July 1st.

1933 The German government reiterates that Hitler still belongs to the Catholic Church and has no intention of leaving it.

1935 The Society for Research into the Teaching of Ancestral Heritage, ‘Ahnenerbe Forschungs und Lehrgemeinschaft’ founded. This will become an anti-Semitic undertaking, studying the racial history of the German people.

1937 Pastor Martin Niemoeller arrested over his opposition to Hitler.

1940 Bedzin, Poland Ghetto established. 30,000 Jews Enclosed.

1941 100’s of Plunge Jews are murdered. 100 Lyakhovichi Jews are murdered. Wehrmacht enters Riga.

1943 German Jews placed under Police jurisdiction.

1944 8,000 Kovno Jews murdered.

July 2nd.

1938 40,000 Austrian Jews are taken into ‘protective custody’.

1940 Luther circulates proposal on Madagascar.

1941 Heydrich gives carte blanche to his Higher SS and Police Fuhrer’s, HSSPF, to deal exclusively and systemically with the Jewish People. 800 Novo Selista Jews are murdered. 100’s of Kamenka’s Jews are Murdered. 100’s of Stryj Jews are Murdered. SS Standartenfuhrer Alfred Filbert’s Einsatzkommando ‘9’ sets about the murders of Vilna’s Jews. SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger’s Einsatzkommando ‘3’ has overall responsibility for murder duties in Lithuania.

1942 Heydrich expands upon Einsatz role to his HSSPF. New York Times reports upon Killing operations at Chelmno. Radical elements and Jewish Officials to be dealt a deadly blow. Entire Jewish Community Ropczyce murdered at Belzec. Berlin Jews deported to Theresienstadt.

1944 3,000 Jews murdered in Ponary Woods. More than 70,000 Jews will be murdered here in the pits at Ponary Woods. The Vilna Census showed 54,600 Jews living within its confines 1931. Few of Vilna’s Jews will have Survived what awaits them at Ponary Woods, more than 60,000 of Lithuanian Jewry.

1952 Jurgen Stroop hanged for his Crimes Against Humanity.

July 3rd.

1936 In assembly room of the League of Nations in Geneva, Stefan Lux, a German Jew, kills himself in protest at Hitler and Germany’s ill treatment of the Jews.

1941 4,000 Lvov Jews are murdered. 3,500 Zloczew Jews are murdered. 100’s of Drohobycz Jews are murdered. 100 Bialystok Jews are murdered. 100 Novogroduk Jews are murdered. Stalin issues scorched Earth policy.

1942 Sevastopol falls.

1944 Minsk liberated. More than 62,000 Minsk Jews were murdered. Few survived. French take Siena.

1947 Indictment filed in der Einsatzgruppe Case.

July 4th.

1934 Theodor Eicke establishes Inspectorate of Concentration Camps at Dachau.

1939 Jews cannot be employed in Government positions. German Jewry to be placed under Reich Association of Jews, ‘Reichsvereingung der Juden im Deutschland’ authority.

1941 5,000 Tarnopol Jews murdered. Over 2,000 Lutsk Jews murdered at Lubard Fortress. 463 Kovno Jewish Men and Women murdered at Fort VII. 100’s of Riga’s Jews are murdered. Forced into Great Choral Synagogue, Gogol Street, set alight with those rounded up still inside. 5 of the 6 other Riga Synagogues are set alight with their congregations locked inside. Nly Peitavas Street Synagogue survives. Jews of Schodnica Murdered. The Jewish Badge decree was issued to the Jews of Vilna, who were ordered to wear it.

Friday, 4th. July 1941 “..we are not ashamed of our badges. Let those be ashamed who have hung them on us.” Yitzhak Rudashevski.

1942 Wehrmacht are at the Don River.

1943 Battle for Kursk begins.

1944 2,800 Papa Jews to Auschwitz.

1946 42 Kielce Jews are murdered by local Poles, post Holocaust. More than 18,042 Jews of Kielce were murdered in total. Defense summations begin in the Major War Criminals Trial.

July 5th.

1941 Rudolf Schmundt, Hitler’s adjutant, reports to his Fuhrer that thousands of Russian Jews have already been murdered.

1943 Himmler orders Sobibor be made into Concentration Camp. Kursk offensive fails.

1944 Over 1,200 Sopron Jews to Auschwitz. Appeal by International Red Cross President, Professor Karl Burckhardt, for Admiral Horthy to cease Jewish deportations.

July 6th.

1938 Anti-Jewish limitations on their economic life promulgated. A Refugee Conference is convened at Evian-les-Bains, France. 29 of the 33 Nations invited turn up to meet and discuss the growing crisis for Jews under Hitler’s yoke! As if the Jews don’t feel isolated enough, or abandoned completely, Hitler has captured the mood of the World to their predicament. This is reflected in a News Paper article the day before the Evian Conference ends.

1941 3,000 Chernovtsy Jews are murdered. 2,514 Kovno Jews murdered at Fort VII. 600 Skalat Jews are murdered. Lvov Jews ordered to wear the Yellow Star. Bishop Clement August von Galen issued his missal protesting the T4 Euthanasia Programme. The Church is still silent over what is happening to the Jewish People.

1943 Over 2,400 Dutch Jews to Auschwitz.

1944 Both Moshe Shertok and Chaim Weizmann, President of World Zionist Organisation meet with Anthony Eden, the British Foreign Minister.

July 7th.

1941 2,000 Khotin Jews are murdered. 32 Marijampole Jews are murdered. More than 8,794 Marijampole Jews will be eventually murdered.

1942 14,000 Rzeszow Jews murdered at Belzec . 1,000 Rzeszow Jews murdered in the Rudna Forest. Dr. Irmfried Eberl, Treblinka’s Commandant, notifies Dr. Heinz Auerswald, the Commissioner of the Warsaw Ghetto, of his readiness to receive the Jews of Warsaw. Himmler conducts meeting on Sterilisation of Women inmates at Auschwitz.

1944 Hungarian government halts deportations. 438,000 Hungarian Jews have already been murdered in Birkenau.

1945 Robert Jackson visits Nuremberg, a City that was 91% destroyed by Allied bombs. He inspects the Palace of Justice and decides to recommend it as a site for the upcoming trials. The Soviets prefer that the trials take place in Berlin, within their zone of occupation.

July 8th.

1937 Werner Otto von Hentig of the German Foreign Office issues a memorandum to his superior, Ernst von Weizsaker, suggesting that poorer Jews should be expelled ahead of richer Jews in order to extort a greater levy from Germany’s more prosperous Jews!

1941 40 Przemysl Jews murdered, burned to Death in Synagogue. 14 Mariampole Jews murdered. Mass Murder of Jews begins in Ponary Woods. German forces enter Lipkany and many Jews were immediately Murdered. Baltic Jews forced to wear ‘Star of David,’ the Jewish Badge of Honour. Hitler declared that Goering’s Luftwaffe would reduce Moscow and Leningrad to rubble. This added to Hitler’s euphoria of the day, when he would be spared the necessary feeding of populations within 2 cities, so reduced to rubble, the Russian people would cease to exist.

1942 7,000 Lvov Jews are murdered at the Janowska Camp.

1943 Vilna Resistance Fighters blow up a Military Train.

1944 50,000 more Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz in week long action. More than 488,000 Hungarian Jews already reached Auschwitz. 13,000 Debrecen Jews to Auschwitz in 5 day action. Kovno ghetto liquidated. Vilna approached by Russian forces. Russian Forces destroy German Army Group Centre.

July 9th.

1941 34 Wendziogala Jewish Men and Women murdered. 24 Kovno Jewish Men and Women murdered at Fort VII. British intelligence broke the ‘enigma’ code. Now, before Allied Nations lay the strategic values Hitler placed upon the advance ‘East’ and the ‘resettlement’ programme for the Jewish People encountered there.

1944 Raoul Wallenberg, the Swedish Diplomat and emissary of King Gustav V, arrives in Budapest. Some 300,000 Hungarian Jews remain alive. 170,000 of these Jews still survive in Budapest. Allies take Caen.

July 10th.

1934 The Polish anti-Semitic organization ‘Oboz Narodowo-Radykalny’ is banned by Polish leader Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, three months after its formation.

1940 Collaborationist French Government is formed at Vichy. Battle of Britain begins.

1941 1,600 Jedwabne Jews, entire Jewish Population, burned to death by local Poles. Over 123 Vilna Jews murdered. Hitler’s forces race toward Kiev, whose Jews are to receive, ‘the worst blow.’ Order issued to murder all male Jews, aged 17 – 45, shot as plunderers.

1942 100 Jewish Women experimented upon at Auschwitz.

1943 5,000 Jews at Kamionka Strumilowa murdered. Allies land in Sicily.

1944 Russians are within 60mls. of Hitler’s Rastenberg, Wolf’s Lair Headquarters.

July 11th.

1936 Hitler agrees Austrian Sovereignty.

1941 7,800 Kovno Jews murdered. HSSPF Obergruppenfuhrer Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski issues an order that all Male Jews, 17 – 45 years of age, should be shot on grounds of ‘looting.’ 5,000 Ternopol Jews murdered in 7 day action. 100’s of Vilna’s Jews are murdered in Ponary Woods. Vitebsk Ghetto, Byelorussia established. 16,000 Jews Enclosed.

Friday July 11th. 1941 “..already know what was going on. ..3 pm ..large group of Jews ..taken ..300 people. ..hour later ..volleys began. Ten ..shot at a time.” Kazimierz Sakowicz.

1942 Treblinka ready for operations. 9,000 Salonika Jews detained. 2,000 are forced to labour for Wehrmacht. Nearly 44,000 Salonika Jews expelled to Auschwitz.

1944 Russians cross Lithuanian border. More than 135,000 Lithuanian Jews were murdered. Russians cross Latvian border. More than 85,000 Latvian Jews have been murdered. Barely 1% of Latvian Jews Survived.

July 12th.

1936 Prisoners and civilian workers begin to construct Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, at Oranienburg, 20 miles from Berlin.

1940 Hans Frank declares he has convinced Hitler to cease deportation of Jews to General Government.

1941 British Russian Mutual Aid Pact is signed in Moscow.

Saturday July 12th. 1941 “..death candidates assembled ..to dig ..own graves. ..Valuables ..watches ..money ..put into a pile. ..Six of us ..shoot them. ..a few bodies ..rearranged with a pickaxe. ..I came back dog tired.” SS Hauptscharfuhrer Felix Landau.

July 13th.

1942 Action against Rzeszow Jews complete, 22,000 were murdered Belzec. Action against Rowne Jews begins.

1943 Over 1,900 Dutch Jews to Auschwitz.

1944 Jewish partisans help liberate Vilna. More than 55,000 Vilna Jews were Murdered. 2,500 Survive.

July 14th.

1925 Allies commence withdrawal from Ruhr.

1933 Nazi Party becomes Germany’s only legally recognised political party. The Law Regarding Revocation of Naturalization and the Annulment of German Citizenship removes German citizenship from Eastern European Jews and Gypsies resident in Germany. The Law for the Prevention of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases decreed and euthanasia, for those declared ‘lebensunwertes Leben,’ of a ‘life unworthy of life’, will be murdered. The law is endorsed by the American Eugenics Society. Jews will be refused entry into Law Schools under Hitler’s personal wishes.

1938 Pope Pius XI is ‘politically’ displeased and shares a hope that Mussolini would not be inadvertently influenced by Hitler.

1941 21 Mariampole Jews murdered. Hitler issues War Directive No. 32a for the conduct of operations in Russia.

1942 Dutch Jews deported to Westerbork. Westerbork becomes the gateway to Auschwitz for the Dutch Jews. Przemysl Ghetto sealed.

July 15th.

1938 The Evian Conference ends. None of those present could resolve the major issue, to admit large numbers of Jewish refugees who are facing an increasing weight of abuse and isolation. After 10 days of deliberation, the Jews under direct threat from Hitler must feel abandoned.

1942 5,000 Rowne Jews murdered in 2 day action, murdered at Janowa Dolina. Over 25,000 Rowne Jews will be murdered. 1,000 Sasow Jews murdered. First deportation from Westerbork to Auschwitz.

1943 Wehrmacht fails at Kursk salient.

Saturday July 15th. 1944 “..In spite of everything I still believe ..people are really good at heart.” Anne Frank.

1947 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 7, The Hostage Case, begins. Twelve defendants, officers in the German Armed Forces are charged with the murders of 1,000’s of Albanian, Greek and Yugoslavian civilians. They are equally charged with the committal of acts of devastation in Norway and other countries. They are likewise charged with the drafting of orders which seek to deny POW’s their human rights rights and for the ordering of the slaughter of surrendered troops.

July 16th.

1937 Buchenwald concentration camp opens near Weimar and the first 300 prisoners arrive.

1940 Expulsion of Alsace Jews begins.

1941 Hitler holds meeting – the genesis of what must have been the early stages of what would become die Endlosung der Judenfrage, The Final Solution of the Jewish Question.

Wednesday July 16th. 1941 “..essential ..we do not proclaim our views ..before ..world. ..no need for that ..main thing ..we ourselves know what we want. ..all necessary measures ..shooting ..resettlement ..we shall take them.” Adolf Hitler.

1942 13,000 German and Austrian Jews in Paris rounded up. Sent to Drancy Camp.

1943 Gestapo take Yitzhak Wittenberg from Vilna Ghetto Office. Wittenberg credited with assault upon Nazi Train, 8 days before. Wittenberg was freed by his own men. Forced to hand himself over, or look on as Nazi made the Ghetto Jews, collectively responsible.

1945 The Potsdam Conference held.

July 17th.

1941 1,200 Slonim Jews are Murdered. 6 Jews of Babtei murdered. Heydrich once more escalates the search for a final solution with an order to murder all captured Jewish Prisoners of War. Alfred Rosenberg appointed Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Territories.

1942 Himmler tours Auschwitz. Heydrich escalates the role foreseen for his Einsatz Kommandos to include ALL Jews.

July 18th.

1925 Hitler’s 1st. Volume of ‘Mein Kampf’ is published.

1940 Warsaw Jews barred from Public Parks and Benches.

1941 4,000 Lipkany Survivors expelled toward Transnistria. Many were Murdered en-route, few ever returned. 53 Mariampole Jewish Men and Women murdered.

1942 Entire Jewish Community Szarkowszczyna murdered.

1943 1,000 Paris Jews deported Drancy to Auschwitz.

Sunday, 18th. July 1943 “..How can I escape ..troubles of my people ..How can I avoid their anguish that is also mine.” Moshe Flinker.

1944 Americans at Saint-Lo.

July 19th.

1940 Zychlin Ghetto, Poland established. 3,200 Jews Enclosed. German Jews have phones confiscated. Britain rejects Hitler’s peace overture in Reichstag speech.

1941 19 Kovno Jewish Men and Women murdered at Fort VII. Hitler issues War Directive No. 33 for the conduct of operations in Russia. Hitler’s emphasis switches away from Moscow after Army Group South takes Smolensk. Seeming certainty of victory in Southern Sector.

1942 Drancy expelling its Jews toward Auschwitz.

Sunday July 19th. 1942 “..elimination of all Jews in Generalgouvernement by end of 1942.” Heinrich Himmler.

1943 Allies bomb Rome.

1944 Joel Brand’s mission, Goods for Blood, is announced to the British Press.

July 20th.

1933 Reich Concordat with Pope Pius XI and the Vatican, a treaty protecting Catholic rights in Germany. This gives Hitler ‘Political recognition’.

1934 SS is strengthened and becomes autonomous of the much weakened SA. SS overhaul the Camp system

1941 Minsk Ghetto established. Over 60,000 Jews are Enclosed. Minsk is One of the Nine Major Ghettoes Established.

1942 1,000 Kleck Jews murdered. Dr. Karl Gebhardt begins Sulfanilamide experiments at Ravensbrueck.

1943 Over 2,200 Dutch Jews to Auschwitz. 500 Czestochowa Jews murdered.

1944 Reuters reports upon the murders of 500,000 Jews at Auschwitz. 400,000 of these are Hungarian Jews! Attempt to assassinate Hitler fails.

July 21st.

1938 Jews in Germany to apply for identity cards.

1940 Hitler prepares attack on Russia.

1941 70 Panevezys Jewish Men and Women murdered. 30 Russians and 45 Jews of Minsk are murdered. Russians had refused to murder these Jews and paid the ultimate price for their humanitarian bravery. Majdanek Death Camp opens. Romania recovers Besserabia.

1942 Nieswiez Jews resist. 600 are killed. Entire Kleck Jewish Community murdered.

1943 Order to liquidate all Jewish Ghettoes given.

1944 Over 560 Belgian Jews to Auschwitz.

1945 Robert Jackson returns to Nuremberg with British and French representatives. They inspect possible housing accommodations.

July 22nd.

1941 1 Panevezys Jew murdered. Vichy begins expropriation of Jewish businesses. Hitler proclaims to the Croatian leader, Marshal Sladko Kvaternik, that victory in Russia would be accomplished by September. Suggests to Croatian leader the need to exterminate its own internal enemies. Hitler demands rear-Army areas are suppressed ruthlessly and with the harshest methods.

1942 SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hans Hofle informs Czerniakow of Warsaw Jewish deportation. First deportation of Warsaw’s Jews toward Treblinka begins.

1943 Americans take Palermo.

1944 Lvov liberated. More than 123,000 Lvov Jews were Murdered. On the eve of Liberation, 1,000 Jews of Majdanek are force marched out of the Camp. 800 of these reached Auschwitz.

July 23rd.

1940 Hitler visits Paris. First Jewish mentally ill murdered at Brandenburg Institute. Bishop Theophil Wurm, objects to ‘euthanasia’ project being conducted at Grafaneck.

1941 95 Kedainiai Jewish Men and Women murdered. Hitler issues War Directive No. 33a for the conduct of operations in Russia.

1942 Adam Czerniakow commits suicide. First arrival of Warsaw’s Jews at Treblinka. Mass gassings at Treblinka begin. Wehrmacht takes Rostov.

1944 1,700 Rhodes Jews to Auschwitz. Russians liberate Majdanek Death Camp. Red Cross visit Theresienstadt.

1965 The Chelmno Trial takes place, of former Camp personnel, in Bonn.

July 24th.

1941 3,000 Liepaja Jews murdered at Skeden. Kishinev Ghetto established. Brest-Litovsk surrenders.

1942 Entire Dereczyn Jewish Community 3,000 Jews murdered. 120 escaped to help form a Partisan group under Dr. Jechiel Atlas.

1944 Warsaw Jewish Camp in Ghetto evacuated.

July 25th.

1934 A Nazi Putsch in Austria fails. Austrian Prime Minister, Engelbert Dollfuss is murdered.

1938 Medical Certification of Jewish physicians cancelled.

1941 3,800 Kovno Jews murdered. SS Brigadefuhrer Erwin Schukltz and his EK 5 are at Zhitomir. 2,500 Zhitomir Jews are killed in those initial days. Operation Petliura, 100’s of Lvov’s Jews are murdered, 2,000 are arrested on this ‘Black Friday’. 103 Mariampole Jewish Men and Women murdered.

1943 Mussolini deposed.

1944 Remaining Jews of Kovno Ghetto evacuated. More than 34,700 Jews of Kovno were eventually murdered.

July 26th.

1934 von Papen becomes special envoy to Austria.

1939 Adolf Eichmann takes charge of Prague Emigration Office.

1941 Germans enter Stanislawow. Jewish Council immediately demanded in place. Judenrate Chairman is Israel Seibald.

1942 24 Jews from Luxemburg transported to Theresienstadt.

1944 3,000 Radom Jews to Auschwitz.

1946 The prosecution begins its summation in the Major War Criminals Trial.

July 27th.

1937 Trial of 5 Jews opens in Bamberg, Germany over alleged ‘ritual murder’.

1941 ‘Action Petliura’ 2,000 Lvov are murdered by local Ukrainians in 3 day killing spree. Over 100 Belgrade Jews are murdered at Tasmajdan Camp, by Wehrmacht troops. Heinrich Lohse issues guidelines on the treatment of Jews in Ostland.

July 28th.

1940 Hitler meets Slovakian leadership in Salzburg and urges a more radical solution to their Jewish Question.

1941 900 Vilkavisks Jews murdered. 249 Panevezys Jewish Men and Women murdered. 100’s of Drogobych Jews are Murdered. Jews of Kovno excluded from Parks and Public conveyances. Jews of Kovno not allowed to sit on benches. Jews of Kovno not allowed to walk on pavements. Murder of Russian POW’s at Smolensk

1942 156 Jews from Luxemburg to Theresienstadt. The Jewish Fighting Organization, ‘Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa,’ ZOB is founded in Warsaw.

Tuesday July 28th. 1942. “..Since July 22nd. ..train carrying 5,000 Jews ..daily from Warsaw to Treblinka. ..In addition ..a bi-weekly train carrying 5,000 Jews from Przemysl to Belzec.” Theodor Ganzenmueller.

1944 Warsaw to Kutno, First Major Death March.

July 29th.

1921 Hitler becomes Chairman NSDAP.

1941 4,000 Iasi Jews murdered. 2,000 Jews of Lvov murdered at Janow Forest as part of Operation Petliura. 254 Rasainiai Jews murdered. 40 Lodz Jewish mental patients murdered in nearby forest. Wehrmacht troops murder Jews in Belgrade.

1942 Extra food ration offered as incentive for Warsaw Jewish ‘resettlement.’

Wednesday July 29th. 1942 “..Nazis will not succeed in exterminating their victims.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

July 29th.

1944 1,300 Jews from Paris to Auschwitz.

July 30th.

1938 Henry Ford receives Grand Cross of the German Eagle, from Third Reich.

Sunday July 30th. 1939 “..No doubt Jews are not ..lovable people ..do not care about them myself. ..not sufficient to explain ..pogrom.” Neville Chamberlain.

1941 27 Agriogala Jews murdered. Hitler issues War Directive No. 34 for the conduct of operations in Russia.

1944 Over 160 Jews from Toulouse to Auschwitz.

1946 The defense of the seven indicted Nazi organizations begins.

1948 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 6 ends. 13 defendants found guilty.

July 31st.

1919 Germany adopts Weimar constitution.

1932 Nazis secure 37.3% of the Election votes cast, winning 230 of the 608 seats in the Reichstag. They are now the Largest single Party.

1933 Approximately 30,000 people are by now interned in Nazi concentration camps.

1941 10,000 Kovno Jews are murdered. 10,000 Kishinev Jews are murdered. Over 2,500 Zhitomir Jews are murdered. 251 Utena Jewish Men and Women murdered. 13 Wendziogala Jews murdered. Dvinsk Ghetto established. Goering instructs Heydrich to ‘resettle’ all of European Jewry in a final resolve that is now meant to destroy all of the Jews of Europe, Men, Women and Children included. Hoess informed by Himmler that this programme, what Hitler has ordered is, ‘The Final Solution of the Jewish Question.’

Thursday July 31st. 1941 “..complete solution of ..Jewish question in ..German sphere of influence in Europe.” Hermann Goering.

1942 65,000 Warsaw Ghetto Jews murdered in Treblinka in 9 day period. 30,000 Minsk Jews murdered in 4 day action. Lodz Jewish Deaths are escalating at an alarming Daily Rate. Israel Lichtenstein becomes part of Emmanuel Ringelblum’s ‘Oneg Shabbat’, Joy of Sabbath. Plan is to remember and recall what happens to Warsaw Jewry. All will attempt to Record the crimes perpetrated against them.

Friday July 31st. 1942 “..At present ..both of us ..ready to meet ..death. I wish my little daughter to be remembered. Margalith ..20 months ..today. ..I don’t lament my own life nor that of my wife. I pity only ..so little ..nice ..talented girl. She deserves to be remembered.” Israel Lichtenstein.

1943 1,000 Paris Jews deported Drancy to Auschwitz. Russians breach a gap, 500 miles into Wehrmacht rear.

1944 Half of Belgium’s Jewish Population had been murdered at Birkenau. 24,387 Belgian Jews murdered. Russian forces at Warsaw.

1948 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, Case Number 10. 11 defendants found guilty. 1 defendant acquitted.