a ravine that was close by the sugar factory outside the town on the way toward Rovno. Here, and in the depths of deep despair, Rivka Yosselevska holds out a human hand to assist a fellow human being who is almost crushed by the weight of the crimes that have been cascading down upon her. But please, while you must be prepared to be disgusted or repelled by what Rivka has to inform us of, kindly save all that will disgust us for those who stood over the Jews and perpetrated these most despicable crimes.

What history has taught us, in what has been our civilising influence for more than 10,000 years, stands before us now in this ravine. It is a crime which desecrates the very terms of any humanity, and in the most vicious, callous and depraved atrocity ever to be recorded, it is presented. Its very record, which Rivka delivered for posterity, remains as a warning that has been little heeded over these past 80 years or so. However, that the very atrocity was delivered by human beings against fellow Human Beings, which is striking enough, in its retelling here, the requirement of Jewish Survival is met.

That is what is deserving, in that it is a Jewish Surviving Human Being who recognised the ultimate importance in informing us. That the Testimony to human endurance and capacity to Survive, which belongs to Rivka Yosselvska, is not only to credit a Woman, a Mother, a Daughter and a Grandchild who is also a Jew who Survived, but for any Jew who Survived at all against all odds and intentions.

“..We were told to leave ..houses take with us only ..Children. We were always used to leaving Ghetto at short order ..because very often they would take us all out for a roll call. Then we would all appear. But we felt and realised that this was not an ordinary roll call ..but something very special. As if ..Angel of Death was in charge. was swarming with Germans. Some 4 to 5 Germans to every Jew. ..They already took all we had. ..And thus ..Children screamed. They wanted food ..water. This was not ..first time. But we took nothing with us. We had no food water ..and we did not know ..reason. ..Children were hungry and thirsty. We were held this way for 24 hours while they were searching ..houses all ..time ..searching for valuables. In ..meantime ..gates of ..Ghetto were opened. A large truck appeared and all of us were put on to ..truck ..either thrown ..or went up. ..they were counted. They entered ..Ghetto again ..and searched for every missing person. We were tortured until late in ..evening. Those for whom there was no room in ..truck were ordered to run after ..truck. l had my daughter in my arms and ran after ..truck. There were mothers who had 2 or 3 Children and held them in their arms ..running after ..truck. We ran all ..way. There were those who fell ..we were not allowed to help them rise. They were shot ..right there ..wherever they fell. When we reached ..destination ..People from ..truck were already down and they were undressed ..all lined up. All my family was there ..undressed ..lined up. ..People from ..truck ..those who arrived before us. There was a kind of hillock. At ..foot of this little hill ..there was a dugout. We were ordered to stand at of ..hillock and ..4 devils shot us ..each one of us separately. ..They were SS men ..four of them. They were armed to ..teeth. They were real messengers of ..Devil and ..Angel of Death. ..When I came up to ..we saw People ..naked ..lined up. But we were still hoping that this was only torture. Maybe there is hope ..hope of living. One could not leave ..line ..but I wished to see ..what are they doing on ..hillock. Is there anyone down below. I turned my head and saw that some 3 or 4 rows were already killed ..on ..ground. There were some 12 People among ..dead. I also want to mention what my child said while we were lined up in ..Ghetto ..she said ..Mother ..why did you make me wear ..Shabbat dress ..we are being taken to be shot. and when we stood near ..dug out near ..grave ..she said ..Mother ..why are we waiting ..let us run. Some of ..young people tried to run ..but they were caught immediately ..and they were shot right there. It was difficult to hold on to ..Children. We took all Children not ours ..and we carried them ..we were anxious to get it all over ..suffering of ..Children was difficult ..we all trudged along to come nearer to and to come nearer to ..end of ..torture of ..Children. ..Children were taking leave of their Parents and Parents of their elder People. We were driven ..we were already undressed ..clothes were removed and taken away ..our Father did not want to undress ..he remained in his underwear. We were driven up to ..grave ..this shallow. When it came to our turn ..our Father was beaten. We prayed ..we begged with my Father to undress ..but he would not undress ..he wanted to keep his underclothes. He did not want to stand naked. ..Then they tore off off ..old man and he was shot. I saw it with my own eyes. And then they took my Mother ..and we said ..let us go before her ..but they caught Mother and shot her too ..and then there was my Grandmother Father’s Mother ..standing there ..she was 80 years old and ..had 2 Children in her arms. And then there was my Father’s Sister. She also had Children in her arms and she was shot on with ..babies in her arms. And finally my turn came. There was my younger Sister ..and she wanted to leave ..she prayed with ..Germans ..she asked to run ..naked ..she went up to ..Germans with one of her friends ..they were embracing each other ..and she asked to be spared ..standing there naked. He looked into her eyes and shot the 2 of them. They fell together in their embrace ..2 young girls Sister and her young friend. Then my second Sister was shot and then my turn did come. We turned towards ..grave and then he turned around and asked ..Whom shall I shoot first. We were already facing ..grave. ..German asked ..Whom do you want me to shoot first. I did not answer. I felt him take ..Child from my arms. ..Child cried out and was shot immediately. And then he aimed at me. First he held on to my hair and turned my head around ..I stayed standing ..I heard a shot ..but I continued to stand and then he turned my head again and he aimed ..revolver at me and ordered me to watch and then turned my head around and shot at me. Then I fell to ..ground into ..pit amongst ..bodies ..but I felt nothing. ..moment I did feel I felt a sort of heaviness and then I thought maybe I am not alive any more ..but I feel something after I died. I thought I was dead ..that this was ..feeling which comes after death. Then I felt that I was choking ..people falling over me. I tried to move and felt that I was alive and that I could rise. I was strangling. I heard ..shots and I was praying for another bullet to put an end to my suffering ..but I continued to move about. I felt that I was choking ..strangling ..but I tried to save myself find some air to breathe ..and then I felt that I was climbing towards of ..grave above ..bodies. I rose ..and I felt bodies pulling at me with their hands ..biting at my legs ..pulling me down ..down. And yet with my last strength I came up on top of ..grave ..and when I did ..I did not know many bodies were lying all over ..dead people ..I wanted to see ..end of this stretch of dead bodies but I could not. It was impossible. They were lying ..all dying ..suffering ..not all of them dead ..but in their last sufferings ..naked ..shot ..but not dead. Children crying



..I could not stand on my feet. Germans were gone. There was nobody there. No one standing up. I was naked ..covered with blood ..dirty from ..other bodies ..with ..excrement from other bodies which was poured on to me. When I was shot I was wounded in ..head. I have a scar to this day from ..shot by ..Germans ..and yet ..somehow I did come out of ..grave. This was something I thought I would never live to recount. I was searching among ..dead for my little girl ..and I cried for her ..Merkele was her name ..Merkele. There were Children crying



but they were all smeared with blood and one could not recognize ..Children. I cried for my daughter. From afar I saw 2 women standing. I went up to them. They did not know me ..I did not know them ..and then I said who I was ..and then they said

..So you survived. And there was another woman crying ..Pull me out from amongst ..corpses ..I am alive

We were thinking how could we escape from ..cries of ..Woman ..Help ..pull me out from ..corpses. We pulled her out ..her name was Mikhlya Rozenberg. We removed ..corpses and ..dying people who held on to her and continued to bite. She asked us to take her out free her ..but we did not have ..strength. And thus we were there all night ..fighting for our lives ..listening to ..cries and ..screams and all of a sudden we saw ..mounted Germans. We did not notice them coming in because of ..screamings and ..shootings from ..bodies around us. ..Germans ordered that all ..corpses be heaped together into one big heap and with shovels they were heaped together ..all ..corpses ..among them many still alive ..Children running about I saw them. I saw ..Children. They were running after me ..hanging on to me. Then I sat down in ..field and remained sitting with ..Children around me. ..Children who got up from ..heap of corpses. Then Germans came and were going around We were ordered to collect all ..Children ..but they did not approach me ..and I sat there watching how they collected ..Children. They gave a few shots and ..Children were dead. They did not need many shots. ..Children were almost dead ..and this Rozenberg woman pleaded with ..Germans to be spared ..but they shot her. They all left ..Germans and ..nonJews from around They removed ..machine guns and they took ..trucks. I saw that they all left ..and ..four of us ..we went on to ..grave ..praying to fall into ..grave ..even alive ..envying those who were dead already and thinking what to do now. I was praying for death to come. I was praying for ..grave to be opened and to swallow me alive. Blood was spurting from ..grave in many places a well of water ..and whenever I pass a spring now ..I remember ..blood which spurted from ..ground ..from that grave. I was digging with my fingernails ..trying to join ..dead in that grave. I dug with my fingernails ..but ..grave would not open. I did not have enough strength. I cried out to my Mother my Father. Why did they not kill me. What was my sin. I have no one to go to. I saw them all being killed. Why was I spared. Why was I not killed. And I remained there ..stretched out on ..grave ..3 days and 3 nights. l saw no one. I heard no one. Not a farmer passed by. After 3 days ..shepherds drove their herd on to ..field ..and they began throwing stones at me ..but I did not move. At night ..herds were taken back and during they threw stones believing that either it was a dead woman or a mad woman. They wanted me to rise answer. But I did not move. ..shepherds were throwing stones at me until I had to leave I hid near ..grave. A farmer passed by ..after a number of weeks. l was with them until ..very end.” Rivka Yosselevska.

History and The Holocaust Historian

Uncategorised Posted on Fri, February 28, 2020 19:53:01

“..Behold ..historian called to render his accounts. He does so without an inner tremor. What craftsman ..has not asked himself ..whether he has spent his life wisely. ..question far transcends ..minor scruples of a professional conscience. ..our entire Western civilisation is concerned in it.” Marc Bloch.

The Jewish People were ideologically opposed to the notion that civilisation could and would betray them and I take that forward as a personal accusation of what is an unfathomable atrocity identified as The Holocaust. The Jewish People too resisted the temptation to believe, even as the incremental details of what was emerging rendered them both incredulous and aghast, they went toward destruction, at least in those formative days, both not knowing what awaited them, and then, what was inexplicably presented to them. Hope indeed had been the last to die, and in the killing sites and death camps, all hope of redeeming a credible civilisation from outside their position was irretrievably consumed in a hail of bullets, poison gas and indiscriminate but systematic slaughter.

“..Wherever men and women are persecuted because of their race ..religion ..political views ..that place must that moment ..become ..centre of ..universe.” Elie Wiesel.

I move with words that seek to describe The Holocaust, which must be deliberate in order to both inform and come closer to our failing attempts to explain the full horror, for what many more than the 6,000,000 slaughtered Jews fully endured. This is personal for me and what must not happen in regaling the appalling lack of effort to even alleviate the Jewish suffering is for me to enlist a failed eulogy which meets this confrontation with that past that cannot ever be compromised or comprehended. However, the fully exposed, unbridled and factual truth, which the Survivor will identify with, must not find in our effort a position so uncomfortable that it appears at all salacious, though its truth is coarse and even abusing the reality of the very atrocity we seek to describe.

“..Of ..500,000 Jews whom ..Nazis attempted to destroy in Warsaw ..there were but a few 1,000 Survivors who are now scattered over.” Jonas Turkow.

Of course numbers enter the word exercise in order to expand that understanding of consuming humanity in the grip of a wider spread hatred forged by human beings. I have studied The Art of War all the way through World War Two and beyond, and its thesis has always focused on the contrivance of humanity to survive in all manner of conflict. But, and in an earlier search I had considered, there was a narrower field of research which centred upon an essay on the actions of der Einsatzgruppe. Though this sought to qualify the inhuman actions of some 3,000 human beings, it was not about the Jews as such, nor of the few Survivor’s of these actions who inform us. But, it was more to do with how low humanity can sink in the mass murdering People for who they are. Remember too, that here in this final resolve catered for by many millions of so called christians confronting the Jewish People, there was the enactment of The Final Solution of The Jewish Question.

“..Solution of ..Jewish Question in Poland ..perhaps ..only bridge on which ..German occupier could meet ..majority of Polish society.” Jan Karski.

All Jews, organically linked to The Holocaust, and not through any choice that they had made in The Holocaust history, but an enforced term of atrocity unprecedented, unparalleled and unique in all of history. Here, and through the Survivor, these remnants of the 11,283,300 Jews of Europe targeted for Destruction, these Jews we expect and hope will bridge the divide between their knowledge and what We all are required to know. We continually deliver the trauma, me in the words I use and others, in various forms of the Arts chosen to deliver their truths. I fully acknowledge the pain and suffering, which we might exacerbate in the telling, is a necessary detail in ensuring the full horror is wholly known.

“..first and foremost perpetrator was Adolf Hitler. ..without him it would have been inconceivable.” Raul Hilberg.

This eventual solution at first, and as and where the Jews were to be met, was as yet not considered to be a genocidal assault. My own personal view of The Holocaust considers what is and was endured by 6,000,000 Jews and the evisceration of them as a body of People, for being Jews. That particular assessment is as wide as it is broadly inclusive of 11,293,300 Jews of Europe and their discerning space amongst us. There are 4 degrees in all of history towards and from which The Holocaust finally emerged and this emergence has consistently struck more deeply at the core values civilisation has purportedly delivered toward our own humanity. Here in this evaluation I learned from Raul Hilberg, who became a foremost authority on The Holocaust and its destructive capacity, that the incremental stages toward the evidence of the hatred had spread through all of history for more than 2,000 years.

1 You may not live among us as Jews as christianity sought to convert the Jews away from Judaism.

2 You may not live among us at all and this saw the Jewish expulsion into the terms of the Ghetto we have learned from.

3 You may not live stemmed from the failure to come up with a territorial resolution and as such, The Final Solution became the catastrophe we have evidenced as 6,000,000 Jews of Europe were Slaughtered, The Holocaust.

4 You may not be remembered within The Holocaust as the very denial, which seeks to remove these Jewish People from all that was raged against them also seeks to resurrect the despicable nature of Hitler.

Ostensibly, that burgeoning threat to Jewish existence would be met in a far ranging assault upon the very integrity of 3,650,000 Polish Jews, rooted to Poland, fixed to their homeland. Here, I remember at the time of my first writing that essay, how a map of coffins could betray humanity with such symbols. Clearly, and forever signifying the mass Murder of the Jews they portrayed, it becomes obvious that denial does not look too closely at all the evidence and testimony that is laid before it. For me though, these first stumblings across the tragedy for the Jewish People is significant in that my further search would consume more than any simple interest could qualify.

“..when ..heads of ..major nations in faced Germany with cool reserve and considerable suspicion ..Catholic Church ..greatest moral power on earth ..through ..Concordat expressed its confidence in German government.” Guenter Lewy.

Since that initial study, I have gone on to write a Book that did not suit a particular publisher’s remit and then complete x4 Books which regale against the connivance of humanity to be inhumane. To this day, my work proves a powerful affront to those who would both deny and denounce the accusation contained in my work. Those who merely see my effort as a Jewish response, or even as propaganda fail as human beings. That there is that other accusation, which comes with that rather insidious shout as to some profiteering motive does not appreciate a human concern for the assault upon humanity. The fact that 6,000,000 Jewish People were assailed, systematically sought out for Slaughter and indiscriminately brought toward Destruction, is an accusation against all of Humanity.

“..I asked Wanda ..if she would like to be listed among ..Righteous Among Nations and she replied ‘no’ because she feared that ..Jew-haters in ..area would find out and her sons would suffer”. Frank Blaichman.

True, that accusation comes to the fore from Jews in particular, as those who were most affected by their People’s destruction, but also by those of us who hold humanity with any esteem at all. I know exactly the concern of civilisation and in knowing what needs to be learned, my conscience is perfectly clear. Here, and for where Poland is geographically, I render my account with scruples, knowing full well civilisation depends upon its concerns as it is crafted and with its artistry, with integrity. On my many visits to Poland, I have met plenty of wonderful Polish People, some Jewish, some not. For me though, it is crucial for All Polish People to accept that if Poland cannot live with the truth of its past it should stay out of History.

“..For long months we had been suffering because was deaf and dumb to our unparalleled tragedy. We complained about Polish public opinion ..about men in contact with ..Polish government in exile. ..why weren’t they reporting to ..story of ..slaughter of Polish Jewry. We accused Polish liaison men of deliberately keeping our tragedy quiet that their tragedy might not be thrown into ..shade. it seems that all our interventions have finally achieved their purpose. There have been regular broadcasts over ..English radio ..last few weeks ..treating of ..cruelties perpetrated on Polish Jews ..Belzec. Today ..a broadcast summarizing situation ..700,000 ..number of Jews killed in Poland was mentioned. ..broadcast vowed revenge ..a final accounting for all these deeds of violence. Oyneg Shabes has fulfilled a great historical mission. It has alarmed to our fate ..and perhaps saved 100’s of 1,000’s of Polish Jews from extermination. ..I do not know who of our group will survive work through our collected material. thing is clear to all of us. Our toils ..tribulations ..devotion and constant terror ..have not been in vain. We have struck ..enemy ..hard blow. ..not important ..revelation of ..incredible slaughter of Jews will have ..desired effect ..whether or not ..methodical liquidation of entire Jewish communities will stop.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

It is starkly obvious that in history The Holocaust has identified this grave fall from grace and where 6,000,000 Jews were marked for destruction they were so abandoned by the World that they were annihilated. I have been reflecting, researching and writing upon this catastrophe for the Jewish People of Europe for more than 25 years. So while we seemingly stand in judgement, history cannot be altered so as to trivialise the truth that confronts it. With some bias, inactivity or indifference, this polish government does damage to the reputation of All Poles who have studied the integrity of History and for those Poles who have honoured its past. In many places in Poland, there were non-Jewish Poles who became fearful of what would target them after all the Jews were removed for destruction.

“..destiny of humankind ..between Fall and ..Judgement appears to its eyes as a long adventure ..of which each life ..each individual pilgrimage in its turn a reflection. time history ..great drama of Sin and Redemption ..central axis of all Christian thought is unfolded.” Marc Bloch.

Why should this be the case if Polish Jewry had not been targeted and so ritually slaughtered in the first place and it is obvious that lies cannot compete with the facts. To dismiss this truth, so as to conceal the intolerances clearly expressed as they echo to us, and when during The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, we recognise that the truth was not switched off. That sort after and flawed revisioning that this right wing polish government is now seeking, so as to deliver the wanton vandalism of factual integrity, must be confronted. I am all too well aware that many nations wish to revisit their past in relation to what they allowed happen to their own Jewish Community. They too must be remonstrated with and brought back into line where historical integrity is countenanced only by what truth reveals.

“..Polish people in general were sympathetic to ..problems of Jews ..many Polish ..rob ..blackmail ..denounce or ..murder Jews in hiding.” Jan Karski.

There are heroes of Poland who are clearly recognised by the World as such who still state the case for a collaborative effort within Poland, by non-Jewish poles who sought to add toward what Hitler demanded is exactly as Jan Karski noted for us here. What is forever meant to uphold the values of historical probity, cannot be bartered over or be abandoned to alter the truth. History brought into disrepute is corrupted beyond recognition and distorts the view of all of history. The unedifying spectacle of seeking to alter all that we know of what happened to the Jews of Europe, thus becomes the severing of an intellectual tradition that has stood good for more than 10,000 years. This is what the present day polish government pressures us with and we, the advocates of Historical correctness resist with every intellectual value worthy of humanities civilising influence.

“..transport ..largest ..due to leave Prague September 1st. 1939. Hitler invaded Poland ..borders closed 250 Children ..not allowed ..depart. ..all later deported to ..camps ..perished with my 2 young Cousins.” Vera Gissing.

We become aware in the midst of the spectre of War that the Jewish People are seeking to escape what is imminent, particularly in Poland and with Hitler seemingly marching across Europe at will, the Jews are being too readily sacrificed by those nations under Hitlerite threat. People like Vera Gissing, whose luck ensured she was finally saved for Survive, to have escaped all that she is still so gravely tortured by, for what was left behind and is lost. Of course, while a human altruism exists throughout all of humanity, here in the darkest recesses of The Holocaust what has emerged is the worst of humanity. This surety is barely countered by the placement of The Righteous Amongst the Gentiles in the midst of the turmoil of hatred which led so distinctly toward the eventual catastrophe of 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews of Europe.

“..going to ..gas chambers was easier than being exposed to all ..horror.” Esther Raab.

But these righteous human beings did not merely see the emerging horror and ignore the consequences, personally threatening to them in order to act. What they declared, as the terror industry raged against their Jewish Cousins, Friends, Neighbours and fellow Countrymen, Women and Children was to act in accord with a conscience borne out of civilisings demand and for the Righteous, they acted in good conscience. Because the human spirit is always free to make its own choices, it should none the less. and should always be made, with a fuller moral content and an ethical extension conforming to the best of human intentions. For the many who Survived though, the right to Survival did not belong to them and the choices they were given was to die or accept the easier option to go to the gas chamber.

“..Our art ..our literary monuments ..resound with echoes of ..past.” Marc Bloch.

I have made it perfectly clear in my writing who I am to all those I have spoken with and in doing so what my final aim is in recalling The Holocaust. I have a demand to learn rightly to add to the missing memory for 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews, who are The Holocaust. Amongst this offending human Catastrophe are amongst them some 3,000,000 Polish Jews whose protection now demands an undoing of the bad lessons being proposed in Poland today. Although my work is contained within strict Historical disciplines, those parameters I observe are established and are here set by an establishment of a World conflict so as to camouflage Hitler’s more prescient demand, The Final Solution of the Jewish Question. For me though, World War II is a separated discipline, as the conflict itself is defined by millennia of factional infighting.

“..mein kampf ..with absolute correctness contains 139,900 mistakes. ..earliest editions ..there were about 100 words ..quite correct to subject and form.” Lion Feuchtwanger.

What we have in The Holocaust is other than such principles of warfare, as has emerged through treaty and appeasement but by a term of genocide which Raphael Lemkin had to construct to contain it. Many people, informed, academic and well intentioned realised the prospect of what Hitler’s final resolve would be, and these spoke out, uttered words that confronted Hitler and his Nazi’s and placed themselves in final jeopardy. This made Feuchtwanger a fugitive, a very popular target for the Nazis who sought to first curtail his language and then detain and ensure his eradication. But, from within his eponymous work, Jud Suss, the power of Feuchtwanger’s words, which stood as a bastion against Hitler’s Nazism, and was a beacon that was increasingly adding its light and shedding the shade slowly emerging from the deep darkness that is to become, The Holocaust.

“..Jews in Poland are helpless. They cannot rely on ..Polish underground or ..general population.” Jan Karski.

Of course, such was the many angles from which we approach the subject that we recognise the many heroes who sought to assuage the complicit nature of doing too little. Jan Karski, in relating to this period, will forever add honour to those dead, killed and murdered, and all of those deserving of honour. It is without question that the innocents, these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe must be honoured as their Slaughter proves unequal, unparalleled and unprecedented in all of history. I recognise too, and from within Poland, some acted against Polish Jewish interests and these I castigate and will not give definition to. For them, to merely call them out as non-Jewish poles is not enough as Poland seeks to bury such accusations in denial of their existence. There, in that assessment, is a minor protest which differentiates these from other non-Jewish Poles who acted with a sense of compassion or with christian concern. It is a small protest in the omitted capital letters but then, it separates Good from bad and all of Humanity from the evil mankind is capable of.

“..For many parts of ..Polish society it is very difficult ..since for decades they were victims themselves ..of ..Nazis. ..countries around Poland ..Ukraine ..Baltic States ..same level of public debate about their relationship with their own Jewish minority.” Jan Grabowski.

Are we to believe that History will betray us for the want of man to conceal the truth in favour of fashioning out a lie that better suits. I have Never gained anything from allowing this study of mine to become other than the search for truth of all that happened to 6,000,000 Jews on their way toward destruction. But, and what the polish government of the moment is pursuing is both vengeful, wrong and against every precept of human decency. For an essential to be accorded to the memory of 6,000,000 People for being Jews, it is necessary to accuse all of those who betrayed their own humanity to gain anything from the betrayal of their Jewish Community’s. I am Not for forgetting the very fact that, of that total of 3,000,000 of Polish Jewry that has been consumed, all of Poland treads heavily upon a Jewish graveyard of such immensity, the Jewish People have need of that recognition. There are so many specific sites to attend to within and outside Poland that Poland and many other nations must do more to honour all they have lost.

“..civilisations may change. It is not In itself inconceivable that ours may ..turn away from history ..historians would do well to reflect on ..possibility. .there is danger that badly understood history could involve good history in its disrepute. But should we come to this would be at ..cost of a serious rupture with our most unvarying intellectual traditions.” Marc Bloch.

To be honest! Those who propose in any study of The Holocaust, so as to totally undermine the reasoning for such a study are both shameful and disingenuous. The truth will never be altered by those who seek to revise the fact that many non-Jewish poles acted against the best interests of Polish Jewry. As a consequence of such collusive actions, Poland’s national sovereignty during Hitler’s rampage against all of Poland has been defaced by lies, deceit and untruths. The agenda of a populist government does not invoke nor engender a proper research of History. That which is mandatory in understanding the lessens of history, and for them to be driven forward, must acknowledge all that is within history, both Good and bad. It is clear from the small minded amongst us, and their only response is hardly credible, and if all they have is to blight further the memory of the truth, their ignorance will serve that polish History will become so distorted, it will not be history.

“..When I stand before you lead ..Prosecution of Adolf Eichmann ..I am not standing alone. With me are 6,000,000 accusers. ..they cannot rise ..and point an accusing finger. ..For their ashes are piled up on ..hills of Auschwitz and ..fields of Treblinka ..and are strewn in ..forests of Poland. Their graves are scattered throughout ..length and breadth of Europe. Their blood cries out ..but their voice is not heard. ..I will be their spokesman and in their name I will unfold ..awesome indictment.” Gideon Hausner.

I will place the truth constantly before you and you must decide why ignorance is used to counter the factual truth of The Holocaust and its overriding principles conveying its integrity. I will be honest with you all here. I am angry and I always feel I have no right to be. I have put myself out there to ensure memory is not only continuous in Remembering what happened to 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, but it is consistent. I am not sure if there is any particular platform which informs us more correctly than those written into Books words. For all those who otherwise are uninterested in what amounts to the singular assault upon Jewish integrity, and that is The Holocaust, they must leave the arena of research to those who see in their search a need to comprehend the incomprehensible. For my part, I will call out all those seeking to undermine The Holocaust relevance, for them to seek to bury the truth. For me, in more than 25 years, this is not the first time there has been this persistent and sought after revision of the truth on these pages of all of history.

“..Do you know where ..Jews of Austria ..and of Germany ..Holland ..Czechoslovakia and France are. Poland ..taken in cattle cars ..70 into each car. What happened to them I do not know ..I can only guess.” Eva Heyman.

But! I will not bow to the denial that seems to precipitate what my aim is, and that is in Memory of 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews. I have never Ever stated that only Jews were Victims but stick consistently to what Elie Wiesel tells us, All Jews Were Victims. While it is always a fact that my work, Books especially, are attacked, it is not their content that is only assailed but it is the very detail of why a non-Jew would choose to write on The Holocaust. How that confronts the issues of denial is written in a 3,000 year old hatred still fomenting discord amongst like minded bigots and malcontents. I have it on good authority too that any commercial success will Not come from writing about The Holocaust, so my reasoning has Never been commercially based. Publisher’s have insisted on that certainty with my choice of words to use. Elie Wiesel pointed me too to so few who would choose to place themselves in the firing line for a uniquely Jewish aspect of History that is the Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews for being Jews.

“..Whenever our exacting Western society .in ..continuing crisis of growth ..begins to doubt itself asks ..whether it has done well in trying to learn from ..past ..and ..learned rightly.” Marc Bloch.

But I am not deterred and once, when I met with a Survivor more than 20 years ago and his incredulity over why I would choose such a ‘twisted’ route toward putting my words into Book form, his words touched me deeply. For him, it was simply a regular confrontation with those that he found all too willing to deny and doubt with far too many wishing to criticise him for being a Jew. For him too, he was criticised for supporting a proposed biased Jewish narrative and for him specifically trying to live off of the backs of such destruction. He was right of course to see in the hatred a semblance of what he faced in his days in The Holocaust. For me, I have been criticised for being a Jew. I often wish I was as I too support the factual truth of The Holocaust and its integrity in all of History. The veritable bias raged against my work, a work which only seeks the truth ahead of the distortion being brought to it by denial, deceit and the desire to exculpate nation’s who were complicit, duplicitous, indifferent and even intolerant, takes me forward.

“..During ..tenure of office of defendant Wilhelm Frick as Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia ..from August ..1943 ..until ..liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1945 ..many thousands of Czechoslovak Jews were transported from ..Terezin Ghetto ..Czechoslovakia to ..Camp at Oswiecziem ..Auschwitz Poland and were there killed in ..gas chambers.” Dr. Robert Max Wasilii Kempner.

For all too many nations, in face of the very reality we now recognise is, the Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, The Holocaust, they did far too little or even nothing whatsoever to prevent what they were witnessing. For what they were being informed was taking place from the ranks of an intelligence service employed to engage with the truth, the truth was shaded until it obscured what was known. I guess I must attach some response to the lack of commercial success of writing on The Holocaust. It is just not possible to eke out any sort of living on such work as it is a source of deep wounding and hurt to moral humanity and an accusation that has cursed the immoral who struck at the Jewish presence amongst us. For me, the commitment is too grave, the contribution is too personal and the overwhelming desire for this effort is in being acknowledged for what I seek to give back to those who have been taken from us. For any people who seek to insult any part of this endeavour, they can always achieve their aim.

“..Nazis were responsible for this tragedy it is they who murdered most of 3,000,000 Jews who lived in Poland before World War II. ..Germans were able to mobilize segments of ..Polish society to take part in their plan to hunt down ..Jews and help them carry out their Final Solution.” Jan Grabowski.

As far back as September 4th. 1939, as the French government stood ready to confront Hitler and his continuing march on Europe, there began a round up and internment of Polish and German Jewish nationals. Many of the Jewish and non-Jewish nationals were deposited in detention centres at Les-Mille and after the Nazi invasion of France, May 10th. 1940, more Jews were interred at Gurs. Here, with a consideration with regards to what Jewish Resistance means during the period of The Holocaust, we must look deeply at the collusion of so many nations and their non-Jewish nationals. If then we give thought to perhaps what is the grandest resistance, we will find more to credit the Jewish struggle than perhaps we have done. This is quoted in what Yehuda Bauer reveals as the gravest sacrifice that a Jewish Parent makes in ensuring that their Children’s future lives on, and in many Country’s Jewish Children were given safety ahead of their own Parents destruction .

“..Heartbreaking as it was for ..Parents ..they wanted to rescue their Children first and foremost so ..handed them over to strangers.” Yehuda Bauer.

In nothing that I state or have written will ever defeat the fundamental fact that my Books counter the denial attempt to revise History. As Books, they seek to certainly restrain the lamentable abuse centred around what we know happened to 6,000,000 Jewish People. I want People to buy my Books to place them before the altar of History as a fact of their counter balance to denial, but equally, to inform the Jewish People that they are Never alone amongst those whose desire has always been to correct the wrongs done and establish the truth beyond denial. What is obvious to me, and as I was looking toward the outside of each and everyone of the x6 Death Camps in Poland, it could not escape local attention as to what was happening to the Jewish People alighting from all too many transports.

“..Read what was written before ..or what might be written today. Among ..confused murmurings of ..present ..complaint mingling its voice with ..others.” Marc Bloch.

What the local non-Jewish Poles knew, what they should and could have known, did Not establish a protective route of safety for some 4,000,000 Slaughtered Polish and other European Jews. As we research and recognise in the historian, and the historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it, we all must display an integrity which is objective and truthful. Historians too are only concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race. In the context of The Holocaust it is surely true that if the World is not yet convinced that the Death Camps are an abhorrence, and if antisemitism best survives where those who pledge an allegiance to an us or a them and are allowed prosper, we will have further failed 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews.

“..if World could become convinced Auschwitz never existed it would be easier to build a second Auschwitz and no certainty it would devour only Jews.” Primo Levi.

It is as a right wing advocate of the curtailing of free speech, so as to lend a discourse which is divisive and is hurtful to All that antisemitism continually emerges. Such latent hatred is latterly adapted and it remains for us to ensure that No people is criticised for their uniqueness amongst us. As well as that, the study of all history in our time establishes that it is not simply enough to learn about history but it is an imperative that we learn to pass along what we must learn from its lessons. To become, even remotely, dedicated to the study of The Holocaust, is an achievement in human understanding if we even slightly comprehend the gravity of the loss we all share. Therefore, and it is necessary for us all, so as to form the expertise of words adding further to memory, that we not only articulate our concern but set in stone a deeply disturbing realising of the inhumanity in The Holocaust.

“..Book ..yes ..their Book. They had no state ..holding them together country soil king form of life in common. If spite of this ..they were one ..more one than all ..other peoples of was ..Book that sweated them into unity. Brown ..white ..yellow Jews ..large and small ..splendid and in rags ..godless and pious ..they might crouch and dream all their lives in a quiet room ..or fare splendidly in a radiant ..golden whirlwind over ..but sunk deep in all of them was ..lesson of ..Book. Manifold is ..but it is vain and fleeting as wind ..but one and only is ..God of Israel ..everlasting ..infinite ..Jehovah.” Lion Feuchtwanger.

The catastrophe itself is of such an immense and horrifying proportions, a past whose events marks out the inhuman responses of human beings toward other’s. If one seeks to respond as an artisan of words, as a commentator, as a testifier, or as a witness and even a scribe of the next Book, the words must be carefully chosen. It is patently obvious, and for me a scurrilous effort, that for anyone who identifies with the form of national socialism Hitler proposed, this obscenity has taught humanity everything it needs to know of the bestiality of the Human spirit. As I see it, there is nothing inherently wrong in the ideals of Communism, Socialism or even the proponent parts of Marxism which are designed to serve us all as People. 

“..Everyone knows ..what happened in Warsaw ..Slonim is already time to count ..cities where ..catastrophies did not occur. ..understand ..better to be sent to Wolkowsk than ..Treblinka.” Ephraim Barash.

However, just as in their ideological and eventual corruption, an example is set which contributes toward excess and similarity’s of abuse we all too easily see in places like Treblinka. For Hitler’s assault upon the Jewish People, places such as the Death Camps were positioned first and foremost within Poland’s border’s to ensure 3,650,000 Polish Jews could be extinguished first. But, and it is in the interpretation of beings seeking power, that this is where the corruption occurs and in the case of the Death Camps and the Killing Sites of The Holocaust, it attempts still to corrupt this truth in our history most profoundly. For all three of these ideological bases, from which mutual community should be sourced, the Jews were merely separated out from the social norms by an accusation that the Jews were issued from the search for equality as its proponent part.

“..There are visions that a normal man cannot conceive of.” Ber Freiberg.

So as to ensure equality is gained for all people, these ideals all should form the basis of community, those best served with all People equal together. Therefore, in a history too readily corrupted in which The Holocaust seeks to Survive, the ugliness of antisemitism has not strayed too far from the World stage. There are varying positions which I sit alongside, each competing, legitimately, for what differing views would consider are the rights and wrongs of history. The Holocaust is no exception and the rights and wrongs belong to those Jews treated so abysmally, and by those who are not ever to be considered justifiable nor right. My vision of this overwhelming atrocity has been shaped by life’s experience but even this cannot compete with the knowledge of those like Ber Freiberg who know fully what Sobibor meant.

“..We Jews ..most unfortunate People in ..World ..have beheaded murderers of Children ..have put bullets into ..heads of scoundrels ..into their sadistic heads.” Haim Treger.

For me then, what response that comes from that place of degradation, and Sobibor is but a Death Camp amongst the machinery of extermination, that we must aim all effort at accusing those who pushed the Jews there and left them to a fate they did not deserve. I will never accept therefore, that the Survivor is not entitled to any view they wish to present as an entitlement they have been forced to live with. I will not disagree with the Survivor, and though often I have hopefully shown that where our differences might divert, and there is to be an acceptance of another point of view, it is subordinate to what only the Survivor truly knows. For instance, and in the realm of the Death Camps, those who have Survived them know that these Death Camps are clearly distinguishable from the camps of death for all Jews who entered them.

“..Jews are going to burn.” Itzhak Lichtman.

Also, and while knowledge of the Death Camps in Poland was known in intricate detail by those outside their gates, be that here at Sobibor or anywhere else from amongst these 6 purpose built Death Camps, all erected in Poland, truth has been fashioned to suggest none too many knew anything at all. However, and I will inherently agree always with the Survivor, simply because I cannot know from mere research what they intrinsically know all too well, that their knowledge surpasses my own. Where the Survivor might identify the non-Jewish poles as guilty of every conceivable crime against them, these Jews know exactly what was done against them and by those very non-Jewish poles who committed the crimes.

“..deported to ..Belzec ..extermination camp. ..unloaded ..had to strip naked. ..about 4,500 people on ..transport. ..women had ..heads shaved. ..driven into ..corridor. ..building was low ..long ..broad. ..built of grey concrete ..a flat roof made of roofing felt ..with a net over it ..covered with branches. Three steps ..led into ..building. ..front of ..building stood a large flowerpot with colourful flowers ..placard ..‘Bath and inhalation Rooms.’ ..steps led into a dark ..empty corridor which was very long ..only 1.5 m. wide. To ..left and right of it were ..doors to ..6 gas chambers. Each chamber could hold 750 people. ..building was ..concrete. Gassing took ..20 minutes. Gas ..fed through pipes from ..engine in ..small hut a 2 x 2 m. shed which housed ..gas machine.. ..operated machine which dug out of pits which served as graves for ..gassed. ..In ..opposite wall of every chamber was a removable door through which ..bodies of ..gassed were thrown out. ..I ..had to drag ..corpses out of ..gas chambers ..pits. ..30 graves ..100 metres long ..25 metres wide 15 metres deep. 100,000 corpses could be buried. ..corpses ..stacked up to ..50 centimetres above ..edge of ..pit ..because ..corpses later settled.” Rudolf Reder.

In all that I have presented, it is imperative that only the facts, as I know them, and as they can only touch upon what I cannot begin to appreciate, it is what the Survivor fully understood. For the Jews, in the midst of the conflagration, what it is I have to pass on to history is toward the memory of what these Jewish People were forced to endure. I have yet to come up with a set of words that might deal adequately with the betrayal of the Jewish People, and by an ostensibly civilised and christian peoples. Human civilisation allowed for the Jews of Europe to be earmarked for destruction. How could I countenance other than an accusation as wide ranging as it is evident of the gravest wrong ever perpetrated against any People anywhere in time. The truth is clear also, and for 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews who took those steps along the route toward extinction, it was while knowing full well that their World stood along the sidelines and allowed for them to perish.

“..To Survive Sobibor does not mean to continue living.” Herszel Zukerman.

There Is a Last Solitary Coach

There is a last, solitary coach about to leave.

Let us get in and go, For it won’t wait.

I have seen young girls going softly

With sad faces

That looked ashamed and sorry

Like purple sunsets,

And chubby, pink children

Who went simply

Because they were called.

And I’ve seen men

Who stepped proud and straight through the world’s streets,

Whose large eyes went ranging Far and wide,

They too got in calmly And left.

And we are the last.

Day is declining.

The last, solitary coach is about to leave.

Let us too get in quietly And go,

For it won’t wait.” David Vogel.

January 27th. 1945

Uncategorised Posted on Mon, January 27, 2020 21:33:18

By January 27th. 1920 The Versailles Treaty had been signed and this armed Hitler with a pretence to act against Europe and suggests a move from rhetoric toward sponsored attacks on Jewish existence will be made.

“..Herr Gemlich. ..antisemitism based on purely emotional grounds will find its ultimate expression in ..form of ..pogrom. ..ultimate objective must ..irrevocable removal of ..Jews.” Adolf Hitler.

By January 27th. 1935 Poland is more aligned toward Hitler as an anti-Jewish political wing is formed in Poland. By January 27th. 1936 sponsored by cardinal hlond, pogroms and assaults upon Polish Jewry escalates. By January 27th. 1937 Pogroms are a continuing threat to Jewish life. By January 27th. 1938 as the Polish government seeks to revoke Citizenship of Polish Jews in Germany, Poland decides upon a territorial solution for all of its Jewish People, The Madagaskar Plan and:

“..No place for Jews in Poland.” General Lucjan Zieligowski.

By January 27th. 1939 with 40% of all Property in Warsaw being Jewish owned, and with 40% of all non-Jewish poles employed in Jewish owned industrial concerns, a territorial solution would be a gain for Poland from their Jewish People. 80% of skilled workforce in Poland were Jews. As anti-Jewish riots rage across Poland, Jews are Murdered and with the Polish Jewish Community having grown to some 3,650,000 People, Hitler will see his solution for the Jews of Europe more immediately resolved within Poland.

By January 27th. 1942 the Death Camp at Chelmno begins its operations and immediately Polish Jews from the Towns of Dabie, Klodawa, Kolo and Sompolno are brought to be gassed. In the 30 odd operational days prior to Wannsee, some 20,000 Jews were Murdered here. On January 27th. 1943 1,300 Grodek Jagiellonski Jews murdered and the first American bombing of Germany begins. On January 27th. 1944 over 680 Dutch Jews from Westerbork are transported to Auschwitz as the Russians retake Leningrad after a 900 day siege.

On January 27th. 1945 the Russian 322nd Rifle Division liberates Auschwitz and Birkenau and with any remaining Jewish prisoners now liberated, along with many non-Jews. There are estimates as high as 2,500,000 to 4,000,000 Jews having been murdered at Auschwitz and Birkenau. Also, the Russian forces liberate Memel.

#1 Abecassis, Prosper b. September 3rd. 1925, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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“..If world could become convinced ..Auschwitz never existed would be easier to build ..second Auschwitz .. and assurance it would devour only Jews”. Primo Levi.

What we seek to Remember, 75 years after the liberation of Auschwitz and Birkenau, January 27th. 1945, The Holocaust comes under closer scrutiny as more nations seek to expunge their part in the atrocity that is The Holocaust. Poland, at the centre of the storm, can never extinguish the flames of a conflagration which consumed 3,000,000 of its own Jewish Citizens. Also, and in the midst of this greatest industrial and mechanised killing operation, some 4,500,000 Jews of Europe are no more, interred also within Polish borders.

#2 Abraham, Marion b. January 15th. 1925 in Freibourg, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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02) “..There is a place on Earth ..a desolate heath ..where ..shadows of ..dead are multitudes ..where are dead ..where there is only death ..hate ..pain.” Giuliana Tedeschi.

All told, what emerged as smoke in the pits and furnaces of destruction, and all Death Camps are fitted for that purpose, with the detail of these x6 Death Camps erected in Poland, their industrial capacity is assigned to deal directly with the fountain of Polish Jewry on its very doorstep. Hitler had now begun to achieve an objective that he had fully set about achieving. Here in Poland, and alongside the Town of Oswiecim, stands the Camp of Auschwitz, but it is in the Death Camp facility that is Birkenau where Jewish Destruction is practised on an such immense scale.

#3 Angel, Esther b. November 6th. 1926 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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03) “..of ..1,300,000 deported to ..Camp ..they were from amongst 20 nationalities, and these nations gave up their Jews also. Of that total, some 400,000 were registered and kept as Slave Labour and 900,000 were immediately Gassed. While Jews constituted 85% of all those deported here, they represented more than 90% of all those who were murdered. The 400,000 Slave Labourers were grdually degraded till they could persist no longer and added finally to the total number of those Jews and others Gassed or otherwise Murdered. That stated, we assess that of the 1,100,000 who were Murdered from all 1,300,000 deported to the Camp, some 900,000 Jews were Gassed immediately or otherwise murdered in the camp. Of the 400,000 of those registered for Slave Labour, 200,000 died or were otherwise Murdered. These included some 100,000 Jews, 64,000 Poles, 21,000 Gypsies, 14,000 Russian POW’s and a further 10,000 other nationals.” Auschwitz State Museum.

To see this as an all consuming truth, European Jewry has been decimated from the midst of Europe on a scale of incalculable evil, atrocity and dedicated hatred. 6,000,000 Jews, as estimates abound, are the result of both the active mechanism for the slaughter and this includes all of its components placed within Poland for ease of access to 3,650,000 Polish Jews. The constituent and proponent parts, from the participants and infrastructure of der Einsatzgruppe and The Death Camps will lay to waste more than 1,500,000 Jewish Children.

#4Angel, Isak b. August 29th. 1925 in Lille, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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04) “..Apart from ..gassings in Auschwitz and ..Polish death camps ..more than 1,000,000 Jews must have died by ..firing squads or during round ups in ..ghettoes. Auschwitz spite of its immense symbolic significance ..probably contributed less that 1/5th. of ..victims.” Gerald Reitlinger.

Also, and 4,500,000 other’s of their Parents, Relations, Friends and Neighbours have been ritually Slaughtered for the simple fact of their Jewish antecedence But, and this is ranged alongside the seeming apathy and glaring indifference of those who witnessed this catastrophe, and on a daily basis within Poland, that we recognise how abandoned the Jewish People were. Whether through moral neglect, duplicity, complicty or through participation and perpetration, the World recognises much too much was achieved in abadoning the Jews.

#5Angel, Iwan b. February 23rd. 1940 in St-Nazaire, Murdered at 2 years of age.

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05) “..Auschwitz is ..deeply etched in my memory ..I cannot forget one moment of it. ..I live next to it. Auschwitz is there ..unalterable ..precise ..enveloped in of memory an impermeable skin that isolates it from my present self.” Charlotte Delbo.

Of course, not enough was done to foster hope for the Jews of Europe that would be saved and this is a legacy for all of humanity and which is a hatred beyond compare. Here though, we have the experiences of Primo Levi, Giuliana Tedeschi and Charlotte Delbo mixed with the dedication of Gerald Reitlinger who lead us toward an expanding knowledge of what we need to know of the catastrophe. For Primo Levi, Giuliana Tedeschi and Charlotte Delbo, who were interned in the sister camp at Birkenau, their evidence ties in with what the state Museum at Auschwitz relates to.

#6Appel, Meier b. September 5th. 1924 in Lodz, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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6) “..From now on not answer by your name. ..felt like ..not ..human person anymore. ..shaved our heads ..I felt so ashamed. And also when they told us to undress and to shower ..they made us feel like ..animals. were walking around ..laughing and looking at us. And you take a young girl at that age ..who had never been exposed to a person a man ..and you stay there naked ..I wanted ..ground to open ..and I should go into it. We were packed like sardines. ..beds were bunks ..3 layers. I was on layer. If one person wanted to turn ..we all had to turn. They gave me ..little rations of hard ..dried up bread which was half mildew ..I could hardly eat it. ..a tin can of soup rotten and vile ..when I tasted it I couldn’t eat it. .. I just ate ..bread and drank a little water ..which was just rust running out from ..sink that they had over there. ..finally so hungry ..knew I had to eat ..soup vile. terrible. I never ate anything like that in my whole life. ..If I want to survive I have to eat ..soup. ..So I started eating ..soup. And I ..forcing ..soup down my throat ..big tears coming down my face. Eating ..crying ..eating ..crying ..this is how I was in Birkenau. Every day ..I woke up and I would find 1 ..2 people who wanted to end their lives and couldn’t take it anymore. ..throw themselves to ..electric wires ..make an end of it. ..every once in a blue moon ..couldn’t take it anymore. ..try to sneak out of ..barracks late at night and I would see to myself ..can’t believe ..stars ..looking down at us in this Hell ..this camp ..same stars ..shining at ..outside of ..other people ..looking at ..same stars ..they are free. do what they want to do. a good life. ..we are Hell ..human beings worse than animals. ..nobody is doing anything about it. ..young as I was ..asking myself these questions. ..Where is ..Why isn’t doing anything about this ..I would question God ..Where is God ..How can He let us be killed like that ..after I cried myself out real good ..I would go back to ..barracks.” Lily Appelbaum.

But, in a much less clinically and sanitised detail of the very narrative of such brutality, the emerging Survivor displays for History, that we are required to confront the past and all its unpalatable truths. With the delivery of all testimony however, to not only present what humanity demands, but what must always add to an honourable discourse for what Humanity has so severely lost, we edge toward a comprehension we will never fully understand. The complexities of this loss, and this is what truly confronts us as Lily Appelbaum cries, will not desist for us as we share the tears for what is a crime beyond compare.

#7Babeline, Raymond b. July 17th. 1925 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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07) “..Let me explain that even though I had been in Auschwitz I did not know about ..gas chambers. Can you imagine that. We thought ..when we were there ..that our parents and ..children were taken to camps which were much better. We assumed that they couldn’t live through we were in. It was not until a large contingent from Auschwitz came to Belsen that I had to give up that idea that they were safe. I met 2 women in their 30’s who spoke Hungarian and they asked if it was true that ..Hungarian transports were so severely selected people to ..camps and ..others to be gassed. I said ..What are you saying. ..And they looked at me as if I were foolish ..but they didn’t want to destroy my hope and so didn’t try to explain. I ran back to ..tent and collapsed. I think I cried for weeks. I finally realized that everybody was killed.” Maria Frank Abrams.

Questions abound. How then could this happen? How did it happen? Why did we allow it to happen? As we truly seek to answer such disparite questions of uniqueness and their unparalleled scale of atrocity, we recognise that there were places on earth which we allowed into existence that were not belonging to the progress nor the promotion of human life. As we seek to Remember the Catastrophe, that is The Holocaust, we have entered this period of reflection where we recognise that survival was almost impossible during the Jewish sojourn within Hitler’s reach.

#8Balin, Kurt b. January 6th. 1926 in Vienna, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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08) “..When I stand before you lead ..Prosecution of Adolf Eichmann ..I am not standing alone. With me are 6,000,000 accusers. ..they cannot rise ..and point an accusing finger. ..For their ashes are piled up on ..hills of Auschwitz and ..fields of Treblinka ..and are strewn in ..forests of Poland. Their graves are scattered throughout ..length and breadth of Europe. Their blood cries out ..but their voice is not heard. ..I will be their spokesman and in their name I will unfold ..awesome indictment.” Gideon Hausner.

However, and from a place on Earth that was constructed for Jewish destruction, annihilation, decimation and erasure, other’s too were obliterated in that time. But such were the historical cruelties, as they pale into an almost insignificant marker in the vile history of abuse and bestial atrocity, and toward any People for who they are, such was the precedence which was established against the Jewish People we have termed it The Holocaust. For me, that there was ever a person called Adolf Hitler, who then invented a demand for the Death Camp system, and the Einsatzgruppe killing machine, creates the term which becomes exclusively a Jewish continment.

#9Bandler, Nathan b. February 9th. 1925 in Kolomea, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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09) “..Twisted Road to Auschwitz ..published 1970 ..Nazi decision.making ..Jewish policy in particular . ..Nazi persecution of ..Jews during ..1930’s underwent an incremental radicalisation ..a product of dynamics ..stresses ..tensions ..conscious planning ..of ..Nazi leadership.” Karl A. Schleunes.

In history too though, it must be completely recognised and recognisable that in Hitler, not only had he sought to exaserbate the requirement for a more intensive hatred against the Jews, he promoted it. Hitler utilised a World’s latent antisemitism, an undercurrent promoted politically and religiously to radically embolden acts of sheer brutality against all living Jews as the road twisted all the way to Auschwitz and then Birkenau. Here, as we seek to measure the atrocity with Birkenau, there are 1,100,000 Jews and 200,000 other’s, and maybe more fixed to that space.

#10Baum, Pierre b. November 23rd. 1926 in Berlin, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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10) “..daytime ..arrived ..Judenrampe group reached Auschwitz I. ..walked ..distance while ..others unsuspectingly headed ..for ..gas chambers ..Birkenau.” Shlomo Venezia.

Of course the unparalled nature of the assault upon Jewish existence, and the unrelenting tenure of the avalanche of the destruction of these Jewish People, has established a clear route to this resolve. This is a precedent of atrocity that is motivated by hatred and the rhetoric of Hitler led incrementally to where we stand to this day. Armed with an impunity for future generations, The Holocaust is used to this day for the murder of differing People’s, in differing places but for ostensibly the same reasoning, hatred. Clearly, and for the fact that it can be achieved, humanity has learned nothing from the sheer slaughter of 6,000,000 Jewish People, be they Men, Women or even Their Children.

#11Behar, Beatrice b. November 6th. 1924 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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11) “..when hatred and defamation quietly germinate ..we have to be alert ..on guard. ..legacy of ..victims of Auschwitz. ..dead were strong their destruction they displayed a strength…Can any weaker.” Lucie Adelsberger.

I know all too well that the Jewish People, who suffered most, and from amidst the carnage inflicted upon them, for the 6,000,000 who reeled under the most abundant duress and atrocity ever proposed against any human being, we are still reeling from and coming to terms with the Catastrophe. It is an overwhelming calamity which saw 6,000,000 of the Jewish People Slaughtered wholesale for the single act of being born as Jews. However, the very accuracy of the accounting, which recognises this exists upon an unprecedented scale, and that the treatment of the Jewish People was clinically managed and resolved with precision, will not deliver such an incisive accounting as an Einsatz bullet, or a molecule of Zyklon ‘B’ would deliver.

#12Behar, Nissim b. November 16th. 1927 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 14 years of age.

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12) “..I saw an iron gate ..Arbeit Macht Frei. ..Auschwitz. ..we passed by ..carried on for some distance. .. ..Women only ..passed through a gate. ..Birkenau.” Kitty Hart.

Arriving at Hitler’s blood letting, and from more than 2,000 years of an unbridled fear, envy, and with an animosity beyond reason, the Jewish People are continually seeking to gain back what has always been taken from them. Such a calamitous destruction, and waged not solely by Hitler and his minions, has not freed the Jews from this hatred. So far, the Jews of antiquity have not been allowed to bring about any modicum of their full acceptance amongst us, in a still very much an intolerant World toward a Jewish presence. Even with the Jewish annihilation, that is The Holocaust, there has not been any fully committed nor respectful confrontation with how gravely we have abandoned them.

#13Beiser-Thau, Andre b. April 19th. 1926 in Metz, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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13) “..flames could be seen from 15 or 20 kilometres ..people knew ..human beings were being burned there.” Adolf Bartelmes.

Let me remind you that even The Holocaust term too, which is being terribly diluted, aims to remove the Jewish presence from its title. Originally, as it was conceived of and deliberately delivered as The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, die Endlosung der Judenfrage delivers 6,000,000 Jews of Europe toward must be fully recognised as a uniquely and unpalatable term resonating with 6,000,000 Jewish voices that are lost to us, and it is The Holocaust. As there is a sought after imbalance of comparison, the unprecedented and unparalleled nature of the atrocty that is never to be allowed to be taken away from these Jews, we must protect the memory of the Jews so encapsulated within The Holocaust term itself.

#14Beiser-Thau, Samuel b. September 29th. 1924 in Metz, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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14) “.. A whole generation of Germans ..children and grandchildren of ..perpetrators of ..Nazi genocide ..have heard nothing from their parents and grandparents about what they saw ..and what they did Auschwitz and ..other factories of death. It is time long last stop forgetting and suppressing.” Irene Weiss.

Such conformity to a term of reference has taken, both methodically delivered and mechanically imposed upon these Jews, and on such an industrial and industrious scale, has been clearly acknowledged in so many works dedicated todrawing any sense from the incomprehensible detail they describe. However, and by far too few of those who knew the depths of the terror inflicted upon the Jews and the horror that must confront humanity for an eternity, words today are seeking to revise and corrupt the factual truth of what History knows. Of course, what was presented to the Jewish People was many steps toward an annihilatory road, and it was driven by an ideology of a superiority which does not exist, but persists to this day.

#15Bienenstock, Germaine b. November 23rd. 1924 in Strasbourg, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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15) “..teachings ..about ..people ..ethics ..I had to learn myself in ..hell of concentration camps ..without my Mother who was put to death in ..Gas Chambers in Majdanek Father ..put to death and burnt in ..crematorium in Treblinka Brother Sister in law young ..but cared for me like my Mother ..tormented and burnt in Auschwitz. ” Halina Birenbaum.

That failed racist ideology still amazes me in that, over the very lack of human admission as to what was known and what has not therefore been transmitted, there is nothing to be proud of in what they managed. In the very concealment they sought, this all hides the fact of an abomination that has no moral equivalence nor an ethical probity that might be sourced from other than despotism. History too it seems, is now being distorted for the devaluating terms of race and theory and by the time the varying routes toward the decimation of Jewish Europe had been decided, Jewish existence had been consigned to the past. With Auschwitz, of which Birkenau was its Death Camp proponent, and while we had moved toward industrialised annihilation, the failed ideologue is submerged in a sea of blood.

#16Borland, Bernard b. March 31st. 1925 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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16) “..Our captors started hitting People as soon as we arrived vent their hatred ..out of cruelty that we’d lose our bearings and obey out of fear.” Shlomo Venezia.

Meanwhile, and some in history would continually seek to lay the blame away from Hitler for the failure by them, to convert the World to such a rancid idea as antisemitism was converted to, the destruction of the Jewish People. But, as some form of abrogation was sought and was carried out by the many who willingly followe this evil incarnate, cruelty was displayed in all of its ideological forms, none of which were benign. But, and by the time the Jews of Poland and the rest of Europe had walked through these x6 Death Camp gates, where work would set them free from life, they were already assigned to a death they could not escape.

#17Borland, Hirsch b. June 5th. 1927 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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17) “..we would suddenly be overcome by fatigue and dread ..6 hours passed ..6 more to go. Our heads drooped to ..table ..our bodies pleaded for rest ..when ..bell signalled ..end of ..break ..we dragged ourselves to our feet and staggered back to work.” Liana Millu.

For those who chose to ignore the Jewish plight, and we recognise their position just outside the Death Camp gates, mny in the World have avoided the truth as an ugly accusation emerges because all too many Jewish People were being Slaughtered. Those who chose inaction must now all share a responsibility in complying with such indifference as it surely led toward Hitler’s demand for Jewish destruction. Such then is the guilt, that can never expunge the inter relationships of complicity and perpetration, but must somehow resolve the issue of what History must now demand in the construction of any defence. What is now to be gained between what has emerged as competing evidences as truth is being stifled by personal bias, must not now fail the 6,000,000 Jews already failed by us.

#18Borower, Adeline b. October 6th. 1925 in Nancy, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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18) “..mass murder in Auschwitz ..characterized by its ..duration and ..considerable number of its victims. ..number of ..children ..babies killed there is in 100’s of 1,000’s.” Desire Haffner.

Nor can there be found, and all too often there is this absence of any admission, particularly from those in close proximity to what they observed, what they sensed, what they knew or even saw, a failure that becomes acceptable. This is tantamount to the facts being denied to all of history and as such, both distorts the truth and corrupts the evidecne available. While the local populace, who stood befors the gates of these Death Camps, Concentration camps, and even those who witnessed the Slaughter into the killing pits by der Einsatzgruppe, time will not expunge their guilt, nor their failure to acknowledge what they knew, know and witnessed. For all too many miles away, the World could clearly smell the extirpation of a vastly Jewish presence, so where indeed was non=Jewish humanity parked.

#19Borowka, Margot b. April 4th. 1927 in Berlin, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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19) “..whole complex had forty-six retorts ..each with ..capacity for three to five persons. ..burning in a retort lasted about half an hour. was theoretically possible to cremate about 12,000 corpses in twenty four hours ..4,380,000 a year. ..well-constructed crematoria fell far behind at a number of camps ..especially at Auschwitz in 1944. In August cremation reached a peak one day of 24,000 ..still a bottleneck occurred. Camp authorities needed an economic and fast method of corpse disposal ..dug six huge pits beside Krema V ..reopened old pits in ..wood. ..late 1944 ..pit burning became ..chief method of corpse disposal. ..pits had indentations at one end from which human fat drained off. To keep ..pits burning ..stokers poured oil ..alcohol ..large quantities of boiling human fat over ..bodies.” Filip Muller.

Little heard was the voice of condemnation, and even less present was the physical protest which would emanate from ethically moral human beings established in the humanity which sought to civilise us. Of course, part of that failure of acknowledgement of the very evidence outside their doors, or at least for the many who would be available to testify later on, much to much of this reluctance owes far too much to a predisposition toward the antisemitism which was clearly present in Poland, and other Country’s at the time.

#20Braun, Jacqueline b. July 11th. 1926 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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20) “..In Auschwitz I took leave of my skin had a bad smell .that skin ..worn from all ..blows it had received.” Charlotte Delbo.

In Poland in particular, where the establishment of the Death Camps was clearly envisaged to assault and destroy the 3,650,000 of Polish Jewry, available to Hitler after invading Poland. It is also very much an intolerable indifference, which is abundantly clear, that all led to a particularly Jewish fate that we recognise. It is sadly true, that what was Not done to prevent all of what transpired here as The Holocaust spread its tentacles far and wide, shares with this history an intolerance and indifference we are clearly able to quantify.

#21Bretmel, Golda b. December 1st. 1926 in Zachelow, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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21) “..number tatooed on my left arm ..personal evidence from Auschwitz ..attracts ..attention of many people. incomprehensible ..strange mark ….a painful souvenir of ..cruel times of Nazism ..for me ..a kind of certificate of maturity.” Halina Birenbaum.

But, and throughout the fuller range of what was inflicted upon 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, cruelty indeed became a hell on Earth, a tattooed mark en-route toward the extinction of a People for being Jews. Recognition of this fact was available to all local people who could see, hear or smell for themselves as transport after transport passed their front door and its human cargo emptied into oblivion. If even a Polish rail worker like Adolf Bartelmes, a direct witness to what was happeneing in Auschwitz and Birkenau, if he could see the evidence for himself some 10 miles and even 15 miles away, how many more non-Jewish Poles are we speaking of who must have seen all this evidence across the road from their own front doors.

#22Bronzstein, Anna b. November 11th. 1925, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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22) “..Everything is Auschwitz. Auschwitz is everywhere. People eat meat. Life feeds off life. After ..optimism of liberation all ..optimisms fail. ..impossibility of communicating what happened so it could make difference. ..anger. Who can you get angry at 40 years later. ..protest ..but to who.” Paul Pavel.

How is it possible then that Poland cannot fully admit to what was known, and from directly outside of all the x6 Death Camps established within its borders. I have stood at the gates of these former Death Camps, some no longer evidenced as an entry point to hell itself, but they persist in delivering their testimony to us. I have witnessed a World go driving by, transported elsewhere, as neighbours whittle away their time, much as they did during the colossal transports of destruction as they arrived in front of them.

#23Bronzstein, Fanny b. March 22nd. 1927, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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23) “..This is where they load freight for Birkenau for of ..and People for ..gas chambers.” Tadeusz Borowski.

So I am literally shocked too that within such close proximity to the Slaughter as it was conducted, and in all x6 of these Death Camps, it still managed to evade the testimony so many witnesses. Remember, whatever restrictions Poland wishes to place befoire us today, the evidence of smoke, smell and other evidences cannot have escaped anyone willling to know. Witnesses to it stood beside Auschwitz and Birkenau, they lingered outside Belzec, were near enough to Chelmno to watch the progress from killing centre to burial ground. A city like Lublin, surrounding the outside perimeter of Majdanek cannot have failed to evade recognising Hitler’s plan. Alongside Sobibor and adjacent to Treblinka the truth was evident to even the casual visitor to the area.

#24Bruck, Helene b. October 2nd. 1926 in Coblence, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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24) “..Along with my old skin went ..visible traces of Auschwitz ..leaden stare out of sunken eyes ..tottering gait ..frightened gestures.” Charlotte Delbo.

It is no secret that the Death Camps were Not a secret and I have seen for myself that evidence as I looked from within the boundaries of all of them. It is not that I have found evidences that were not available to all of Poland, but newer words to inform you all of what those like Charlotte Delbo knew, are words so instinctively borne by her very presence in the atrocity against her. Surely that alone compels us that we must listen intently and judge the evidence without bias or even a prejudice which finally confined so many of these Jewish People. So I will continually gather the words I feel sure remain a resonant force for the Jewish loss and I offer them forward in a newer light of remembrance and condemnation of those who stood aside.

#25Bulka, Esther b. February 8th. 1926 in Nancy, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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25) “..Jewish population under ..impact of news from London. has been stirred by ..reports of ..slaughter in Poland ..aroused ..deepest emotions in all of us. For many ..many months ..endured ..most terrible sufferings ..asking ourselves ..Does know about our sufferings ..if it knows ..why is it silent. Why was not outraged 10’s of 1,000’s of Jews ..shot Ponary. ..10’s of 1,000’s of Jews poisoned in Chelmno. 100’s of 1,000’s of Jews ..slaughtered in Galicia ..Auschwitz. ..slaughter in Vilna ..180,000 Rostov ..Jews ..murdered Kiev ..BabiYar…blood is flowing in rivers. Is ..blood of ..Jews more precious. ..Only now have we come to understand ..cause of this silence. ..Polish government ..its own radio station ..knew nothing about it. ..if London knew day 100 people ..shot ..Pawiak prison ..why ..did it take many months before they learned of ..100’s of 1,000’s murdered Jews…a question which cannot be turned away by excuses!” Emanuel Ringelblum.

With that illumination, which depicts the full horror of that very Jewish experience, all of this is being gained by me without ever knowing what it must have been to be a Jew. For me, as an historian, I struggle to commend enough those Jews for having managed and Survived a catastrophe of such magnititude they were never meant to Survive. Within me, my words must remain incomprehensible though they must never remain mute to the terrible wrongs witnessed and endured by these Jews. What was and has been ignored, by those who could have done so much more to assist one more Jew accuses ever more of us for our acceptance of a wrong that will never be corrected. Words of course are issued with intention, but they are nearing their redundancy when they cannot compete with the known terms of The Holocaust atrocity.

#26Bursztynski, Suzanne b. June 3rd. 1925 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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26) “..Since ..campaigns of murder were conducted with ..strictest secrecy ..there was considerable temptation to delude one’s conscience into believing that ..deeds committed outside any social control never happened. Who was ask at home ..what was done to ..unknown Jew in ..forest near Minsk or behind ..barbed wire of Auschwitz.” Hans Buckheim.

Can we possibly ever mirror the image of what Emanuel Ringelblum described, and which is readily added to by those Jews who are detained within the atrocity itself. For the far fewer Jews who emerged from within the terms of The Holocaust, we must lend a more appreciating ear to what they wish to say to us. From them will come the future of our own humanity, a lessone we must learn so as to aavoid the pitfalls of such hatreds. Hans Buckheim begs the question as to what might the perpetrator relay on trips home, as community’s recognised the disappearances of their Jewish neighbours from Czechoslovakia to Poland, or the remainder of Europe, can we be less exhaustive in our search for that truth.

#27Buschbaum, Charlotte b. February 5th. 1925 in Stelingen, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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27) “..During ..tenure of office of defendant Wilhelm Frick as Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia ..from August ..1943 ..until ..liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1945 ..many thousands of Czechoslovak Jews were transported from ..Terezin Ghetto ..Czechoslovakia to ..Camp at Oswiecziem ..Auschwitz Poland and were there killed in ..gas chambers.” Dr. Robert Max Wasilii Kempner.

Truth, its factual integrity cannot give way to the ownership of an agenda which seeks to distance itself from what it allowed or even participated in. So I do not simply wish to relate to you the dates of the crimes, the facts nor even the figures as they relate to the terrible detail of the atrocity. What I do wish for is to continually emerge from each page of this unfolding and horrifying era with a newer impetus to relate more the struggles that each and everyone of the 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews met. With a Jewish concern for each other, unmatched by a non-Jewish willingness to deliver them to Hitler’s demands, we stumble to understand both capacity’s, for Jews to have live being dependent upon those who did not resist the will to take their lives.

#28Cahn, Raymond b. October 12th. 1924 in Lanegienu, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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28) “..Flora ..our ss ..was to accompany us to Birkenau. Just Birkenau filled us with trepidation. What reassured us was ..sight of a cart waiting for us. We would never have climbed into a truck. ..Trucks took people straight to ..gas chambers.” Charlotte Delbo.

Though as one can see, Emanuel Ringelblum does exactly that delivery of honesty with his presentation of truth and from the near centre of the storm. Emanuel’s very words captivate us as Charlotte Delbo’s iterations fills the void with trepidation. So how does an historian compete, when all he can deliver are the words so factually engrained, they become an almost sterile truth. With little, or even a failed sense of enough compassion, it is impossible to relay any sense of the horror that was visited on so many Jewish People. I have stood in the shadow of those Survivor’s who have relayed their truth and I cannot possibly come to terms with what they relay in order to present my own words with a meaning so gravely meaningful.

#29Caron, Louise b. December 3rd. 1926 in Mertzweillen, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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29) “..when I think about our arrival of our train appear to me as so many coffins. ..a funeral train. ss ..gestapo ..our undertakers ..officers ..evaluated our riches were our greedy ..impatient heirs.” Olga Lengyel.

“ Woman ..overcome with ..emotion stirred memories ..burst into tears. Wailing with grief ..she named all ..names of those who would not see ..sacred candles lit next year ..nor ..year after ..nor ever again ..for any holiday on Earth. One after another ..Women took up her cries ..and soon nearly everyone was sobbing in desolation.” Liana Millu.

For that reason we have adopted the meaningless words of an accounting of the Slaughter of 6,000,000 of these Jewish People, which cannot console their loss to us all. To even suggest, and for whom I have to guess to the Survivor that this is my route toward comprehending what no one, other than you the Survivor can ever appreciate. What the passage of time has delivered thus far, both in the magnitude of the crime against you as Jews, and it is being measured by the weight of the atrocity, in 6,000,000 converging Jewish names lost to us all, words alone cannot ever compare to the depth of the tragedy we are short in comprehending.

#30Caron, Lucien b. December 8th. 1924 in Mertzweillen, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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30) “..Auschwitz obliges us to keep ..memory alive. We must remember ..crimes that were committed here and name them clearly. ..I feel deep shame given ..barbaric crimes that were committed here by Germans.” Angela Merkel.

Of course, the sheer myth of secrecy lies, and it obliges us to nothing and it has thus exposed us before the consensus of time to continually search and research for what we are left with, which must be under no illusion other than what the truth presents to us. We have then to wade through what is being often times presented from that space in time and it unfolds before us as a conspiracy of silence. These effecting deceits, that construct an absurdly corrupted historical barrier to the truthful documentation we have, must not corrupt what we know. That Oswiecim is a place in Poland, that has delivered Auschwitz and even Birkenau to our recollection, must not be sounded out as the killing centre above and beyond all other Death Camps in Poland. One Death Camp, cannot ever disguise this fact that all x6 Death Camps delivered to Hitler all that he set in motion.

#31Cola, Gerszon b. December 31st. 1926 in Pabjanice, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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31) “..I walk in Auschwitz ..tracks of ..abandoned shoes ..of ..extracted teeth ..of ..cut off hair ..of ..misplaced baggage in order to find ..last moments of my family ..The Schneider Family.” Yossi Sarid.

Also, there are the deluded ones who still seek to deny their truth, which has been laid bare against the cold calculated facts that the actions of all too many, acted with barbarism. Indeed, what Charlotte Delbo clearly recognises and Olga Lengyel further evaluates in the meaning of what transports meant, and we have those last moments Yossi Sarid is searching for. Of course, the difference between a cart and a truck, those that took Jews within Birkenau either toward trepidation or the gas is recognising what was evident to all too many. But we simply cannot pierce the searing fear, terror and horror that is presented, even when the words portray a mosaic of such murderous precision, we cannot but understand what is evident.

#32Cukierman, Charles b. April 1st. 1926 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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32) “..By ..time we reach ..75th anniversary ..liberation of Auschwitz ..there may be almost no survivors left. But they are coming now ..because they want to bear witness stand there and say ..we outlasted Hitler. We made it.” Ronald Lauder.

Even though as detailed an account as this has been, more column miles have been attributed to The Holocaust search, that we recognise for Birkenau, and those taken away from Auschwitz to feed Birkenau’s capacity for destruction, that nothing can bring us close enough to the tragedy so as to completely understand its searing hostility or the vexed hatred we have come to recognise. The World has since experienced many similar catastrophies and the progresses in killing continues relentlessly, even with greater expedience and alarm. But, the World must recognise the entirety of The Holocaust for what it is, a Jewish resting place unequalled in all of history for a Jewish People who had no wish to be consigned within its terms.

#33Dzyalszynska, Masza b. August 20th. 1925 in Lowisc, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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33) “..I have returned from a world beyond knowledge and ..must unlearn for otherwise I clearly see I can no longer live.” Charlotte Delbo. It is also true that so many others, non-Jews who could not withstand the sheer hatred and physical rebuke of Hitler, nor his cronies, and who entered their captive space in any of the Camps, suffered similar consequences. But it for the Jewish People that we recognise the very systematic and sought after nature of the resolve by Hitler to solove his own Jewish Question. Though many others are no less dead, killed or murdered, and it is no less reprehensible due to the fact that Hitler could and did demand their deaths, the betrayal of the terms of reference still confines the Jews of Europe to a more exclusive resolution of Hitler’s hatred for them. Therefore, and in these 75 years since Auschwitz was liberated, the World beyond such knowledge, which seeks to omit Birkenau from its pages, in favour of an Auschwitz not responsible for all the destruction, must learn from those who sought to unlearn.

#34Eilstein, Theodore b. September 22nd. 1926 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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34) “..Anne Frank wrote at ..end of her Diary ..she still believed people were good at heart ..I wonder what she would have thought if she had Survived ..Auschwitz and ..Belsen. ..people have a unique capacity for cruelty ..brutality ..indiffernce to human suffering. ..I have seen ..unedifying evidence of that at close hand has led me to a lifetime of wondering about ..human soul.” Eva Schloss.

As we can now testify to, much has failed to be learned from the destructive forces of such a hatred that emantes from all the Death Camps established in Poland, and not just Auschwitz. For the fullest remit of guilt, in what transformed our humanity into an abyss of visual hatred’s, these must be confronted, and continuously in mentioning all that emerged by way of the destructive processes aimed at the Jews. For me, to live with each other, in some form of harmony, has been a long sought after effort which would supposedly lift Humanity above the existing primevil malaise. For that which has subjected so many People’s to such cruelties, and the hateful vagaries of mankind, we have been delivered as witnesses to what Anne Frank assumed was the goodness in People that can be so missing from all too many human beings.

#35Ellert, Henri b. May 24th. 1926 in Metz, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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35) “..Our family was sent to Auschwitz. ..My sister and I ..sent to one side mother little brother to ..other. all happened so fast ..I looked around ..they were already gone. To Birkenau. ..where gas chambers where. My little brother was 15.” Fela Drybus.

In many places other than here at Auschwitz and Birkenau, but names which resonate with the history of such an enormous catastrophe, BabiYar, Belzec, Chelmno, Derechin, Majdanek, Mogilev-Podolski, Ponary, Rumbuli, Sobibor, Treblinka and Tuchinka, the resolve of Hitler’s end solution is graphically met. I could spend the days in searching for some form of comprehension that could be understood, and for those like me still seeking to understand how humanity stooped so low, but I doubt I will ever find those words. In delivering names of sites and facility’s which dealt in the destruction of the Jews of The Holocaust, we have a never ending catalogue of human grief informed by Auschwitz, Belzec, Birkenau and a multitude of places where the Jews of Europe were wholly consumed on the grates of a hatred inflamed by the demands of a man like Hitler.

#36Felzenstajn, Mina b. August 20th. 1926 in Metz, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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36) “..Here is ..silence of ..grave. ..Rumbuli ..Riga ..Bikernieki ..Salaspils ..Klooga ..Ponary ..Babi Yar ..Majdanek ..Treblinka ..Auschwitz. Thousands and thousands of cities and towns stained with blood. I rise from among you silent martyrs ..old men ..babies ..fathers ..mothers ..husbands ..wives ..brothers ..sisters ..brides ..grooms ..children ..youths. ..slaughtered by ..millions ordered me to tell of what happened. I hear your cries ..screams ..thousands strong thunder of your feet running to ..grave ..your last word ..’Remember’. I swear by ..memory of you your blood which slaked cruel spaces your ashes scattered over ..smoke of your bodies rising from ..crematoriums ..I swear to you ..I will tell them ..everything that I saw ..who killed you ..who betrayed you. I will not permit anyone to slander you or say it was someone else. I was with you at ..executioner’s block till ..last minute. Your blood flows in my veins ..your ashes throb in my heart. I swear to tell ..Truth ..nothing but ..Truth.” Frida Michelson.

For that very reason, to recognise where hatred leads so that we continue to guard against the hatred which releases its mockery of human civilisation, we choose Always to Remember, Never to Forget. While my own vocal response, as much as my written reply, adds newer volumes to provoking a meaningful response, 6,000,000 words will never satiate the desire to honour these 6,000,000 Jews with other than fading words and memory bolstered by testimony. My work, which is of course an accusing articulation of my raised voice, and while both are detailing of the very directed nature of this hatred against the Jewish People, their resonance echoes 6,000,000 times further, faster and longer than mere endeavour alone will allow.

#37Feuer, Arthur b. June 28th. 1926 in Vienna, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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37) “..I’ve come back from another world to this world I had not left and I know not which one is real. ..As far as I’m concerned I’m still there dying there a little more each day dying over again ..death of those who died.” Charlotte Delbo.

As it stands though, and before the rostrum of history, I restate each and every word and seek to accuse all that still might, and should litigate more heavily, those who are still alive to be indicted for their crimes against the Jews of Humanity. If I could, I would hurry the process along as the very ones who must see that Justice will prevail, those who did Survive and did not die, they are dying the death of those who perished through annihilation. I would strongly word more accutely our human failure to act more positively as the truth emerged. I will forever stand more resolutely for the forced losses of 6,000,000 Jews we abandoned as a World. It is simply not enough that I am always against the enforcers and while they are my focus in my major concern, it has always been the atrocity I search through.

#38Fischer, Jacques b. May 19th. 1925 in Saint-Michel, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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38) “..Auschwitz’s largest cemetery ..without a single grave. I held tight to 3 dreams. ..first living through ..nightmare ..surviving ..second was to tell ..even though it ..cannot be explained. There was no reason whatsoever for what was done. ..I knew I had to tell as many people as possible. ..third was that ..if I managed to accomplish ..first two ..I would do anything and everything to bring about ..establishment of State of Israel. ..I realized all three dreams.” Noah Klieger.

I research how it must dive into the hearts of those who read these words and for those readers, be they the Survivor who knows more than I what these words spell out, or simply the truth seeker, I enter words that are the grimmest eloquence of the destruction I can resurrect. While they could Never come close to what was experienced or inform you more than a Survivor can, I am aligned to much that the Survivor tells us, to add a newer depth to their need to tell. Also, for the Children of Survivor’s who have had an interruped life due to the effects our abandonment has had upon their Jewish People, it must weigh as heavily upon them to have to continually confront our abandonment of all of those we all have lost.

#39Fischer, Pierre b. March 26th. 1928 in Saint-Michel, Murdered in Birkenau at 14 years of age.

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39) “..Night was falling. ..shadows softly settling on ..Earth promised rest and oblivion. We had gotten through another day. ..what would one bring.” Liana Millu.

It is evident in all my work, whtether that is in my Books or the platforms I use to spread these words, that all or any accusation, which must lay, outside, even beyond the very pertinent Jewish one, but alongisde the very intention to remember them all. As the atrocity is directed from within Auschwitz, and particularly Birkenau, as it is condensed and from within Majdanek, as it scorches our reason in Treblinka or indeed approaches us as an example from any of these Death Camps established in Poland, we have to learn respect for all and tolerance of each of us. Many of the Jews of Europe also, who were sent to hell before ever leaving Polish soil, as transport upon transport of Jewish Community’s descended upon Poland, and were laid to waste there, they raise their very obviouis accusation.

#40Fiszbin, Lolec b. April 20th. 1926 in Varsovie, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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40) “..I revisited Auschwitz. ..Our transport was among ..last ones ..from Hungary July 8th. 1944 ..and due to ..unusual number of arrivals ..SS were forced to change their customary procedures. ..gas chambers ..crematoria could not accommodate everyone judged unfit for work 100’s were piled along ..railroad tracks to be immolated. ..due to ..heartless haste ..clothed in rags ..marked with ..painted red cross ..hardly any food or water ..also due to this haste ..escaped tattooing.” Judith Magyar Isaacson.

For me too, with this systematic approach Hitler that had established, which has ensured that the most enormous Jewish graveyard remains Poland, we build memory to add a monument that is more lasting than Country’s, border’s or the perceptions of belonging. Even while we recognise the Jewish presence that remains in the multitude of killing sites around Eastern Europe, Babi Yar, Bikernieki, Klooga, Ponary, Riga, Rumbuli and Salaspils, Poland’s saturation with the blood of Polish Jews, and other’s of European Jewry is heaviest, and it is the most intolerable fact that Poland must bear a larger responsibility for the death and destruction detained there.

#41Flajszakier, Rosetta b. January 25th. 1925 in Szydlow, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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41) “..If we consider ..entire Auschwitz universe a youth I did not feel ..acute ..murderous ..destructive discord ..torment felt by every adult ..uprooted ..wrenched from ..cultural world ..its norms ..hurled into ..confrontation with norms of cruelty ..of death.” Otto ‘Dov’ Kulka.

For all of Jewish Polish blood, spilled in the backyard of a former Jewish Homeland, whose existence was assured for 100’s of years, that all changed the moment Hitler gave the World the idea, he could act with genocidal intent. The very nature and essence of Polish Jewry, which has all but perished, has not attributed the form of reverential response a nation with such losses must command. Denmark, amongst other European Jews, has formed a more proven, exacting and liberating detail of what should be a redeeming factor in all other nation’s. For half the struggle of the Jews in The Holocaust, the sheer weight of Polish Jewish struggle was a forlorn hopelessness. For all the 3,650,000 Jews of Poland what emanted as they were engulfed in the conflagration was purely because they were physically trapped on their own Polish soil.

#42Frankfurt, Nelly b. September 19th. 1925 in Varsovie, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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42) “..When 4,000,000 have died in Auschwitz ..I shall know how to die as well.” Hermann Langbein.

Of course the contest to explore the very detail of the atrocity, and not just here within Auschwitz or Birkenau confronts us with the reality of what hatred can now accomplish. Yet, much that has been reserched does not now take account of the first hand evidences of those who witnessed 4,000,000 die in Auschwitz alone, if we accept the eye witness account of one who knows. So we accept a very condenced version of that detail and while we are forever dwelling on this past, we look for more answers than have ever been or will be resolved. From the evidence gained of places like Auschwitz, and gathered from the debris of Birkenau and all the other x5 Death Camps, we are not to be enveloped by competing terms and details of accounts which can never be fully accurate.

#43Freymann, Heinrich b. February 20th. 1927 in Esch-Sur-A, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age

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43) “..When we emerged from ..camps down to ..point of stupor ..not even ..strength to feel joy. Just to rest ..sleep our fill. Never seemed ..would our tiredness go away. Nor our sadness. Upon us lay ..weight of all those who were notreturning. A few 1,000 survivor’s ..against 1,000,000’s of dead ..a sum of suffering that will never be reckoned anyone.” Charlotte Delbo.

Therefore, we simply cannot evolve away from the Catastrophe for the Jewish People until we alter the course this History has gained, in relation to these 6,000,000 unspeakable crimes. Their Jewish number alone, carry’s with it a detail so heinous, the World had need of an invented name for genocide to evolve into The Holocaust term. For its enactment, and what is still being permitted in the World to this day, all has a direct correlation as to what Hitler managed to achieve in Slaughtering 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. We reach a remembrance now which has to recall other grave injustices perpetrated against other Peoples, and simply because history has taught them what Hitler accomplished through the hate he was infected with.

#44Freymann, Minna b. July 16th. 1925 in Esch-Sur-A, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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44) “..children were taken. ..All ..women ..not just ..mothers ..sensed in ..welling rebellion in their guts that something had been violently torn from ..maternal instinct that lay at ..very core of their being.” Giuliana Tedeschi.

Tragically, for all of those annihilated Jews, torn from all maternal security, its instinct of protection trampled upon and where paternal care and human compassion was not allowed to Jews in the midst of the cauldron of hate. Those erstwhile Hitler advocates, whose mere mention of such inhumanity, as it was displayed against the Jewish People, are today becoming the adopting voice of those who see in Hitler’s target their own hatred’s. Their latter day call for some form of justification for the Slaughter is matched in denial of the truthful facts which is the integrity of what we speak and relate to, in regards to 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews. History cannot ever ignore the element of hatred which The Holocaust truth informs us of and continually delivers to posterity its stinging rebuke.

#45Frydmann, Salomon b. February 25th. 1927 in Radom, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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45) “..One could not indulge in too many illusions. ..Germans undoubtedly planned to exterminate our Parents.” Olga Lengyel.

Here in Birkenau, with Giuliana Tedeschi, the formerly 76847, but previously Giuliana Tedeschi, a Human Being way before Hitler considered the concept, and certainly before he sought to destroy her’s and all of the Jewish People’s very existence, Survived. Thankfully, Giuliana walked amongst us again and delivered an eloquence of such dark despair, it tore the force of maternal instinct away from Mother’s. Humanity though is resurrected here, and it is converted into a human spirit which she, Olga Lengyel and many others recognised as they share of their presence in midst of the very inhuman atrocity which is The Holocaust.

#46Gerszonowiez, Joseph b. May 28th. 1927 in Szerzercow, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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46) “..As one who survived ..infernos of Auschwitz Birkenau ..Buchenwald eyes are still burning from of that nightmare ears ..still ringing with ..agonizing sounds of Men ..Women ..little children ..lured ..driven into ..gas chambers ..solely ..exclusively because they were Jewish.” Mel Mermelstein.

Clearly, and what has not been destroyed in the Survivor as such, is the spirit to endure, to live, to Survive so as to add testimony of what they know to the evidence of what we have gained. What they Survivor now delivers to us, of what the World has sought to detain in the pages of works being purged of their relevance, is a ressurection of a humanity that was all but lost amongst the perpetrators but remains a signature of the Survivor. However, what is now being sought out from so many pages identifying with the tragedy, is not always about those who suffered most from the tragic consequences of inhuman deeds. The veritable truth, the reality of what was imposed upon the Jewish People would appear as a distraction sought by those seeking to submit these Destroyed Jews to the crimes against them as somehow self perpetuating. This is a revisionism borne of hatred and a sought after redemption of the illicit charcter that is Adolf Hitler..

#47Gerszonowiez, Junna b. November 3rd. 1924 in Szerzercow, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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47) “..same old routine foot in front ..other. Everything is forever ..same in ..lager ..pitilessly ..hopelessly ..same ..each hour brings ..same acts ..same commands ..same everything ..until soon even your thoughts take ..same predictable track ..making ..same fixed stops ..war ..home ..getting back ..a chronic sameness that becomes a torture.” Liana Millu.

While The Holocaust, in its graduated evolution, is even to be denied the very Jewish presence, The Holocaust must remain the tem of focus that has been driven directly from the oratory of The Final Solution of The Jewish Question and into the Killing Sites and Death camps designed to extract all of any Jewish presence. It is at the very twisted yet constructed route which finally delivers on Hitler’s wish for die Endlosung der Judenfrage that The Holocaust is born. Clearly, we cannot meet with such conformity to a hatred for the Jewish People that they are then not to be allowed a term which is exclusively theirs, after all that was denied them.

#48Goldenberg, Andre b. April 26th. 1925 in Bucarest, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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48) “..I do not ..cannot know what I would be today if I had not been in ..Camp. No man knows his future. ..a man sets out ..almost never are our choices between ..two alternatives. ..every choice is followed by others. ..if I had not lived ..Auschwitz experience ..I probably would never have written. ..years have passed ..interposed ..artificial memory ..a defensive barrier ..between my ..normal present and ..dramatic past. ..I survived ..due good luck. survive with ..precise purpose of recounting. ..helped by ..determination recognize always companions ..myself ..not things. avoid humiliation and demoralization which led so many to spiritual shipwreck.” Primo Levi.

I would suggest, that as The Holocaust was borne by the tenets of Hitler’s final resolve, the term stems from what die Endlosung der Judenfrage engages us with, an annihilation process designed to destroy all Jews. Make no mistake, in this resolve to fix the Jews of Europe into oblivion, it is clearly that many other’s, the Gypsy Lalleri, Medvashi, Roma and Sinti, the Jehovah Witnesses and any one else who stood against Hitler’s culling of Humanity, would meet a similar fate along the route toward Auschwitz and Birkenau. No Death Camp in Poland is exclusively detaining of Jews, as all too many other’s were sucked up into the transportations East. But, the very transient nature of what Hitler intended for European Jewry is so wound into the terms of reference that is The Holocaust, all Jewish persistence is uniquely delivered toward extinction.

#49Gumbacher, Sedz b. April 20th. 1925 in Rust, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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49) “..deprived of ..relaxation that night should bring ..stars seemed to belong to a different world ..where our infinite misery was unknown. ..abandon of ..sleeping camp you saw that misery more clearly and sharply than during ..gigantic struggle for existence that went on in ..light of day.” Giuliana Tedeschi.

History has clearly abridged the religious divide and the historical narrative to expand the massive catastrophe into a single term recognised from within the midst of the atrocity itself. Here too though, while we are troubled by what reverence the position of 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews are to be warranted, or are even to be allowed to posthumously own, History stalls before the bench of a critical shame of their abandonment. That many still question the uniqueness of what was inflicted upon the Jewish People is a sickening indictment of what has passed into our history. While episodes, within the early stages of the assault itself, as was unleashed upon the integrity of the Jewish People, we can barely surmise their impact.

#50Grunfogel, Berthe b. February 8th. 1926 in Nancy, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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50) “..In Stutthof ..became ..96211 ..unlike ..Auschwitz ..our numbers were not tatooed.” Max Michelson.

What we clearly afford in our need for understanding anything in an escalating term, is to be seen through the vista of a World community which simply stood aside. What will more than savage, an already brutalised Jewish People of differing nations, is to further allow for Hitler to continually reinvent the measures applied to this Jewish solution. For us to this day, to either portray the Jewish Catastrophe with less than with the integrity it demands or with any dishonesty seeking to exonerate any of those who forced this upon 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. The ramifications of our inability to act with any form of compassion, which then proved that the inaction would prove catastrophic for the Jews, is a glaring example of our own inhumanity to mankind.

#51Gurwitch, Jacques b. September 19th. 1926 in Metz, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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51) “..What Auschwitz was is known only to its inmates and one else.” Martin Walser.

What was to turn indifference outward and toward the intolerances which go way beyond what history has ever experienced, decimated Jewish Community’s throughout all of Europe. Perhaps then, as we survey the devastation of Jewish antecedence, literally as we sit here, we will forever be deprived of such comprehension as Giuliana Tedeschi testifies to. Our physical absense from the immediacy of what the Jewish People were forced to endure, will not arm us enough to narrate fully the loss we wish to comprehend. I fully acknowledge clearly, that I cannot know what those like Giuliana, Martin Walser, Elie Wiesel, Max Michelson and Primo Levi illustrate for us.

#52Hanen, Frida b. February 6th. 1925 in Salonique, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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52) ” ..How is one to explain ..Hitler nor Himmler was ever excommunicated. ..Pius XII never thought condemn Auschwitz ..Treblinka. ..among the SS a large portion ..remained faithful to their Christian ties. ..killers who went to confession.” Elie Wiesel.

As Survivor’s, who convey to us a barely temperate idea of what atrocity truly is, they do so from what they experienced within an Auschwitz, a Birkenau, a Death Camp where their own experiences can merely hint at the overall cost to the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. I recognise precisely that all of these Murdered Jews are contained within The Holocaust, the living too as the Survivor’s and the destroyed alike as they shared the same intention to destroy them. I am all too clearly aware as to why many Jews, scholar’s included, would rather remove the 6,000,000 perished Jews from a term with such deeply religious connotations.

#53Heinik, Georges b. January 9th. 1926 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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53) “..I always felt like asking why God would help us in particular and allow last year’s unfortunate souls to freeze to death.” Liana Millu.

But history itself has recognised the genocide of these Jews and it is to be the very expression of The Holocaust and for which these 6,000,000 Jews have been detained. The suggestion gradually emerging today, and though these Jews have been silenced forever, as Olga narrates, there are far too many of us who will never allow for these 6,000,000 Jews ever to be ignored. It is a simple truth that must ensure these Jews are remembered and just as certain it cannot be the Jews alone who seek to be sure they are mostly unforgotten. While other’s might seek to dilute their memory, or forget their past, history charges us with preserving the truth of who they are, where they came from and why they never came back from where they were detained.

#54Herschlikowtz, Julienne b. July 30th. 1926 in Charleville, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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54) “..Arrived ..Auschwitz ..July 2nd. or 3rd. 1944. ..about 200 men. ..women 70 or 80 seventy or eighty. I saw ..getting into ..a number of trucks. ..also a closed vehicle with ..sign of ..Red Cross. I saw them all go off. ..gas chambers.” Georges Wellers.

Here too, as the sphere of grave atrocity, which we must consider as the entire universe that is not simply Auschwitz, nor even Birkenau, we must consider the position of all of the Death Camps in Poland, all of the Concentration Camps and Killing Sites throughout Europe that are now designated as Jewish Cemetery’s. What is now presented and offered up on the altar of a revisionist hatred, and by these latent threats to truth and honesty, so as to ignore memory and stifle remembrance, cannot be allowed to hold sway over what matters in the truthful discourse that must be history. Here, with these massive graveyards, fashioned from within the heart of Europe, all earmarked for the Jews from all over Europe, Jewish memory is firmly fixed.

#55Isakow, Paulette b. November 26th. 1925 in Chaumont, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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55) “..we cannot empathise with ..situation of ..prisoners ..because their suffering exceeded any previous measure and we cannot ..form a human impression of ..immediate perpetrators ..we call Auschwitz a hell and ..evildoers devils. This might be an explanation for ..fact that when we talk about Auschwitz ..we use words that point ..way beyond our World.” Martin Walser.

More especially, as with Polish Jewry within Poland itself, the Jewish interred are being eulogised by a growing awareness in this World that we have left so much of our own humanity in these irredeemable spaces. Also, and for so many who could not even hope to escape the clutches of such hatred, my effort is centred on these 6,000,000 Jews we owe more to than we can ever repay. While recognising, of course, that there are more other millions dead than I can detail, in a World of War where my search began, the Jews have always been my personal search. My very confrontation with the fuller detail of those 6,000,000 Jews who are deprived of all existence, does not look favourably on those who stood rigid as the body of Jewish existence was catapulted into oblivion.

#56Kahn, Marylise b. April 28th. 1925 in Lingolsheim, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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56 ) “..I was in Birkenau ..part of ..Oswiecim Camp. ..a woman in ..last month of pregnancy. ..had to walk ten kilometres to of work ..toiled ..whole day ..digging trenches. ..already ill and ..asked ..German ..for permission to rest. ..refused ..laughed at her and ..together with another SS man ..started beating her. ..situation of all ..women who ..were pregnant ..only during ..very last minutes were they permitted to stay away from work. ..newly-born children ..if Jewish ..were immediately put to death.” Seweryna Szmaglewska.

What must be always honoured though, and by honourable people who must be certain in ensuring honourable deeds are done in recalling their past presence, is the worth of ensuring their memory. That which has been extracted from the dishonour and dishonourable, that was enacted and witnessed where ever a Jew had lived and was fully met with hatred, must be added to our need to know the gravest wrong done to the Jewish People is contained within The Holocaust. Can it be then that we readily accept the denial that comes from the hatred spewed forth from those whose hatred is fixed once again.

#57Kaplan, Jean b. July 24th. 1925 in Metz, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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57) “..I will never cease to rebel against those who committed or permitted Auschwitz ..including God. ..questions I once asked myself about God’s silence remain open. If they have an answer ..I do not know it. More than that ..I refuse to know it. ..I maintain that ..death of 6,000,000 human beings poses a question to which no answer will ever be forthcoming.” Elie Wiesel.

Do we simply pass up the opportunity to learn from what will save all humanity as we concentrate on what those like Elie Wiesel or Primo Levi and 6,000,000 other Jews experienced. It is deeply affecting to me, as I constantly read through the trauma of Jewish Survival, and then concern myself with ensuring I do not trivialise their concerns, how then can I not show the full horror and terror to all without further wounding the already distraught and impacted senses of those Jews who know more than I could ever suggest. The truth I wish to narrate has so many words that are already riven with the excess of hatred delivered to the Jews, that it is almost impossible to avoid inflicting ever more pain upon an already raw Jewish wound.

#58Kempinski, Jacob b. August 13th. 1924 in Nancy, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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58) “ can I help not looking back to remember.” Kitty Hart.

For many people, for whom the hatred of the Jewish People could be harnessed and delivered toward an innocent Jewry, the Jewish blood cries as their Jewish voice is sought out to be ignored. Also, and in what we as human beings failed to achieve to prevent much more of this than we did, history screams its relentless accusation. How can we help but look back and in seeing the devastation and brutality not see the inability of all too many to act more favourably toward the Jewish People and at least afford some form of assistance to more than those we held our hand out to. The simple act of compassion, so removed from within each and every contextual enactment of the hatred cannot fail to show how low we descended.

#59Kirzbaum, Celine b. April 23rd. 1926 in Longwy, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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59) “..first shipment ..inmates arrived ..June 14th. 1940. 12 months later ..Hitler decided on ..Final Solution of ..Jewish Problem. Auschwitz ..chosen centre of ..planned mass extermination.” Bernd Naumann.

The ommision of so much concern, and it is so evident that today, those 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews have become a focus of newer hatred’s enacted against their memory. Jews today, and not simply those Jews who Survied as witnesses to the human lack of compassion, they all bear the scars of what was enacted and what was not fully acted against. What Hitler espoused, and brought to bear upon 6,000,000 innocent Jewish Men, Women and Their Children, was the unprecedented Slaughter to be our legacy. What we have come to recognise in the atrocity itself, and the unbridled contempt humanity showed for all human life, labels our unconcern.

#60Kormann, Esther b. October 3rd. 1925 in Sedan, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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60) “..No bird ever flies low over Birkenau ..prisoners strain their eyes to search ..skies for them. ..Guided by smell or instinct ..birds avoid Birkenau does not exist officially ..its name never appears in an address. It is Oswiecim II. was not ..intended to hold people for any length of time. It is a ..precrematorium waiting room ..for 20,000 to 30,000 people.” Seweryna Szmaglewska.

In these x6 Death Camps established by Hitler and his regime in Poland, that impossibility became an ever more refined certainty, delivered with capacity to murder on a massive scale. Now, after 75 years have passed since the liberation of Auschwitz and Birkenau, we must continually consider those Jews specifically, who did not emerge as we specifically recognise the Jews, as they were the chosen People of Hitler’s feverish attempt for a Final Solution of The Jewish Question. For the very people, non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians, who lived in such close proximity to the atrocity, their consciences have conspicuously failed to acknowledge this detailed atrocity.

#61Kormoner, Helena b. August 30th. 1925 in Vienna, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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61) “..whole complex had forty-six retorts ..each with ..capacity for three to five persons. ..burning in a retort lasted about half an hour. was theoretically possible to cremate about 12,000 corpses in twenty four hours ..4,380,000 a year. ..well-constructed crematoria fell far behind at a number of camps ..especially at Auschwitz in 1944. In August cremation reached a peak one day of 24,000 ..still a bottleneck occurred. Camp authorities needed an economic and fast method of corpse disposal ..dug six huge pits beside Krema V ..reopened old pits in ..wood. ..late 1944 ..pit burning became ..chief method of corpse disposal. ..pits had indentations at one end from which human fat drained off. To keep ..pits burning ..stokers poured oil ..alcohol ..large quantities of boiling human fat over ..bodies.” Filip Muller.

Purely, and from the sheer scale of the cremation of these Jewish human beings across the road from where the non-Jewish Poles lived, these very people who lived in such close proximity to the atrocity failed to acknowledge this detailed atrocity in any coherent nor affirmative way. Whether that is the continuance of antisemitsm toward the Jews in Polqand or the collective response of Europe, that lack of judicious resolve, which now emanates forward, has emboldened newer atrocity. As we look to those who breached the impossible and then Survived, so as to testify for us to know what we have learned and we gain a further insight into what is hell. But, and for all of these 6,000,000 annihilated Jews, they must be recalled and added to by the efforts of historians ensuring memory returns them to us.

#62Kravetz, Simon b. March 16th. 1926 in Nantes, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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62) “..when we get back ..we shall be different ..people who haven’t been through this hell won’t understand us. Something had changed deep inside us. Sensitivity ..numbed ..capacity to be moved ..gone ..habit of reducing life to a few bare essentials and there arose ..need to hate. ..if ever we returned ..transformation would condemn us to solitude ..incomprehension. ” Giuliana Tedeschi.

For a wholly innocent Jewish People, for being Jews, such was the constant reminder of their rather limited options within Hitler’s sphere of influence. After Auschwitz and Birkenau, and especially after the emerging evidence of all the x6 Death Camps Hitler had placed in Poland, the testified truth has since harboured a denial prelocated by all too many nations not standing against this. For Hitler, so as to supplement the industrial capacity for mass murder, starvation, pestilence and all manner of bestial treatment that was raged against the Jews of Europe, this is all recognised in the very fact of the barbarous enactment of the atrocity against the 6,000,000 Jewish People who are the Holocaust.

#63Laub, Anatole b. April 5th. 1926 in Anvers, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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63) “..The Holocaust still horrifies us not because some Jews were Murdered ..that happens almost every week in New York City ..but because ..incredibile total of 6,000,000 murders represents ..attempt to kill ALL Jews ..genocide. And Auschwitz represents The Holocaust ..because more People died here than anywhere else.” Otto Friedrich.

I can be as selective as I wish in attributing to those Jews who Survived and even those who saved them, a mocking of the humanity which should have saved all 6,000,000 of them. In that, have we not learned a single thing that those Survivor’s of Auschwitz and Birkenau, and the other Death Camps, have sought to teach us. Do we still think that 6,000,000 Jews were Slaughtered so that we can ignore the lessons that this spell out in their destruction. It is to our loss of humanity that we recognise our failure to act more resolutely once Hitler’s attention had turned from words against the Jews to the annihilation process he so often spoke of.

#64Laufbaum, Lazare b. May 31st. 1925 in Metz, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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64) “..I looked at that sweet ..likeable young face ..which ..appeared to be almost not of this Earth. Auschwitz predisposed you to mystical comparisons. ..she was an angel who ..snatched me from a terrible death. I ..stood there speechless. ..She had been brought to Auschwitz in 1942 ..from Radom. 16 years at ..time. Her Parents ..sent to ..gas immediately.” Sara Nomberg-Przytyk.

But mixed in here is the very expression of Death Camp system itself, and here too, as we recall those who did Survive, we seek further to pay tribute to those who remained behind. I cannot paint this any other way but as a picture of the hatred vehemently shown by us as human beings toward Jewish Humanity. I simply ignore the fact that we other humans, who took a more superior air sought to deny all life to those that humanity cannot consider other than equal to the lives we share. From the words I use, I recognise clearly the depth of pain added to those dying over and over as those words used, and for those Jews who died how they must have died. But for those interred, in the ash from the embers of the murderous extinction of more than 6,000,000 Jews, not only is Poland a graveyard for Polish Jewry, but for the Jews of Europe also.

#65Lehrer, Jacques b. June 12th. 1925 in Wielka, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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65) “..Written by ..Sonderkommando ..Crematorium II August 5th. 1944 ..Zalman Lewental ..Ciechanow ..Poland. No one can imagine exactly how things happened ..for it is unimaginable that a precise account of our experiences can be given. ..We ..a small group of grey people ..will give historians a ..hard time ..also ..psychologists who want to know ..investigate ..mental condition of ..people who tackled this dismal ..dirty work. ..who knows whether these investigators will fathom ..truth ..wheter anyone will be able to thoroughly.” Zalman Lewental.

Europe itself holds on to many of these Jewish dead, in City’s and Towns all across Europe and these very Jews are never to be revivied from the deeds of so many. I have met this hatred along my own route back to the x6 Death Camps, many hating the fact that recognises the grave wrong done against the Jewish People. In the processions of hatred’s gripped by the World though, none can compare to the Jewish unique detail within The Holocaust’s systematic nature. All of this certain inaction has remained in history so as to chastise the inaction of a so called chritian society for its rather un=Christian responses along the way. Also, with the constant pain that emerges in human life, and ever since Hitler taught the World that pain can be inflicted, it it recognised now that it can be achieved with impunity

#66Levinski, Paulette b. October 22nd. 1924 in Paris, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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66) “..This wretched piece of land ..Polish town Oswiecime ..was under ..sway of whose members regarded themselves as ..elite of ..German nation.” Filip Muller.

What we have sought to and must have learned is what could be done with hatred to guide it, to control and release it along a desolate heath to where there is only death as Giuliana Tedeschi recognised it. Of course, these nation’s, whose own Jews make up the salutory lesson of terror and horror, must pledge to do more to add to memory and stem the surge which seeks to expel that remembrance. Here in Europe, where atrocity was so emboldened in figures of such losses, we have not as yet gained a comprehension worthy of coming to terms with them.

#67Levy, Andre b. March 14th. 1926 in Metz, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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67) “..This report tells ..story of ..victims of Auschwitz ..not with ..purpose of opening old wounds ..but of passing it on as a legacy for us Jews and for all mankind. It will fulfill its purpose only if it helps teach us become better human beings truly love our neighbours ..and to work toward ..eradication of brutality from ..face of ..Earth.” Lucie Adelsberger.

For the all too many Jewish lives extinguished withn these structures of annihilation, our placation of the intolerances we were listening to, added fuel to the flames which consumed these Jewish People. What continually confronts us, and what humanity requires, is a response which has judiciously laboured to deliver to those Jews who Survived against the backdrop of what 6,000,000 other Jews could not in justice. Also, and of the many Country’s of Europe at the time, that had previously housed their own Jewish Community’s, each has a price to pay that will never now be met as they survey the little they did to allay the fear or stem the flow of this Jewish blood.

#68Levy, Jacques b. April 2nd. 1925 in Saarburg, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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68) “..Auschwitz kommandant Hoess testified ..Nuremberg April 15th. 1946 ..number was 2,500,000 ..not based on his personal knowledge but was one mentioned by Eichmann. ..estimates of historians ranger from 1,000,000 to 4,000,000.” Bernd Naumann.

So instead of confronting rigorously this brutal hatred, as it was clearly recognised at the time, all too many Country’s would now seek to further alter the narrative so as to expunge even their own guilt. Whether this is through an historical acquiesence to ignoring the truth, or of a total indifference to the Jewish struggle as it emerged, nothing should alter the words of those like Gerald Reitlinger. While Reitlinger, who placed the Death Camps geographically within Poland, would be confronted by newer Polish legislation, words written cannot be undone by newer meaniongs. For anyone else seeking to avoid History recognising what emerged in Poland in particular, 3,000,000 Polish Jews must retain their place in our History.

#69Meier, Ernst b. October 12th. 1924 in Rust, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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69) “..Birkenau existed to suffocate hope ..annihilate logic ..provoke madness and death.” Giuliana Tedeschi.

Given that proposition of the very real threat to what the integrity of all History must contain, we must be resolute in confrontation the altering, the doctoring and the down right lies being imposed upon the truth. For us, our own consciences have been permanently stained with an inaction toward an intolerable indifference that has been marked so clearly in all of this. Within Poland, such massive betrayals of moral and ethical codes, the efficacies which abandoned all humanity, even after we were made fully aware of the exacting details of The Holocaust, is a dereliction of human compassion. What is left standing trial over a judicious system devoid of Justice for 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews, 3,000,000 of whom were Polish Jews, murdered in their own lands, is an indictment against civilisation which Gideon Hausner points to.

#70Meier, Janette b. January 24th. 1927 in Tiengen, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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70) “..Dear finder of these notes ..I have one request of you ..which is fact ..practical objective for my writing ..that my days of Hell ..that my hopeless tomorrow will find a purpose in ..future. I am transmitting only a part of what happened in ..Birkenau ..Auschwitz Hell. You will realize what reality looked like. ..From all this you will have a picture of how our people perished.” Zalman Gradowski.

But, both as abhorrent as it was for the Jewish People to have to realise it, it has to be recognised also that it was systematically selective of the Jewish People in the first instance. Every single one of these 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews of Europe, these Jewish Men, Women and Their Children then, so abandoned and then brutally slain, what we now face in history on their behalf is an awesome indictment of such intolerances and our indifference. Indeed, of the still very prevalent evil that has antisemitism borne along with it, the World is being submerged in a similar if not the very same hatred.

#71Meyer-Udewalt, Nora b. May 8th. 1925 in Hamburg, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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71) “..Up to January 18th. 1945 ..a total of about 5,000,000 were burned in ..crematories of Oswiecim and Birkenau. ..more than 3,000,000 were Jews poisoned by gas or ..victims of epidemics.” Seweryna Szmaglewska.”

Also, and at the core of the immense indusitrial Slaughter centre that is Birkenau, we place Oswiecim in close proximity to Auschwitz, and all three are in Poland. That geographical fact cannot be altered by want of a revision of that truth, given the truthful fact that Hitler invaded Poland and carved it up for himself. Here, though, and it is to Birkenau that we should look at a time of such reflection, and ahead of these two other places, to identify and recognise that Birkenau is where the vast majority of 1,100,000 Jews of Europe were obliterated. Here, 75 years years after, where there was only hate, pain and ultimately death for the Jewish People, we cannot superimpose Auschwitz over Birkenau for that fact and simply mention Birkenau, or Belzec, or Chemno, Majdanek, Sobibor or Treblinka as an aside.

#72Minc, David b. October 20th. 1924 in Lodz, Murdered in Birkenau at 17 years of age.

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72) “..Sometimes I am asked if I know ..response to Auschwitz ..I answer that not only do I not know it ..but that I don’t even know if a tragedy of this magnitude HAS a response. What I do know is that there is response in responsibility. When we speak of this era of evil and darkness close and yet so distant ..responsibility is ..key word. ..witness has forced himself to testify. For ..youth of today ..for ..children who will be born tomorrow. He does not want his past to become their future.” Elie Wiesel.

I have re-read and re-read, in a monumental tome, which deliver’s some 11,000 French Children of The Holocaust to Memory, a work by Serge Klarsfeld, A Memorial to French Children of The Holocaust. This fully adds to the dimensions of the atrocity, an atrocity still without comprehension but with growing awareness of what we need to know. For the Jewish People, taken from life within this place called Birkenau, who arrived from Auschwitz, a place a mere stones throw from the town of Oswiecim, Poland, the Jews of Poland and Europe have been recalled in the plumes of smoke which inhabited the entire area. So while we recall today and secure in that memory exactly why we celebrate the miracle of Jewish Survival at all, their Memory bst serves our need to know. Also, and for the duration of the Slaughter Auschwitz is renowned for, Birkenau must Not be forgotten, for here the vast majority of these 1,100,000 Murdered Jews still reside.

#73Minc, Salomon b. October 7th. 1926 in Tomaszow, Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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73) “..testimony at ..trial will tell of unfathonable suffering at Auschwitz ..although any attempt to depict that site of mass murder mjust inevitably remain pale and inadequate.” Bernd Naumann.

What Bernd Naumann wishes to inform us, as the trial of some of those who ran the most mechanised and industrial scale Human Slaughter house in all of history is conducted, the exercise must pale into insignifcance as we fail abjectly to construct any form of a judicious response that would be credible. What amounts to an immense calamity of a recognisable inhumanity, serves clearly to point future history toward Hitler’s actions and not away from them. Here, at least, of the more than 8,500 personel who operated this Factory of Jewish Destruction that was Auschwitz and particualrly Birkenau, not even the remotest sense of justice can be figured out for those many guilty who have never been indicted, let alone prosecuted or dealt with.

#74Moskowicz, Margot b. July 9th. 1926 in Turek Lodz, Murdered in Birkenau at 16 years of age.

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74) “..During 20 months of this trial ..court had to relive ..suffering and tortures ..people were subjected to ..forever coupled with of Auschwitz. There will be some among us who ..will not be able to look into ..happy ..trusting eyes of a child without seeing ..hollow ..questioning uncomprehending ..fear filled eyes of ..chilkdren who went their last way there in Auschwitz.” Judge Hans Hofmeyer.

That said, and as the presiding Judge at the Auschwitz trial, of this token few taken from those 8,500 and more who operated the Death Camp at Auschwitz, the pretense of justice is laid bare. Between December 20th. 1963 and August 20th. 1965, the trial was conducted into those who ran this facility, which was wholly erected and equipped at Birkenau for the purpose of the mass destruction of between 1,000,000 and 4,000,000 Jews. As history clearly informs us, 22 mass murderer’s stood trial here, at this particular Auschwitz Trial and secured nothing more than a cursory or stiff rebuke. Though Giuliana Tedeschi envisages a period at liberty, for the years following the liberation of Auschwitz itself on January 27th. 1945, history clearly informs the Jews, who have been forced to add to their evidence a rebuttal of every cynical assault upon their very integrity, a knowledge than in their abandonment, Justice will not prevail for them.

#75Naman, Marjem b. September 20th. 1926 Murdered in Birkenau at 15 years of age.

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75) “..It was then that something broke inside us. ..emotion first anesthetized ..then held back ..put off ..mixed with fear ..erupted in tears ..moans of joy. We all embraced last convinced of our liberty.” Giuliana Tedeschi.

By January 27th. 1947 Poland has decreed that Jewish Restitution claims for Property, Homes and Possessions must be made by end of 1947. At the end of this period, a year’s extension is granted. By January 27th. 1949 Polish Measures are brought to bear to ensure Jews cannot reclaim what Jews have been deprived of. On January 27th. 1951, what have we learned from The Holocaust is how to kill more efficiently as Nuclear tests in Nevada commence. January 27th. 1996 Germany first observes the International Holocaust Remembrance Day.

January 27th. 2017 “..January 27th. when 72 years ago ..Auschwitz-Birkenau death camps were liberated ..became one of ..saddest reminders in ..history of humanity. It also represents ..beginning of hope for those who .. on January 27th. 1945 were still alive. We are very fortunate to still have some of them among us. These survivors remind us all about ..need to never forget ..mistakes of ..past. It is a day which carries along a double meaning and responsibility.” Klaus Iohannis. President of Romania.

There is the factual truth of what 11,293,300 Jews of Europe, according to a composed minuting of the Wannsee Protocol proposed and which all of these Jews might be forced to face. This consensus arrived at by statisiticans of Hitler’s demands, for which 6,000,000 Jews paid an interminable penalty, speaks all too well of German efficiency in mass murder. Also, we have come little distance from the exacting of such intolerance, for as much as indifference suggests, while we continually deal with antisemitism in the modern World. What we note here too, and for what Primo Levi identifies as a man, was the detail of the horror as it was experienced by a man who was Primo Levi.

“..If This Is a Man

You who live safe

In your warm houses,

You who find on returning in the evening,

Hot food and friendly faces:

Consider if this is a man

Who works in the mud

Who does not know peace

Who fights for a scrap of bread

Who dies because of a yes or a no.

Consider if this is a woman,

Without hair and without name

With no more strength to remember,

Her eyes empty and her womb cold

Like a frog in winter.

Meditate that this came about:

I commend these words to you.

Carve them in your hearts

At home, in the street,

Going to bed, rising;

Repeat them to your children,

Or may your house fall apart,

May illness impede you,

May your children turn their faces from you.” Primo Levi.

January 20th.

Uncategorised Posted on Mon, January 20, 2020 12:05:04

On January 20th. 1939 Hitler sacks Hjalmar Schacht from Reichsbank Presidency.

On January 20th. 1941 Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna, informed Pope Pius XII of the looming threat to 60,000 Vienna Jews facing deportation.

On January 20th. 1942 The Wannsee Conference is convened and Hitler now ensures all arms of the Reich, all Government Agency’s and the wider German public are signed up to The Final Solution. This saw Hitler’s despicable plan, which Heydrich will outline as a resolve to Annihilate 11,293,300 Jews!

The Wannsee Conference it has to be remembered is convened and Hitler now ensures that all arms of the Reich, all Government Agency’s and the wider German public are signed up to The Final Solution. His spokesman for the occasion, SS Obergruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich will outline those Plans which will seek to Annihilate 11,293,300 Jews of Europe!

Below, and what is known as The Wannsee Protocol, must never be assessed as other than the bringing together of all arms of the Reich in order to implement what is already in operation, The Final Solution of The Jewish Question. Those like Lange and Schoengarth are brought to the Conference to detail the efforts undertaken in expelling Jews and creating Free of Jew zones. This is NOT the commencement of The Holocaust, more than 1,000,000 Jews had already been Slaughtered. ======================================================================================= The Wannsee Protocol January 20th. 1942

* * * * * *

Stamp: Top Secret 30 copies 16th copy

Minutes of discussion. I. he following persons took part in the discussion about the final solution of the Jewish question which took place in Berlin, am Grossen Wannsee No. 56/58 on 20 January 1942.

#1 Gauleiter Dr. Meyer Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern territories and

#2 Reichsamtleiter Dr. Leibbrandt #3 Secretary of State Dr. Stuckart Reich Ministry for the Interior

#4 Secretary of State Neumann Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan

#5 Secretary of State Dr. Freisler Reich Ministry of Justice

#6 Secretary of State Dr. Buhler Office of the Government General

#7 Under Secretary of State Dr. Luther Foreign Office

#8 SS Oberfuhrer Klopfer Party Chancellery #9 Ministerialdirektor Kritzinger Reich Chancellery

#10 SS Gruppenfuhrer Hofmann Race and Settlement Main Office

#11 SS Gruppenfuhrer Muller Reich Main Security Office

#12 SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Eichmann

#13 SS Oberfuhrer Dr. Schoengarth Security Police and SD Commander of the Security Police and the SD in the Government General

#14 SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Lange Security Police and SD Commander of the Security Police and the SD for the General District Latvia, as deputy of the Commander of the Security Police and the SD for the Reich Commissariat ‘Eastland’.

II. At the beginning of the discussion Chief of the Security Police and of the SD, SS Obergruppenfuhrer Heydrich, reported that the Reich Marshal had appointed him delegate for the preparations for the final solution of the Jewish question in Europe and pointed out that this discussion had been called for the purpose of clarifying fundamental questions. The wish of the Reich Marshal to have a draft sent to him concerning organizational, factual and material interests in relation to the final solution of the Jewish question in Europe makes necessary an initial common action of all central offices immediately concerned with these questions in order to bring their general activities into line. The Reichsführer-SS and the Chief of the German Police (Chief of the Security Police and the SD) was entrusted with the official central handling of the final solution of the Jewish question without regard to geographic borders. The Chief of the Security Police and the SD then gave a short report of the struggle which has been carried on thus far against this enemy, the essential points being the following:

a) the expulsion of the Jews from every sphere of life of the German people,

b) the expulsion of the Jews from the living space of the German people. In carrying out these efforts, an increased and planned acceleration of the emigration of the Jews from Reich territory was started, as the only possible present solution. By order of the Reich Marshal, a Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration was set up in January 1939 and the Chief of the Security Police and SD was entrusted with the management. Its most important tasks were

a) to make all necessary arrangements for the preparation for an increased emigration of the Jews,

b) to direct the flow of emigration,

c) to speed the procedure of emigration in each individual case. The aim of all this was to cleanse German living space of Jews in a legal manner. All the offices realized the drawbacks of such enforced accelerated emigration. For the time being they had, however, tolerated it on account of the lack of other possible solutions of the problem. The work concerned with emigration was, later on, not only a German problem, but also a problem with which the authorities of the countries to which the flow of emigrants was being directed would have to deal. Financial difficulties, such as the demand by various foreign governments for increasing sums of money to be presented at the time of the landing, the lack of shipping space, increasing restriction of entry permits, or the cancelling of such, increased extraordinarily the difficulties of emigration.

In spite of these difficulties, 537,000 Jews were sent out of the country between the takeover of power and the deadline of 31 October 1941. Of these approximately 360,000 were in Germany proper on 30 January 1933 approximately 147,000 were in Austria (Ostmark) on 15 March 1939 approximately 30,000 were in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on 15 March 1939. The Jews themselves, or their Jewish political organizations, financed the emigration. In order to avoid impoverished Jews’ remaining behind, the principle was followed that wealthy Jews have to finance the emigration of poor Jews; this was arranged by imposing a suitable tax, i.e., an emigration tax, which was used for financial arrangements in connection with the emigration of poor Jews and was imposed according to income. Apart from the necessary Reichsmark exchange, foreign currency had to presented at the time of landing. In order to save foreign exchange held by Germany, the foreign Jewish financial organizations were – with the help of Jewish organizations in Germany – made responsible for arranging an adequate amount of foreign currency.

Up to 30 October 1941, these foreign Jews donated a total of around 9,500,000 dollars. In the meantime the Reichsführer-SS and Chief of the German Police had prohibited emigration of Jews due to the dangers of an emigration in wartime and due to the possibilities of the East. III. Another possible solution of the problem has now taken the place of emigration, i.e. the evacuation of the Jews to the East, provided that the Führer gives the appropriate approval in advance. These actions are, however, only to be considered provisional, but practical experience is already being collected which is of the greatest importance in relation to the future final solution of the Jewish question. Approximately 11 million Jews will be involved in the final solution of the European Jewish question, distributed as follows among the individual countries:

Country Number

A. Germany proper 131,800

Austria 43,700

Eastern territories 420,000

General Government 2,284,000

Bialystok 400,000

Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia 74,200 Estonia Free of Jews

Latvia 3,500

Lithuania 34,000

Belgium 43,000

Denmark 5,600

France occupied territory 165,000 unoccupied territory 700,000

Greece 69,600

Netherlands 160,800

Norway 1,300

B. Bulgaria 48,000

England 330,000

Finland 2,300

Ireland 4,000

Italy including Sardinia 58,000

Albania 200

Croatia 40,000

Portugal 3,000

Rumania including Bessarabia 342,000 Sweden 8,000

Switzerland 18,000

Serbia 10,000

Slovakia 88,000

Spain 6,000

Turkey European portion 55,500

Hungary 742,800

USSR 5,000,000 Ukraine and White Russia 2,994,684

Excluding Bialystok 446,484

Total 11,293,300

The number of Jews given here for foreign countries includes, however, only those Jews who still adhere to the Jewish faith, since some countries still do not have a definition of the term “Jew” according to racial principles. The handling of the problem in the individual countries will meet with difficulties due to the attitude and outlook of the people there, especially in Hungary and Rumania. Thus, for example, even today the Jew can buy documents in Rumania that will officially prove his foreign citizenship. The influence of the Jews in all walks of life in the USSR is well known. Approximately 5,000,000 Jews live in the European part of the USSR, in the Asian part scarcely 250,000. The breakdown of Jews residing in the European part of the USSR according to trades was approximately as follows:

Agriculture 9.1 %

Urban workers 14.8 %

In trade 20.0 %

Employed by the state 23.4 %

In private occupations such as medical profession, press, theater, etc. 32. 7%

Under proper guidance, in the course of the final solution the Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in the East. Able-bodied Jews, separated according to sex, will be taken in large work columns to these areas for work on roads, in the course of which action doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes. The possible final remnant will, since it will undoubtedly consist of the most resistant portion, have to be treated accordingly, because it is the product of natural selection and would, if released, act as a the seed of a new Jewish revival (see the experience of history.)

In the course of the practical execution of the final solution, Europe will be combed through from west to east. Germany proper, including the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, will have to be handled first due to the housing problem and additional social and political necessities. The evacuated Jews will first be sent, group by group, to so-called transit ghettos, from which they will be transported to the East.

SS Obergruppenfuhrer Heydrich went on to say that an important prerequisite for the evacuation as such is the exact definition of the persons involved. It is not intended to evacuate Jews over 65 years old, but to send them to an old-age ghetto – Theresienstadt is being considered for this purpose. In addition to these age groups – of the approximately 280,000 Jews in Germany proper and Austria on 31 October 1941, approximately 30% are over 65 years old – severely wounded veterans and Jews with war decorations (Iron Cross I) will be accepted in the old-age ghettos. With this expedient solution, in one fell swoop many interventions will be prevented. The beginning of the individual larger evacuation actions will largely depend on military developments. Regarding the handling of the final solution in those European countries occupied and influenced by us, it was proposed that the appropriate expert of the Foreign Office discuss the matter with the responsible official of the Security Police and SD. In Slovakia and Croatia the matter is no longer so difficult, since the most substantial problems in this respect have already been brought near a solution. In Rumania the government has in the meantime also appointed a commissioner for Jewish affairs.

In order to settle the question in Hungary, it will soon be necessary to force an adviser for Jewish questions onto the Hungarian government. With regard to taking up preparations for dealing with the problem in Italy, SS Obergruppenfuhrer Heydrich considers it opportune to contact the chief of police with a view to these problems. In occupied and unoccupied France, the registration of Jews for evacuation will in all probability proceed without great difficulty. Under Secretary of State Luther calls attention in this matter to the fact that in some countries, such as the Scandinavian states, difficulties will arise if this problem is dealt with thoroughly and that it will therefore be advisable to defer actions in these countries. Besides, in view of the small numbers of Jews affected, this deferral will not cause any substantial limitation. The Foreign Office sees no great difficulties for southeast and western Europe. SS Gruppenfuhrer Hofmann plans to send an expert to Hungary from the Race and Settlement Main Office for general orientation at the time when the Chief of the Security Police and SD takes up the matter there. It was decided to assign this expert from the Race and Settlement Main Office, who will not work actively, as an assistant to the police attaché.


In the course of the final solution plans, the Nuremberg Laws should provide a certain foundation, in which a prerequisite for the absolute solution of the problem is also the solution to the problem of mixed marriages and persons of mixed blood. The Chief of the Security Police and the SD discusses the following points, at first theoretically, in regard to a letter from the chief of the Reich chancellery:

1) Treatment of Persons of Mixed Blood of the First Degree Persons of mixed blood of the first degree will, as regards the final solution of the Jewish question, be treated as Jews. From this treatment the following exceptions will be made:

a) Persons of mixed blood of the first degree married to persons of German blood if their marriage has resulted in children (persons of mixed blood of the second degree). These persons of mixed blood of the second degree are to be treated essentially as Germans.

b) Persons of mixed blood of the first degree, for whom the highest offices of the Party and State have already issued exemption permits in any sphere of life. Each individual case must be examined, and it is not ruled out that the decision may be made to the detriment of the person of mixed blood. The prerequisite for any exemption must always be the personal merit of the person of mixed blood. (Not the merit of the parent or spouse of German blood.)

Persons of mixed blood of the first degree who are exempted from evacuation will be sterilized in order to prevent any offspring and to eliminate the problem of persons of mixed blood once and for all. Such sterilization will be voluntary. But it is required to remain in the Reich. The sterilized “person of mixed blood” is thereafter free of all restrictions to which he was previously subjected.

2) Treatment of Persons of Mixed Blood of the Second Degree Persons of mixed blood of the second degree will be treated fundamentally as persons of German blood, with the exception of the following cases, in which the persons of mixed blood of the second degree will be considered as Jews:

a) The person of mixed blood of the second degree was born of a marriage in which both parents are persons of mixed blood.

b) The person of mixed blood of the second degree has a racially especially undesirable appearance that marks him outwardly as a Jew.

c) The person of mixed blood of the second degree has a particularly bad police and political record that shows that he feels and behaves like a Jew. Also in these cases exemptions should not be made if the person of mixed blood of the second degree has married a person of German blood.

3) Marriages between Full Jews and Persons of German Blood. Here it must be decided from case to case whether the Jewish partner will be evacuated or whether, with regard to the effects of such a step on the German relatives, [this mixed marriage] should be sent to an old-age ghetto.

4) Marriages between Persons of Mixed Blood of the First Degree and Persons of German Blood.

a) Without Children. If no children have resulted from the marriage, the person of mixed blood of the first degree will be evacuated or sent to an old-age ghetto (same treatment as in the case of marriages between full Jews and persons of German blood, point 3.)

b) With Children. If children have resulted from the marriage (persons of mixed blood of the second degree), they will, if they are to be treated as Jews, be evacuated or sent to a ghetto along with the parent of mixed blood of the first degree. If these children are to be treated as Germans (regular cases), they are exempted from evacuation as is therefore the parent of mixed blood of the first degree.

5) Marriages between Persons of Mixed Blood of the First Degree and Persons of Mixed Blood of the First Degree or Jews. In these marriages (including the children) all members of the family will be treated as Jews and therefore be evacuated or sent to an old-age ghetto.

6) Marriages between Persons of Mixed Blood of the First Degree and Persons of Mixed Blood of the Second Degree. In these marriages both partners will be evacuated or sent to an old-age ghetto without consideration of whether the marriage has produced children, since possible children will as a rule have stronger Jewish blood than the Jewish person of mixed blood of the second degree.

SS Gruppenfuhrer Hofmann advocates the opinion that sterilization will have to be widely used, since the person of mixed blood who is given the choice whether he will be evacuated or sterilized would rather undergo sterilization. State Secretary Dr. Stuckart maintains that carrying out in practice of the just mentioned possibilities for solving the problem of mixed marriages and persons of mixed blood will create endless administrative work. In the second place, as the biological facts cannot be disregarded in any case, State Secretary Dr. Stuckart proposed proceeding to forced sterilization. Furthermore, to simplify the problem of mixed marriages possibilities must be considered with the goal of the legislator saying something like:

‘These marriages have been dissolved.’ With regard to the issue of the effect of the evacuation of Jews on the economy, State Secretary Neumann stated that Jews who are working in industries vital to the war effort, provided that no replacements are available, cannot be evacuated. SS Obergruppenfuhrer Heydrich indicated that these Jews would not be evacuated according to the rules he had approved for carrying out the evacuations then underway. State Secretary Dr. Buhler stated that the General Government would welcome it if the final solution of this problem could be begun in the General Government, since on the one hand transportation does not play such a large role here nor would problems of labor supply hamper this action. Jews must be removed from the territory of the General Government as quickly as possible, since it is especially here that the Jew as an epidemic carrier represents an extreme danger and on the other hand he is causing permanent chaos in the economic structure of the country through continued black market dealings. Moreover, of the approximately 2,500,000 Jews concerned, the majority is unfit for work. State Secretary Dr. Buhler stated further that the solution to the Jewish question in the General Government is the responsibility of the Chief of the Security Police and the SD and that his efforts would be supported by the officials of the General Government. He had only one request, to solve the Jewish question in this area as quickly as possible. In conclusion the different types of possible solutions were discussed, during which discussion both Gauleiter Dr. Meyer and State Secretary Dr. Buhler took the position that certain preparatory activities for the final solution should be carried out immediately in the territories in question, in which process alarming the populace must be avoided. The meeting was closed with the request of the Chief of the Security Police and the SD to the participants that they afford him appropriate support during the carrying out of the tasks involved in the solution. ======================================================================================= On January 20th. 1943 Jews from Theresienstadt are expelled to Auschwitz.

On January 20th. 1944 over 1,000 Parisian Jews are transported from Drancy to Auschwitz.

On January 20th. 1945 with 4,200 Jews shot in Birkenau, the SS Dynamite the remaining Krematoria in Birkenau and the Hungarian Provisional Government signs an Armistice.

Christmas in The Holocaust

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, December 25, 2019 11:32:53

Christmas in The Holocaust

By the Christmas of 1932 Sunday December 25th. Hitler had gained power and began the rhetorical reform of his words for hatred for th Jewish People into an empirical assault, an illogical hatred for and toward, imitially, the Jews of Germany. Truth be known, though the Jews were his exclusive target, it was well known that anyone who even looked at Hitler sideways faced his unbounded despise. By the Christmas of 1933 Monday December 25th. Monday, the Jews of Germany had been further wealened by the very assault which manifested itself in too many ways. They were further assaulted, targeted with intent and continuously victimised. Hitler and the Nazi’s had brought forward a set of edicts which would singularly affect the Jews of Germany, in a hostile and virulent antisemitism. On December 1st. the Jewish Social Democratic politician Ernst Heilmann is arrested and the antisemitic Glaubensbewegung deutscher Christen, the Movement of German Christian Believers becomes the semi-official religious organization of Germany. Also, an antisemitic, anti-Communist organization, Gesamtverband deutscher anti-kommunistischer Vereinigungen, the General Association of German Anti-Communist Societies, is founded. As the German-Jewish physicist Albert Einstein criticizes the new Nazi regime.

So much had been conducted against the Jewish position within Germany that by the Christmas of 1934 Tuesday, German Jews were assaulted, targeted, victimised and abused. By Christmas of 1935 Wednesday, Jews were regularly assaulted, targeted, victimised and assailed and it was speading further afield. With anti-Jewish riots erupting in Polish universities, all Jewish students are restricted to special seats and with December 31st. arriving we see all remaining Jews in Germany’s Civil Service being dismissed.

In the coming years, Poland models its policy regarding its own Jewish Citizens on that of Nazi Germany. As Jews are attacked throughout Poland, 10’s of 1,000’s of Polish Jews emigrate to Holland, France, Belgium, and toward their biblical homeland of Palestine. As University quotas for Jews begin to bite, as they exist at this time in United States universities, America seeks to restrict further Jewish migration from harm. Such American discrimination restricts the Jewish presence also in education, jobs, and housing. Just as it moves to keep Eastern European Jews out of the United States, the first issue of the antisemitic Deutsche Wochenschau für Politik, Wirtschaft, Kultur und Technik, the German Weekly for Politics, Economy, Culture and Technology is published in Germany and the first issue of the pseudoscientific, antisemitic Zeitschrift für Rassenkunde, the Journal for Racial Science is also published. The American Jewish Congress joins with the Jewish Labor Committee to form the Joint Boycott Council, aimed at German purveyors of goods and services as Anti-Jewish riots occur across Romania.

The German government permits the publication of Martin Luther’s On the Jews and Their Lies, in which Luther advocates a program to arrest Jews, expropriate them, force them into the kind of labour the government determines, and, finally, to exile or murder them. By the Christmas of 1936 Friday, Jews assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed and abused and in a 2 year period up until the end of the year, over 47,000 Polish Jews have fled their former Country. Meanwhile, in Poland, on account of some unsavoury anti-Jewish measures and pogromatic responses to their presence, the escalation toward emigration increases with over 35,000 Polish Jews reaching Palestine.

On December 14th. as the 1,000 year Reich is announced at the Nuremberg Rally, the first issue of The Jewish Question ‘Die Judenfrage’ is published in Germany and is edited by Georg Haller. As Poland investigates the possibility of deporting resident Jews to Madagascar, the first soundings of ‘The Madagascar Plan’ are muted. Of the over 8,800 Jews who managed to flee Poland this year alone, over 2,800 of them finally managed to reach Palestine. Here, by the Christmas of 1937 Saturday, and with December 28th. arriving, the Romanian Government of Goga-Cuza is the first government that introduced anti-Semites as state policy.

During December 1938 Jews are assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused and even killed. There are transports of some 10,000 Jewish Children, forming the ‘Kindertransport’ which are allowed into Britain. On December 3rd. Jews in Germany lose their Driving Licenses as Jewish industrial enterprises and businesses, expropriated under compulsory purchase orders with Jews being wholly diminished in the German economy. On December 12th. the Neuengamme Concentration Camp opens as a $400,000,000 fine is levied against German Jews for the nazi Kristallnacht destruction.

On December 14th. Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering is given charge of die Endlosung der Judenfrage, ‘The Final Solution of The Jewish Question,’ and any such euphemism now employed will never hide from truth the intention of Hitler’s resolve to murder, with impunity all Jews he can reach.

We clearly cannot rely upon this continuing formation of words to establish the exact date at which Hitler arrived at the overall Jewish kill policy, but it was fomenting and being formulated at these moments in history. It is clear too, that with the coming Invasion of Poland, this war was merely a staging post upon that traversed ground toward the annihilation process for All the Jews of Europe.

“..destruction of Poland is in ..foreground ..aim is ..elimination of living forces ..not ..arrival at a certain line. I shall give a propagandist cause for starting ..war ..never mind if it is plausible or not. ..victor will not be asked later on whether he told ..truth or not.” Adolf Hitler.

On the eve of Christmas, December 24th. Saturday, leading American clergy come together to issue a resolution protesting at ‘Kristallnacht’ and by the Christmas of 1938, Sunday, Jews are assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused, killed and many murdered. By the end of the year more than 200,000 of the 500,000 Jews who had been listed in the German 1933 Census had emigrated with over 9,000 Jews fleeing to Poland. Over 2,000 of Jews are reaching Palestine bringing about a sea change in European Jewish relations and worsen considerably in Germany and Poland.

Some 400,000 Jews had left Poland for Palestine, at a time when 3,250,000 Jews were recorded in census as Polish Citizenry. This would not afford the Jews of Poland any more sanctuary than was deserving of their Citizen status, and history records this as an intolerable mark of Polish history. On December 1st. 1939 some 1,800 Chelm Jews are expelled toward Luck with 1,400 of these Chelm Jews murdered by Wehrmacht troops. Also, while 200 Hrubieszow Jews are force marched to Sokal, many die enroute. Then, just one week after the Hans Frank’s decree was promulgated, in Opoczno, 4,200 Jews were foced to wear the Mogen Dawid by the Polish police.

On December 2nd. the first use of gas vans to eliminate mental patients sets a worrying precedent. On December 5th. Jewish property in Poland seized. On December 6th. Britain admonishes Bulgarian Government over its transit policy for Jews fleeing to Palestine. On December 11th. all Jews in Poland must seek permission to change address. On December 12th. Jewish males aged 14 to 60 subject forced labour and to do 2 years service in Eastern Germany as Jews are expelled from Kalisz.

On December 15th. it is Decreed that Jewish Forced Labour is to be made ‘free’ to German interests. On December 18th., all Jewish valuables are to be declared in Poland and on December 20th. the Radomsko Ghetto in Poland is now established. There are 18,500 Jews enclosed in the Ghetto and all of this accomplished by the Christmas of 1939 Monday, as Jews are assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused, killed, murdered. There is now being witnessed the orchestrated mass executions shootings occur.

On December 30th. 1,210 refugee Jews aboard the Uranus are prevented from going on to Palestine and over the past 6 years, more than 1,400 individual anti-Jewish measures are enacted in Germany alone.

“..end ..November 1940 ..8,000 ..were at ..Oswiecim camps. ..political prisoners ..criminals ..Jews. This last group ..persecuted most of all. Scarcely any of them came out alive. ..death notices. ..received. ..December 20,260 ..were sent. ..200 bodies ..being burned in ..crematorium each week.” Polish Fortnightly Review.

On December 12th. The Salvador sinks killing 200 Jewish refugees with 70 of them being Children and on December 17th. Piotrkow Ghetto struck by typhus. On December 29th. the Glowno Ghetto in Poland is established with 3,000 Jews Enclosed. By the end of year 8,200 Jews of Lodz had died of starvation as Lange moves his Sonderkommando to Chelmno. Here, with the completion of the Camp, Chelmno would be at the centre of the storm for Lodz Jews while 27,000 Polish Jews managed to emigrate to Palestine, illegally!

By the Christmas of 1940 Wednesday, Jews are assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused, killed, murdered, executed, destroyed. Jews are assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused, killed, murdered, executed, destroyed.

“..Complete list of executions carried out ..Einsatzkommando 3 area up to 1 December 1941. Security police duties in Lithuania taken over by Einsatzkommando 3 on 2 July 1941.” SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.

Throughout December 1941 Moscow Radio is keen to alert the World that der Einsatzgruppe are Murdering Jews on a massive scale. In France, a leafleting exercise is saying exactly the same thing.

“..Today I can confirm that our objective solve ..Jewish problem for Lithuania ..has been achieved by EK 3. In Lithuania there are no more Jews ..apart from Jewish workers and their families. ..distance between ..assembly point to ..graves ..on average 4 to 5 Km.” SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.

December 1st. 1,200 Stuttgart Jews to Riga. They too will find their way to Rumbuli with the Jaeger Report stating that 85% of all Lithuanian Jews have already been murdered, this means that some 137,366 individual Lithuanian Jews are dead. On December 3rd. 1941 members of the Birkenau Sonderkommano are shot as a reprisal for a planned revolt. Thursday December 4th. 1941

“..10’s of 1,000’s of Jews from abroad were brought here. I saw them walking with their suitcases ..many of them well dressed. Young men and women in good spirits ..relaxed. They observe everything around them. They look at our city with curiosity. They were told that they were brought to work and were ordered to bring their best clothing with them. Afterwards they were murdered at ..Ninth Fort. It was said that these young people had no suspicions of anything bad happening to them and they even danced in ..evenings. On ..following day ..they were taken in groups of 50 and shot. Lithuania earned ..label ‘cemetery of ..European Jews’.” Helena Kutergiene-Buividaite.

On December 4th. 2,500 Gorodenka Jews murdered and on December 5th. the first truck transports of Jews are delivered to Chelmno Death Camp. The Daugavpils Ghetto still had 962 Jews and on December 7th. Chelmno Death Camp’s Extermination operations begin.700 Kolo Jews are 1st. Victims at Chelmno as they are gassed and confined to eternity here at Chelmno. There is the second aktionen of the remaining Riga Ghetto Jews and they are murdered in Rumbuli Forest. On December 8th. 4,000 Novogrudok Jews murdered and 2,300 Jews are murdered at Chelmno which introduces ‘gassing vans’ to murder the Jews expelled here.

The remaining Jews of Belgrade are ordered to report for ‘resettlement’ as the final stages of Riga Jewish murders in Rumbuli is reached. On December 9th. 25,000 Latvian Jews murdered in the Rumbuli Forest in a 3 day operation with more than 38,000 Jews will be murdered here. On December 10th. 1,757 Jews of Turek Murdered at Chelmno and on December 11th. the Lutsk Ghetto is established with 18,000 Jews Enclosed.

On December 12th. Hitler now discusses the complete annihilation of European Jewry with some fifty of his Reich leadership. In his private rooms, Hitler spoke in lieu of The Wannsee Conference of what he expected would inmplicate all levels of Reich Admisistration in the completion of The Holocaust:

Friday December 12th. 1941 “..In respect of ..Jewish question ..make a clean sweep. war is here ..annihilation of ..Jews must be ..necessary result. This question is to be regarded without sentimentalism. We are not here to have sympathy with ..Jews ..but ..with our German people. If ..German people have sacrificed 160,000 dead in ..eastern campaign ..authors of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives.” Adolf Hitler.

The Baranovichi Ghetto in Poland is established with 10,000 Jews Enclosed.

“..I once spoke about ..Commander-in-Chief in of Nikolaiev ..that ..order given at that time ..for ..liquidations to take place 200 kilometers away from ..headquarters of ..11th. Army. On ..second occasion ..I did not speak about ..Commander-in-Chief of ..Army ..but about ..High Command of ..Army at Simferopol ..because I cannot say ..with any certainty ..who had requested ..competent Einsatzkommando at Simferopol to speed up ..liquidation. ..when ..march was discussed there were oral consultations with ..Manstein ..Chief of Staff and myself.” SS Gruppenfuhrer Professor Dr. Otto Ohlendorf.

On December 13th. 14,000 Simferopol Jews murdered in 3 day period and the remaining 6 Jews of Warendorf are deported to Riga and murdered. On December 15th. Jews to receive no inducement for extra hours work demanded as the Polish Blue Police conduct the second mass execution of prisoner’s in Gesia Prison. On December 16th. some 3,000 of Liepaja’s (Libau) Jews were murdered in a 2 day operation on the beaches of Skeden.

This ‘Dezember-Aktionen’ (December Action) watched by scores of Wehrmacht personnel, Civilians and a motley crew of mawkish observers as the entire action was filmed and photographed. There are 3,500,000 Jews now governed by Hans Frank, according to his own diary entry and Frank fully informs his associates of Hitler’s intentions for the Jewish People. The Federation of the Union of the Jewish Communities in Romania is disolved as the Jewish Central Committee, Romania is established.

Wednesday December 17th. 1941 “..Jews..on ..point of being sent from Vienna to die in a concentration camp in Poland.” Father Pietro Venturi.

On December 17th. Father Pietro Venturi notified the Papal Secretary of State, Cardinal Luigi Maglione concerning the fate of Austrian Jewry. On December 21st., and over the coming 4 weeks, the Massacre of the Jews from Bogdanovka Camp, Transnistria begins. On December 22nd. over 32,000 of Vilna’s Jews have been murdered as have 1,000 of Zablotov’s Jews are murdered.

This day, SS Sturmbannfuhrer Christian Wirth arrived in Belzec to inspect the continuing construction of the Death Camp. Preparations for the greatest Christian Festival could not deter Hitler’s Final Solution from its rapidly progressive atrocity! By the Christmas of 1941 December 25th. Thursday,Jews assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused, killed, murdered, executed, destroyed, annihilated. On December 27th. the knowledge of ‘gassing van’ operations at Chelmno reaches Izbica Lubelska as the Christian World has feasted and bloated itself upon the celebration of the coming of its Lord and the endless sweep of Jewish Community’s continues.

The swathe of destruction, now measured in the 100’s of 1,000’s already, will sweep aside 1,000’s more of entire Jewish Community’s until the resulting devastation will total 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe, to be lost to us all. On December 29th. the initial T4 team arrive for duty at Belzec and on December 30th. over 50,000 Jews at Bogdanovka murdered in 10 day period as 10,000 Jews in Simferopol are murdered.

Eichmann with a team of SS officials, Hermann Hofle incuded, inspected the area of Belzec with Christian Wirth and this is significant in that it is just prior to The Wannsee Conference. On December 31st. Abba Kovner urges a revolt as Jewish Armed Resistance is being prepared in Vilna. There is a report sent to SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Dr. Fritz Dietrich, Police commander for Libau area, that 2,731 Jews of Libau have been murdered on the beaches of Skeden.

Wednesday December 31st. 1941 “..Ponar is not a ..Camp. Jews ..shot there. Hitler plans to destroy all ..Jews of Europe ..Jews of Lithuania ..first in line. ..We must not go like sheep to ..slaughter!” Abba Kovner.

By end of year, 16,000 German Jews have been deported to Riga and over the Winter period, 1,000’s of Jews interned in Transnistria are Killed. Starvation, the bitter cold, sickness all add to the Transnistrian devastation for the Jews there. During the coming December of 1942 there are Jewish Resistances at Brody, a Jewish Resistances at Chortkov, a Jewish Resistances at Czestochowa and a Jewish Resistances at Kielce. Elsewhere the Lvov Ghetto is liquidated as is the Makow, Pinsk, Plonsk and Slonim Ghetto’s, all Liquidated.

“..German authorities carrying into effect Hitler’s ..intention to exterminate ..Jewish people in Europe.” American State Department.

On December 1st. 400 of Karczew’s Jews murdered and on December 2nd. 1,000 Plonsk Jews are murdered at Birkenau, and on December 3rd. Birkenau Sonderkommano shot as a reprisal for planned revolt. On December 5th. 1942

“..Holocaust ..Nothing else in Hitler’s record is comparable to his treatment of the Jews . . . The word has gone forth that . . . the Jewish peoples are to be exterminated . . . The conscience of humanity stands aghast.” London News Chronicle.

On December 8th. 1,250 Rohatyn Jews are murdered while Herzl Kawa, Hersch Liverant and Moschk Nelkenbaum escape a Treblinka Transport from Siedlce. They escaped toward Brenner and were caught and interned in Ferramonti Camp, Italy. Rabbi Wise meets with President Roosevelt to discuss plight of European Jewry. On December 10th. 1st. Transport of German Jews arrives at Auschwitz as the Polish Government in Exile asks Allies to retaliate for Nazi murders.

Thursday December 10th. 1942. “..For those in Germany who let themselves be misused as tools of ..systematic extermination of another race with full awareness of of what they are doing ..there will be no room in postwar world. For such people there can be nothing but extermination. ..members of ..SS and all others ..participating in ..planning ..implementation of ..Nazi policy of exterminating ..Jews should take note of this.” The BBC.

On December 11th. The last transport of Jews arrived at Belzec as the Belzec Death Camp is now officially Closed with estimates as high as 1,250,000 Jews who were murdered here at Belzec. This is an Aktion Reinhard Death Camp. On December 12th. 2,000 Czerwinsk Jews are murdered and Jewish Resistance at Lutsk crushed with more than 15,000 Lutsk Jews eventually murdered.

Thursday December 17th. 1942. “..following declaration which is being made public today at this hour in London ..Moscow and Washington: “..The attention of the Governments of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxemberg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Yugoslavia, and of the French National Committee has been drawn to numerous reports from Europe that the German authorities, not content with denying to persons of Jewish race in all the territories over which their barbarous rule has been extended the most elementary human rights, are now carrying into effect Hitler’s oft repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people in Europe. From all the occupied countries Jews are being transported, in conditions of appalling horror and brutality, to Eastern Europe. In Poland, which has been made the principal Nazi slaughterhouse, the ghettoes established by the German invaders are being systematically emptied of all Jews except a few highly skilled workers required for war industries. None of those taken away are ever heard of again. The able-bodied are slowly worked to death in labour camps. The infirm are left to die of exposure and starvation or are deliberately massacred in mass executions. The number of victims of these bloody cruelties is reckoned in many hundreds of thousands of entirely innocent men, women and children. The above mentioned Governments and the French National Committee condemn in the strongest possible terms this bestial policy of cold-blooded extermination. They declare that such events can only strengthen the resolve of all freedom loving peoples to overthrow the barbarous Hitlerite tyranny. They re-affirm their solemn resolution to ensure that those responsible for these crimes shall not escape retribution, and to press on with the necessary practical measures to this end.?

Thursday December 17th. 1942 “..ocean of blood in which ..Jewish population of Poland is being drowned still has not washed away ..existing antisemitic poison.” Mary Berg.

Elsewhere the Jews of Europe are being systematically Slaughtered and it is clearly recognised in Poland where the mechansised and industrial capacity to kill 6,000,000 Jews has been enhanced in x6 Death Camps established there. Estimates will vary but history lends us an assessment which suggests that of the near 30,000 Jews hiding in Warsaw, barely 11,500 of them Survived. For varying reasons we cannot know why such is this fact but perhaps Mary Berg lends us her insight. This subjective view might suggest some 18,000 hidden Warsaw Jews alone were betrayed.

Thursday December 17th. 1942 “..Aryan side. ..a number of Jews hiding there in constant terror. Many ..blackmailed by ..Poles with whom they are staying. After ..jewels ..are ..gone ..hosts deliver them to ..Germans. spite of ..fact Polish population bitterly persecuted by ..invaders.” Mary Berg.

On December 17th. Baranovichi Ghetto Liquidated and 3,000 Jews are murdered as the Allies condemn extermination of the Jews. There is a pledge by America, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, French National Committee, Greece, Holland, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Russia and Yugoslavia to officially condemn and punish the Nazi’s. There is no similar call from Pope Pius II. On December 18th. Pope Pius XII does not see that his silence is highly damning to the Holy See.

On December 19th. 3,000 Dworzec Jews murdered after Resisting and over 560 Jews are murdered in Rakow Forest. The Jews of Piotrkow-Trybunalski attacked their German captors and many died in the attempt. On December 23rd. there is a Jewish Resistance in Cracow.

Thursday December 24th. 1942 “..a time of great tragedy for our people. ..for those who will survive this Holocaust ..we must go forward.” Chaim Weizmann.

By the Christmas of 1942 Friday, Jews are assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused, killed, murdered, executed, destroyed, annihilated, obliterated. Zelig Kalmanovich writes from the depths of the Vilna Ghetto, which is still struggling to remain viable. In the midst of this particular maelstrom, the Germans are determined to ensure that the Jews from here are totally obliterated and their presence is no longer to be felt in the World.

Sunday December 27th. 1942 “ ..where comfort lures people into of ..mighty is of no interest to history. ..Holocaust will steal its way into world history.” Zelig Kalmanovich.

But history has been told of these events and The Holocaust has presented to the World the worst of what Man can do to his fellow Man. To this day the Jews prevail and we make strenuous efforts to Remember them and stand stoicly to accuse those who perpetrated these crimes!

Sunday December 27th. 1942 “..History will cherish your memory ..people of ..ghetto. Your last expression will be studied ..your struggle for human dignity will inspire.” Zelig Kalmanovich.

On December 28th. Dr. Carl Clauberg begins his sterilization ‘experiments’ at Auschwitz and on December 30th. Pope Pius XII remarks upon atrocity’s against Jews as ‘propaganda exaggerations.’ On December 31st. more than 2,000,000 Jews already murdered in Death Camps. Einsatzgruppe and Police Battalions have added more to this figure as Dachau Concentration Camp have Gas Chamber and Crematorium installed. A concentration camp is established at Riga and a Labor Camp is attached to the Vilna Ghetto and by the end of the year, and within 9 months of operating, at least 600,000 Jews and as many as 1,250,000 Jews have been murdered at Belzec.

During December 1943 the Chortkov Ghetto will be Liquidated as on December 1st. 1943 all native and foreign Jews in Italy to be treated equally and detained under Police order. On December 6th. Over 200 Jews from Milan and Verona to Auschwitz.

Tuesday December 7th. 1943 “..people tell me ..your children are still young ..they?ll cope ..they?ll stand up to it. ..I told them ..They wont stand up to a bullet in ..neck. ..In Kiev they massacred 20,000 Jews. Feodosia ..Crimea ..12,000 in a single night.” Helene Berr.

On December 10th. Jews of Lippstadt are ordered out of their homes and on December 11th. Red Cross visits Romanian Jews deported to Transniestria.

Monday December 13th. 1943 “..Objectively seems to me we are ..last shovelful ..we won’t slip through ..not many Jews left in Paris ..we don’t have much prospect of keeping out of ..way ..we won’t be tipped off. Subjectively ..time had finally come for each of us to look for our places of safety. ..I stay on in full awareness of what may happen is a conscious choice. ..why did I make that choice. ..if I ..abandoned my official life would feel like ..defecting. ..I’m well aware that nobody in if left behind ..would have ..resolve in ..face of danger. ..seperation will be atrociously painful for all of us ..above and beyond ..fact of being deported. ..If anyone reads these words after it has happened ..will be struck ..and ..ask ..How could you have done nothing. worries are not about me. ..Should we abandon everything ..when it’s quite possible ..nothing will happen at all.? Helene Berr.

December 13th. Jews of Lippstadt are ‘resettled’ to Riga. Rumbuli awaits them. On December 14th. 200 Drohobycz Jews are murdered and on December 15th. over 2,500 Jews are transported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz as the first trial of German war criminals in Kharkov. On Friday December 17th. Convoy 63 is destined for Auschwitz from the Drancy Concentration Camp. Aboard are the Baur Family, along with 844 other Jewish Men, Women and Their Children. The Baur Family is later referred to in Helene Berr’s Journal On December 18th.

Over 2,500 Jews from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz and on December 19th. First trial of German war criminals in Kharkov ends. Monday December 20th. 850 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children arrive at Auschwitz from the Drancy Concentration Camp. Amongst these arrivals are the Baur Family which Helene Berr writes of in Her Journal. Immediate selection sees 505 of these deportees Gassed. None of the Baur Family ever returned.

Wednesday 22nd. December 1943 “..Maman told me ..Andre Baur ..his Wife ..deported ..with their four small Children. It haunts me. certain they would not be taken Christmas ..making trees for what is a Children’s holiday ..made me grieve so much.” Helene Berr.

History here adds to what Helene informs us of. WE know from Serge Klarsfeld that Andre, his Wife Odette and their x4 Children, Pierre who was 10 years old, Myriam who was 9 years old, Antoine who was 6 years old and Francine their 3 year old Youngest Child. They were deported toward Auschwitz on December 17th. 1943 on Convoy 63. None Survived. On December 23rd. End of Red Cross mission to Transniestria. By the Christmas of 1943 Saturday, Jews are assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused, killed, murdered, executed, destroyed, annihilated, obliterated.

Wednesday 29th. December 1943. “..I have not enough faith in God. ..only thing to do is to pray that God will some of them.” Anne Frank. Buchenwald Concentration Camp holds over 37,000 inmates by the end of the year.

Friday December 31st. 1943 “..When I write ..word Jew ..I am not saying exactly what I mean ..for me that distinction does not exist ..I do not feel different from other people ..I will never think of myself as a member of a separate human group. ..I suffer from ..sight of evil falling upon humanity.” Helene Berr.

Fritz Pfeffer died on December 20th. 1944, in the Neuengamme concentration camp, where he had been transferred from either Buchenwald or Sachsenhausen. On December 6th. The Kasztner Jews reach Switzerland and Buchenwald Concentration Camp holds more than 63,000 by end of year. Some 90,000 Jews from France have been murdered. By the Christmas of 1944 Monday, Jews are assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused, killed, murdered, executed, destroyed, annihilated, obliterated, slaughtered.

On December 13th. 1945 Joseph Kramer The Beast of Belsen is Hanged and on December 18th. 1945 the prosecution begin introducing evidence to prove the criminality of seven German organizations: the Nazi party leadership, the German High Command, the SS, the SA, the SD, the Reich Cabinet, and the Gestapo. By the Christmas of 1945, Tuesday December 25th. Jews are assaulted, targeted, victimised, assailed, abused, killed, murdered, executed, destroyed, annihilated, obliterated, slaughtered and eviscerated as the War in Europe has ended, the War in the Pacific has ended but the machinery of destruction designed to destroy every living Jew, Man, Woman and Their Children has not been ground out of existence.

The apopleptic response to the Catastrophe of 6,000,000 shows little regard for the enormity of The Holocaust.

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