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This Holocaust Author's Auschwitz Blog

This blog describes my thoughts and experiences in visiting Auschwitz, Belzec, Majdanek and Sobibor and Anne Frank's House from 2014 to 2018

I blogged my preparations for my visit, I posted daily during my visit to Poland...there are also my ongoing thoughts posted here; in the aftermath of my visit...
(Please note due to the sensitive nature of this blog, and the prevalence of trolls, comments may be blocked)

A Response to Ambassador Anna Sochanska

Uncategorised Posted on Fri, July 09, 2021 21:13:16

“..To be ignorant of what occurred before you were born is to remain always a child. For what is ..worth of human life ..unless it is woven into ..life of our ancestors by ..records of history.” Cicero.

Dear Anna Sochanska, as Polish Ambassador to Ireland, would you consider answering me this question? Why is it you insist Polish Jews, 3,000,000 of whom were Slaughtered in The Holocaust are distinct from Poles?? I have visited Poland on so many occasions, searching for some form of understanding of the awful detail of The Holocaust, placing myself in the missing steps of over 4,500,000 Jews, all Murdered there. I have met some of the finest People, of Polish descent who you are depriving them of their History, by a disengenuous lack of the whole truth.

“..Poland promotes a mythic and heroic narrative where Poles risked their lives to protect their Jewish neighbours against Nazi persecution.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

Let us accept that one of the formative writer’s on The Holocaust, himself a Holocaust Jewish Survivor, Elie Wiesel puts it most succinctly. When we admit that not all victims were Jews we know that All Jews Were Victims and this can be suggesting of the fact that not all non-Jewish Poles are guilty. It is very important, that in The Holocaust itself we acknowledge this but also assess that not all non-Jewish Poles are innocent in the wake of what happened in Poland, what they knew as it emerged in Poland and what non-Jewish Poles allowed and even perpetrated aginst Polish Jewry.

“..Poles constitute ..largest national group within ..Righteous Among ..Nations recognised by Yad Vashem. Considering ..harsh punishment that threatened rescuers ..this is a most impressive number.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

How can you even mention impressive when Poland allowed 3,000,000 Polish Jews to be annihilated in Gas Chambers purposely built in Poland for that reason. It is very true that there are 7,112 Polish Righteous who stood head and shoulders above 36 million other Poles who did what to save another Polish Jew. If we are to equate this to say the 5,851 Righteous Dutch, we must also recognise this is out of a population of some 8,700,000, so it is hardly credible of those extremely Worthy Righteous of Poland giving a number without extracting the context of an entire nations paltry effort.

“..Polish government in exile ..and ..Polish resistance ..were ..first to alert ..allies about ..extermination of Jews.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

From 1939 while Poles had been killing Polish Jews since forever, the scale of atrocity in line with what Hitler’s Einsatzgruppe were doing in Poland escalated. From 1941, when the Final Solution of The Jewish Question was being properly prepared, Jews were being killed at random in Poland, and not always by Hitler’s forces. Even while allied intelligence was well aware of der Einsatzgruppe operations after June 22nd. 1941, the Slaughter of more than 1,000,000 Jews was before May 1942 when the Jewish Bund entreated the exiled Polish government to act. Poland, Europe nor Polish resistance did anything to prevent this.

“..heroic is well in place to describe people who risked their own lives and ..lives of their families to save Jews from ..Holocaust.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

Absolutely no one suggests, those Poles who risked everything in saving their Jewish Community are not heroes, moral, gallant and the best of humanity. This is not true of those non-Jewish Poles who sought to collude with Hitler’s fuller resolve for all 3,650,000 of Polish Jewry. It is without doubt that more Poles acted witgh moral efficacy toward their Jewish Neighbours, though fear prevented them from admitting to what they sought to do or achieved in saving Jews from their own families, friends or non-Jewish neighbours.

“..At liberation ..around 50,000 Jewish survivors were on Polish soil. It is estimated that about 30,000 to 35,000 Jews ..around one percent of all of Polish Jewry ..were saved with ..help of Poles.” Anna Sochanska. (Polish Ambassador to Ireland)

Please, for the sake of both truth and its clarity, acknowledge what it appears this Polish government is at length in attempting to distance it self from. The factual truth and its veracity in History demands nothing less than the fullest detailed truth. By the Summer of 1946, there were more than 200,000 Polish Jews, living in and returned to their former domicile, which was their Country of Poland. However, by the first quarter of 1947, this number had severely shrunk to about 90,000 Polish Jews fearful while still managing to live in Poland.

Even when there were Pogroms raged against them they were home. We know of Kielce, does this Polish government admit to Sokoly? Remember too the efforts Poland decreed to ensure Jewish Restitution claims for Property, Homes and Possessions were to be made by end of 1947. Such a devious policy, all enabling the larceny of what has been taken from Polish Jews is presently detained by non-Jewish Poles, is a theft. Polish Jewish Survivor’s have been forced into the most ludicrous defence of their ownership of all that has been taken from them.

August 1943 “..return of ..Jews to their jobs and workshops is ..out of ..question ..even if ..number of Jews is greatly reduced. ..non-Jewish population has filled their places in ..towns ..cities ..in much of Poland this is a fundamental change ..final in character. ..return of masses of Jews would be perceived not as an act of restitution ..but as an invasion against which they would have to defend themselves ..even by physical means.” Roman Knoll. Polish Foreign Affairs Office.

It is so odious, in the very highest omission of morality, a major defect in human ethics, all in the face of the gravest Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe. Poland chooses now to barely recognise that 3,000,000 of the Slaughtered are Polish Jews, insisting in a racist tone that is a characteristic of antisemitism, divesting Polish Jewry of their Polish nationality. I am so tired of this attempt to distory if not fully deny this aspect of The Holocaust, which took place upon Polish soil and to Polish Jews in the main part and European Jewry transported there too.

“..new bill will be a project that meets ..expectations of many Poles ..routinely blasphemed in ..world ..Europe ..even ..Germany ..saying that they are ..perpetrators of The Holocaust and that in Poland were Polish concentration camps ..Polish gas chambers. Enough with this lie ..there must be accountability.” Zbigniew Ziobro. (Polish government minister February 13th. 2016.)

For context to why I am writing this, I add the full letter of this correspondence.

Sir, – A letter by Oliver Sears (Letters, June 30th) includes particular statements mocking the Polish. He claims Poland “(…) promotes a mythic and heroic narrative where Poles risked their lives to protect their Jewish neighbours against Nazi persecution”. There is nothing mythical about Poles saving Jews from the Holocaust. Statements from Yad Vashem, The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, prove that Poles saving Jews are not a myth: “Poles constitute the largest national group within the Righteous Among the Nations recognised by Yad Vashem. Considering the harsh punishment that threatened rescuers, this is a most impressive number.”

Poland, as the first victim of the Nazi Germany, stood firm against denial and minimisation of the crimes of the Holocaust. Moreover, during the second World War Polish government-in-exile (first in Paris then London) and the Polish resistance operating in German-occupied territories were the first to alert the Western allies about the extermination of Jews by Nazi Germany. I strongly believe the word heroic is well in place to describe people who risked their own lives and the lives of their families to save Jews from the Holocaust. Poles kept on fighting in the face of unimaginable horror. A Pole caught hiding Jews was punished not only by losing their own life, but their entire family’s lives as well.

As per Yad Vashem: “At liberation, around 50,000 Jewish survivors were on Polish soil. It is estimated that about 30,000 to 35,000 Jews, around one percent of all of Polish Jewry, were saved with the help of Poles.” – Yours, etc,

ANNA SOCHANSKA

Ambassador of the Republic of Poland to Ireland

Ballsbridge,

Dublin 4.



Tovah Olshak

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, June 30, 2021 20:54:38

Tovah Olshak (1941 – 1945)

“..Suddenly ..back door opened. A Pole with a large mustache ..and dressed in an Army uniform ..came in with an automatic rifle in his hand. ” Michael Maik.

Because of 1 Girl, 1 Jewish Girl, 1 Jewish 4 year old Girl, because of 1 Jewish 4 year old Girl Murdered in The Holocaust, and when most Jewish Survivors might have assumed the worst has ended, I met Tovah Olshak. From here, Tokele introduced me to 6,000,000 others, Jews also Murdered simply because they were Jews. For Tokele, her pet name, she was born at sometime in 1941 and I first became aware of her when I was sent her photgraph. All I knew was the fact that she had been Murdered by antisemitic Poles, even as the World was coming to realise what The Holocaust means.

“..Zeev Gritshak saw ..Pole first ..and cried out ..Robbers have come. He ran to ..other room and locked ..door. ..Pole opened a round of fire.” Michael Maik.

From me, I could write of my own loss and grief for 2 all too Young Sister’s and hoefully allow for my feelings to add to the memory of Tovah, so religiously being sought out for forgetfulness. 2,000 Jews resided within Sokoly, 850 of her Jews were removed, presumably to Bialystok on Monday 2nd. November 1942, to await final deportation to the Death Camps, either at Auschwitz/Birkenau, Majdanek or Treblinka. 500 more of Sokoly’s Jews were expelled on Sunday 11th. April 1943 and eventually all of the Jews of Bialystok were transported to one of these 3 killing centres at Birkenau, Majdanek or Treblinka.

“..With ..first shots he killed engineer David Zholty and ..bride from Swieciany.” Michael Maik.

Many of these Jews were murdered on the spot, unsure as to why they were expected to accept transportation to a destination as yet unknown. It is possible here that the Sokoly Judenrat Chairman, Alter Ginzburg, his Wife Ida, Sokoly’s Local Dentist and their son Monik boarded the 1st. Transport to Treblinka. Jews, brough together from all outlying regions were being settled within the Bialystok Ghetto prior to relocation to the Death Camps. Here, on February 9th. 1943, and up until 10,000 Jewish souls had been finally removed in a 4 day period, the persistence of the Nazi machine was so relentless that by February 13th. 1943, 10,000 Jews were no more.

“..Batya Weinstein ..who had been frying latkes ..fell dead with a knife in her hand.” Michael Maik.

Monik Ginzburg managed to jump from the Transport and went into hiding where he became reunited with Michael Maik and Moshe Maik and the Goldberg Brothers. We will meet with Michael’s Maik’s tale of Deliverance later, when Michael shares with us his insight into that time of Tokele’s murder in 1945 as Dr. Szymon Datner becomes a conduit for the truth. Simon, a Resistance Leader and head of the Bialystok Jewish Regional committee, was asked to investigate the emerging truth of what had occured in Sokoly.

“..A third victim was ..pretty ..4 year old orphan Tulkale.” Michael Maik. #As an historian of Bialystok, and after all that had brought about the end of the Second World War, Simon was ideally placed when asked to make a report on the atrocity that had been reported at Sokoly. I have used this travesty to write all 4 of my own Books, both dedicated to the History of The Holocaust, as it needs to telling, and for a World who shamefully stood aside and allowed for Tokele to be taken from us is recognised. In that assertion, there are 6,000,000 other Jews who were so brutally mistreated, exiled from their homes not knowing where they were going.

“..After that ..murderer entered ..room full of guests and started shooting again. Panic arose.” Michael Maik.

Then, detained in Concentration and Labour Camps, crammed into Ghettos and then coralled until the time came when they could be further removed to be extinguished in the 6 Death Camps in Poland. So let me take you back to when the murder of Tokele and her Family and fellow Survivor’s actually took place, on February 17th. 1945. This then is where we first come across the name of Tovah Olshak, Tokele, a 4 year old Jewish girl, and the Daughter of Shaine Olshak’s Sister.

“..For a moment ..his rifle jammed. A number of celebrants succeeded in breaking ..window and escaping through ..front door ..and they thereby were rescued from death.” Michael Maik.

Shaine Olshak too was amongst those murdered in Sokoly, Poland on this particualr day and when a period of hatred, a collusion of which exemplified with the tenet’s of Hitler’s Final Solution continues. The photograph of Tokele, which I was sent would seem to have expected from me a comment that would suggest the evil deed I was looking upon required some commentary. The photograph is of Tovah Olshak, Tokele only being a pet name for her that those in her Family sought for her, and becomes a measure of the total lack of comprehension that is the Slaughter of innocents in the name of hatred.

“..But a few ran in panic and hid under ..beds.” Michael Maik.

Though this particular photo of Tokele has become separated from the collective photograph of The Last Victims of Sokoly, I am assured that this is of the very same Tokele, history must now reflect upon. For all of those who were to be murdered were staying in the home of the Gritzik family, and at the time this might add to the confusion over where they were indeed murdered. From amongst some 20 of Sokoly’s Survivors, who had gathered at the home of the Gritzik Family, there is this conflicting evidence to suggest that the account shows the murder scene to have been in the house of Mordechai Surasky.

“..A kerosene lamp that stood on ..table fell down on ..wood floor. ..kerosene spread and a fire broke out. Additional robbers entered ..room and shot Shammai Litvak and David Koschevsky.” Michael Maik.

Mordechai Surasky, who resided in his home near to the Mazowieckie Road, is near to where those murdered were shot. These Survivors of The Holocaust lost their chance to remain as Survivor’s due to the intervention of the hatred of antisemitic Poles in Sokoly. For me, this is the most awful of events, and in an atrocity which has more than 6,000,000 such horrors, the Jewish Children, this Jewish Child have a certain resonance which I struggle with. From what I have gathered up to this point, here are these Murdered Jews by antisemitic Poles

“..Shammai Litvak’s body covered Avraham Kalifovitz. ..shots did make holes in his clothing ..but he was saved by a miracle.” Michael Maik.

(1) Tokele, aka Tolkele aka Tulkale, aka Tulka, and though the Last Survivors Photo p.136 does not list her, we know that she was 4 years of age. I am now reliably informed by a Survivor, Yaffa Litwak, who knew of Tokele, that she is (Tovah Olshak) That said, Tovah Olshak is listed as the Sister of Shaina Olshak and in Last Survivors p.136 Photo this lists her as Tovah Olshak. Both of Tokele’s Parents were previously shot in the nearby Lupochowo Forest and Tokele had been cared for and Loved by a Christian woman. Sadly, and though with difficulty, Tokele was given back to her Cousin by marriage, Shaine and this became the route toward Tokele’s fate.

(2) Shaine(Shaina) (Sheine) Olshak was a Cousin by marriage of Tokele, she was 22 years of age, the Wife of Zeev Velvel Olshak of Zeremow. Shaine Olszak nee Nilovitzki was born in Kobylin, Poland in 1923 to Shmuel and Ester and the Last Survivors p.136 Photo lists her. Shaine was shot while attempting to flee the scene of the Sokoly carnage.

(3) David Zholti (Zholty) was born in 1939 and was 35 years of age and the Last Survivors Photo p.136 lists him.

(4) Yankele Litwak was shot by a Polish soldier while in Bialystok, a few weeks after the War and was 15 years of age. Yankele was the Brother of Shaikele, Shammai and Yaffa Litwak, formerly Shainie.

(5) Shaikele (Sheike)(Yehoshua)(Shaikeleh) Litwak appears in the Last Survivors Photo p.136 which lists him and he was 13 years of age. Shaikele was the Brother of Yankele, Shammai and was the Son of Chaim.

(6) Chaim (Tuvia) Litwak, who was the blacksmith from Siemietitz was the Father of Yankele, Shaikele, Shammai and Yaffa Litwak.

(7) Shammai Litwak is in the Last Survivors Photo p.136 which lists him was 19 years of age. Shammai was the Elder Brother of Yankele, Shaikele and Yaffa Litwak.

(8) Batya Weinstein was 20 years old, and while she had managed to survive Auschwitz she did not Survive the intention of these atisemitic Poles.

(9) David Kostshevski (Koschevsky)(Koschavsky) who had Survived both Auschwitz and Majdanek was 28 years of age. David is named in the Last Survivors Photo p.136 which lists him. David died from his wounds in Bialystok.

“..Issur Wondolowicz ..who was standing behind ..closet ..was also saved.” Michael Maik.

Those who managed to survive the attempt by this anti-Semitic Pole were:- Avraham Kalifovitz, Issur Wondolowicz and Zeev Gritshak. Both Benyamin Ratzlev (Rachlev), who had been engaged to Batya Weinstein, and Benyamin Gorkovitz, who had accompanied Avrahamel Goldberg to Lendowa-Budy to take back his Sister’s Daughter, Feigele Tabak, from a Woman Farmer. Yaffa Cohen who was elsewhere when the Poles broke in and started shooting was a Survivor still, and upon their return to the house, they found the caranage that had been waged.

“..Shaina Olshak ..22 years old ..who had been recently Married ..fled outside and was shot on ..spot by ..robbers’ guard.” Michael Maik. #Even in the Holocaust arena itself there are confusions as to territory, and believe me there is a turf war over who owns what information and the very evidence of those we now seek to discover. I wrote my first Book as a response to the murder of this 4 year old Jewish girl and no one would let go of that possession of the information that might, collectively, have broadened the picture we have been presented with. For me, it is evident that The Holocaust belongs to all of us who choose to learn from it and it most definitely belongs to the memory of 6,000,000 Jews who can no longer speak for themselves.

“..robbers stole ..boots and shoes from their victims ..as well as possessions from ..beds and closets.” Michael Maik. #We must disown such possessiveness so that we can all add toward a credible understanding of the catastrophe itself, in order that we are affected by the need to learn. There is often a vitriole that exists for those who seek to open out the debate, in order that some might disguise further the wrong done. There is no closure without acceptance firstly of the great wrong done, and so the work continues to expose that wrong and supply the answers which might yet comprehend the need to appreciate the grave debt we owe the Jewish People.

“..I knew ..Tokele ..she is Tovah Olshak ..the Sister of Shaina Olshak. Both of Tokele’s Parents were previously shot in ..nearby Lupochowo Forest and she had been cared for and Loved by a Christian woman.” Yaffa Litwak.

All of my work is part of that process and it flows from the essential of the first book, through the 2nd., 3rd. and even the 4th. Book to add an Irish voice to a particularly specific and Jewish Catastrophe. This all leads me toward that certain necessity, in the hope that my work is an essential in affording to the memory of these Jews, an Irish accent that is an Irish lament. A 4 year old Jewish Child, taken from us when she had so much to live for deserves as much respect as the disdain for the perpetrator is measureable.

Tovah ‘Tokele’ Olshak


Emanuel Ringelblum

Uncategorised Posted on Tue, June 29, 2021 20:03:56

Emanuel Ringelblum (1900 – 1944)

“..Day in ..day out ..in hundreds of cities throughout Poland ..Russia 1,000’s upon 1,000’s of Jews are ..systematically murdered according to a preconceived plan ..no one .takes our part.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Emanuel Ringelblum was born on November 21st. 1900 in Buczacz, Poland and his life story is more worthy than the mereest words that I can deliver in this short essay, can ever contain. Emanuel met and Married his Wife, Yehudis Herman in Warsaw and in 1930, they had a Son Uri, whose presence gave them both comfort and hope. But let us try to begin at a point in History where an Historian is present when on October 28th. 1938 Germany expells 17,000 Polish Jews. Escorted over the Polish border, and while 8,000 of these Jews are stranded at Zbaszyn, Poland, these Jews were not to be admitted by Poland.

Saturday October 29th. 1938 ” ..shall ..take ..Jewish Question toward its total solution. ..total elimination.” das Schwarze Korps.

Nor where these destitute Jews ever to be allowed back into Germany and this sparked a response in all of history that had major ramifications for all of Jewish existence. If we think back to the period, we also recognise that the rhetoric of hatred, all vented toward the Jews, had been scaling newer and more vociferous and intended heights. On October 30th. 1938, with Emanuel at the head of the delegation of the Joint Distribution Committee, a Jewish relief team, they were sent to Zbaszyn where Emanuel sought to deal with the burgeoning crisis for those Jews.

“..future historian will have to dedicate an appropriate page to ..Jewish woman. ..She will take up an important page in Jewish history for her courage and steadfastness. By her merit ..1,000’s of families have managed to surmount ..terror of ..times.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Here, already forced to leave their German homes, and much of what were their possessions, these Polish Jews were literally discarded there. For Emanuel and his team, so as to somehow relieve much of the pressure on a small overcrowded provincial Town, on the Polish side of the German border, leadership was brough to the fore. The sheer effort eventually proved a resource that Emanuel would find of use to him when History demanded it of him. Here, and we have to remember, there where some 8,000 Polish Jews who had been summarily and arbitrarily expelled from Germany.

“..Comprehensiveness ..chief principle guiding our work ..objectivity was ..second principle.” Emanuel Ringelblum. #Here they were though, these stranded Jews, in their own lands that did not want them and did not care what happened to them. It is important too to recognise, that in Emanuel Ringelblum, we have a Polish Jew who was bringing them some relief whilst a nation refused to do so. Emanuel, too was a formative Historian as well as being a Social Worker and a Politician and he is amply known for his established works. On his Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto, there is a clear insight into the bulging presence of increasing numbers of Jews now entering the Ghetto.

“..We are afraid to walk in ..Street. ..that saying ..next World War ..would see an end to Jewish People is frequently quoted.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

While it is often overlooked, and that when the time came, Emanuel was to be one of the Leaders in this coming confrontation with Hitler’s resolve for the Jews, in The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Along with his Notes on these Refugees in Zbaszyn and of course the Onyeg Shabbes, the Archive of the Warsaw Ghetto, Emanuel has become a major reference indicator in sourcing the Jewish existence of Jews during The Holocaust. What we can always draw from his intervention into the politics of the Jewish struggle in Zbaszyn, is to consider his effort a remarkable achievement.

“..Remember ..there is a national treasure buried under ..rubble. It’s ..Ringelblum Archive. We must not rest until we find ..Archive. ..even if there are 5 layers of ruins over it ..we have to find ..Archive.” Rachel Auerbach.

For a well intentioned Man, Emanuel will exemplify the surety of that long established Jewish hope and will become an endeavour that has been beneficial to our study to this day. Clearly, the ability to rise to the occasioning of a disaster, which was beginning for the Jews of all of Europe, and with what was available to him, marked Emanuel for what he delivered for us. There are many dissenting voices in the midst of Emanuel’s achievement, not least from some of those of his Archivists who protested the lack of a physical response.

“..In 5 weeks we put up a whole Town ..with a supply department ..hospital ..workshops for carpenters ..tailors ..shoemakers ..barbers ..a legal section ..an emigration office ..our own post office and 53 clerks ..a welfare department ..a court of arbitration ..a committee for law and order ..a control service ..a sanitary commission ..a network of health services.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

I do not sit here to judge any or even some of the Jews within this period who acted as they stood before the abyss and were catapulted into it, with other than a shame that the World allowed them to be so targetted. The sheer brutality to be exacted against them, and to those next to them and to force them toward compliance is exacting enough for History to draw its conclusion as to the Jews lack of choice. The culmination of responses to this Zbaszyn aktion was to see Ernst vom Rath being shot by Hershel Grynzspan on Novemeber 7th. 1938.

Wednesday November 9th. 1938 “..I remember sort of being yanked out of our flat and being ordered to march to ..space in ..open in ..town and there we were separated ..Men ..Women ..Children ..stood there in ..bitter cold November night ..me wearing short trousers.” Bernd Koschland.

Here we are to see the emerging atrocity of The Holocaust and with the consequences of Hershel’s action, a Hitler whose response takes a more critical turn. The dedication with which Kristallnacht descended upon the Jewish People should have been the clarion call to the World to act. But, and here on November 9th. 1938 when vom Rath dies, Hitler authorizes his chief lieutenant, Hermann Goering, to deal without measure or restraint, all aspects of Jewish living and political issues.

“..majority of our ..collaborators ..mostly recruited from ..folk intelligentsia ..mainly from ..proletarian parties. ..purposely avoided inviting professional journalists ..we didn’t want our work ..cheapened and distorted. We wanted ..simplest ..unadorned account possible of what happened in each shtetl ..what happened to each Jew ..each Jew ..a World in itself. Any superfluous word ..any literary exagergeration grated and repelled. Jewish life ..is so packed with events ..it is unnecessary to add an extra sentence.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Immediately, this Night of Broken Glass, Kristallnacht, is orchestrated throughout Germany, Austria and the Sudetenland. With some 267 Jewish Synagogues ransacked and destroyed, 7,500 Jewish Shops looted and over 50,000 Jews are removed to German Concentration Camps. Here at Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen, the Nazi expertise in abusing, and killing the Jewish People is clearly honed for future reference. Jewish life has now been ritually targetted for destruction and there are over 240 Jews who are killed to add to the emergence of what die Endlosung der Judenfrage will mean.

“..Polish Police ..has played a most lamentable role in ..Extermination of ..Jews of Poland. ..uniformed police has been an enthusiastic executor of all ..German directives regarding ..Jews.“ Emanuel Ringelblum.

On December 14th. 1938 Goering is given overall charge of this, die Endlosung der Judenfrage, and The Final Solution of The Jewish Question becomes more certain. Any euphemism therefore which becomes employed, given the full nature of the Destruction of all Jews in Europe to come, will never hide from truth the fully murderous intention of Hitler’s resolve. Though we clearly cannot rely upon this continuing formation of words to establish the exact date at which Hitler arrived at the overall kill policy, we know it arrived.

“..It must all be recorded with not a single fact omitted. And when ..time comes ..as it surely will ..let ..world read and know what ..murderers have done.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

As we move on to December 6th. 1939, Emanuel notes in a letter, reporting and describing the situation for the Jews of this no mans land, that was Zbaszyn, Poland. Meanwhile, the Jewish suffering is being added to. Working out what was and could be achieved, and given the will to do so, a handful of Jews did more for humanity than entire states or nations were prepared to. For both Germany and Poland, the human failings were enormous and entirely essential to both these states decrying the presence of Jews within their communities, with an acceptance of their removal from their states.

“..Signs of Modern Slaves. ..Numbered and stamped. Live in barracks ..without their Wives. ..Wives and Children removed ..because slaves don’t require Families. ..Walk in crowds ..not individually. ..Beaten and terrorized at work. ..Inhuman exploitation. ..Ban on organiusation of any kind. ..Ban on any form of protest or sign of dissatisfaction. ..Every slave dependent for his life on his master. ..At any moment ..sent to ..Umschlagplatz. ..murderous discipline ..workers to forced labour camps. ..Compulsion to work. ..Worse off than slaves ..they must look after their own food. ..Confiscation of property from a dead worker’s Family ..right of inheritance has been abolished. ..Locked inside ..residential block. ..Ban on leaving your apartment ..walking in ..Streets after work hours. ..Limitation of personal freedome ..of movement. ..Worse that slaves ..because latter knew they would remain alive ..had some hope to be set free. ..Jews ..sentenced to death ..whose death sentence ..postponed indefinately ..or has been passed. ..sick and ..weak have been liquidated.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Also clear is, that when it arrived, All Jews Were To Become Hitler’s unwilling Victims in accordance with what Hitler enabled his minions to bring forward on his behalf. The resolve of Hitler for the complete response and answer to the Jewish Question was always in operation, ever since Hitler came to power. But, and even before then, Hitler had trained his sights upon the Jewish People and their destruction was an increment away. Those stages, in words and hate filled bile, sought to camouflage somehow his impulse to destroy and punitively, the entire Jewish Race of People.

“..February 2nd. 1940 ..according to my Son Uri ..Children tell one another ..old People will be shot ..middle aged will be sent to camps ..and ..Children will be baptized and passed out among christian families.” Emanuel Ringelblum. #While what Emanuel recognised here in the words of Children and was still some years away, we saw with Kristallnacht that this had already crystallized the frenzied rhetoric of Hitler’s hatred of the Jews. What branched out into a full blown programme of destruction we see with the procession of events toward the future enslavement of the Jewish People that was destructive and clearly defined, fast approaching. We recognise too that Kristallnacht is an identified staging post for what would become the resettlent transports from the Reich to the 6 Gassing facility’s in Poland.

“..from ..principal European Ghettos set up by ..Germans ..several diaries ..collections of documents survive . ..3 largest existing sets of contemorary records are those of ..Warsaw Ghetto ..collected by Emanuel Ringelblum and his Joy of Sabbath circle ..archives of ..Bialystok Ghetto ..and ..chronicle of ..Lodz Ghetto.” Martin Gilbert.

Every facet of Hitler’s being was focused upon the Jews and their annihilation and the entry of War into this configuration gave Hitler a further 3,650,000 Polish Jews for him to resolve as an issue, as a solution, as a People. With his formative der Einsatzgruppe, small pockets of Jewish Community’s were targeted and eliminated and this is nowonly 1939. During December 1940, while work was being considered on creating the Onyeg Shabbes, the consensus amongst many is given a more immediate purpose.

Tuesday June 30th. 1942 “..Jewish population ..living under ..impact of news from London. ..world has been stirred by ..reports of ..slaughter in Poland ..aroused ..deepest emotions in all of us. Formany ..many months ..endured ..most terrible sufferings ..asking ourselves ..Does ..world know about our sufferings ..if it knows ..why is it silent. Why was ..world not outraged 10’s of 1,000’s of Jews ..shot ..at Ponary. ..10’s of 1,000’s of Jews poisoned in Chelmno. 100’s of 1,000’s of Jews ..slaughtered in Galicia. ..slaughter in Vilna. ..180,000 ..in Rostov ..Jews ..murdered ..in Kiev. ..blood is flowing in rivers. Is ..blood of ..Jews more precious…Only now have we come to understand ..cause of this silence. ..Polish government ..its own radio station .knew nothing about it. ..if London knew ..next day 100 people ..shot ..Pawiak prison ..why ..did it take many months before they learned of ..100’s of 1,000’s murdered Jews…a question which cannot be turned away by excuses!” Emanuel Ringelblum.

As Emanuel seeks to bring together like minded activists as archvists, those who share the same sense of urgency, Poland is evidencings all of what Hitler’s forces are securing against the Jews, throughout Poland. In Aleksandrow they Murder Jews. In Czestochowa they Murder Jews. In Konskie they Murder Jews. In Kruszyna they Murder Jews. In Lelow they murder Jews. In Ozorkow they Murder Jews. In Pietrkow-Trybunalski, in Piotrkow, in Sosnowiec, in Wieruszow, in Zarki, in Zdunska-Wola, in Zgierz and in Zloczew the Einsatzgruppe murder Jews.

“..Ringelblum certainly played an important role ..not only in ..archive ..but also in all his activity. ..an energetic ..active man ..filled a central role st Tlomackie ..in Yisa ..and had an outstanding organisational ability.” Yitzhak Zuckerman.

All of which suggests the systematic nature of the Slaughter and the planned for execution of Hitler’s developing instructions to do so. As the Murder’s become more and more widespread, the knowledge of their consistency permeates all of Poland. As Emanuel engages in the prospect of ensuring the World will know of this, we do not seek to discount any of those 50 or 60 Archivists who worked so closely to ensure it. The Memory of what was achieved against all the Jews of Poland is entered into with what we recognise is Emanuel Ringelblum’s Onyeg Shabbes Archives. 

Wednesday July 22nd. 1942 “..eve of Tisha be-Av ..Day of Mourning ..liquidation of ..Warsaw ghetto was begun. ..Public Committee was immediately summoned to find out what ..situation was and to take measures. Those attending ..meeting included Dr. A. Berman ..L. Bloch ..Shmuer Bresler ..Yitzhak Cukierman ..Zisha Friedman ..Josef Finkelstein-Lewartowski ..D. Guzik ..Yitzhak Giterman ..Josef Kaplan ..Menachem Kirszenbaum ..Alexander Landau M. Orzech ..Dr. Emmanuel Ringelblum ..Josef Sack ..Szachna Sagan ..Dr. Yitzhak Schiper. ..Opinions were divided. Representatives of ..left-wing Zionist parties and of He-Halutz ..and also some of ..men in public life called for active intervention in some way or other. ..majority wanted to wait. How long. Until ..situation became clearer. ..rumors ..circulating that no more than 50,000 to 70,000 Jews would be deported from Warsaw ..old people ..sick ..prisoners ..beggars ..after that ..Aktion would be finished.” Adam Czerniakow.

For this reason alone, the Archive will always allow for Emanuel Ringelblum’s name to ring out throughout all of Eternity. While we have at least many of the names of those who assisted Emanuel’s endeavour, we recognise a concerted effort has now been recorded into the evidence and testimony we know is The Holocaust. For all of those other contributor’s, and we are aware that not all of these are known us, we recognse them, their hand intervening and intentional and for that, they too are recalled and remembered.

Monday August 3rd. 1942 “..I am proud ..in these grave ..fateful days ..I was one ..who buried ..treasure ..in order that you ..know of ..tortures ..murders of ..Nazi tyranny.” Naum Grzywacz. #On August 3rd. 1942 in 10 Tin Boxes and Milk Churns, some holding Emanuel Ringelblum’s own Warsaw Diary, we know that this part of the Ghetto Archive, perhaps Emanuel’s own personal attachment to the Onyeg Shabbes, this is hidden by Naum Grzywacz, Israel Lichtenstein and other’s. The Jewish Self Help Society, from which this Yisa Archive arrives and all of this adds more to the culture of Poland which did Not exist without the influence of some 3,650,000 Polish Jews within that Group and Society as a whole.

“..Ringelblum asked me to transfer Michael Weichert’s archive from Krakow to Warsaw. ..It wasn’t a personal archive but ..YISA archive.” Yitzhak Zuckerman. #Emanuel Ringelblum, who sought to remind the closed World of Poland, the ever threatened Europe and consequently the World thrown into conflict of what will be missing of Polish Jewry. We should be certain that while some 3,000,000 Polish Jews are to be missed, they form a part of a larger 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews are missed but must never be forgotten. We know too that in the March of 1943, Emanuel, Yehudis and Uri escape to the aryan side of Warsaw and away from the Ghetto.

“..Before ..War ..Jews lived in their 2 storey tenement. As neighbours ..they were on good terms. A Jewish vegetable merchant and a Jewish fruit trader bought products from their garden and orchard. Old Mieczyslaw’s Father was known for his liberal attitude towards Jews. He was an honest man ..of noble character. Modern trends had not touched him. He did not understand hatred towards Jews. It was in that spirit that he raised his children ..in whom he instilled ..principles of justice and to treat everyone ..same ..without regard to religion or nationality. Mrs Malgorzata ..Mieczyslaw’s Mother adopted that family tradition from her Husband.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Emanuel could not forego his undertaking to gift us memory and was always adding to what the Archive would finally constitute in recalling what the Jews were enduring. The vulgar horror of the actual Slaughter rips through the whole of civilisation and marks any perceived culture with a disdain that resonates though 6,000,000 Jews lost. The War against the Jews was no coincidence and World War II will not conceal that fact, an integral part of its knowledge not hidden behind a smoke screen an attempt to shroud and deflect a World’s attention.

“..When it was needed to rescue ..current residents of Krysia from ..Ghetto ..Wieczyslaw personally drove his cart to ..finish ..loaded ..suitcases and parcels onto ..cart ..sat ..people onto ..packages and drove home. One time ..he loaded on 8 people ..Women ..Children ..and ..before ..eyes of ..police ..szmalcownicy these blackmailers ..and ..neighbours ..he drove along ..main streets of ..City ..arriving home safely.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Along with the Archives from Warsaw, there was also many other Archives which Emanuel pooled together from the far flung corner’s of Hitler’s intention for Polish Jewry. In this we can recall, Bialystok, Cracow, Lodz and Vilna and know from them, the physical resistance is placed alongside the cultural emphasis always Jewish, always a Jewish enterprise and always in confrontation with Hitler’s demands. It is indeed unfortunate that some in history see, that it required the tide of the War to move against Hitler for him to unleash The Final Solution.

“..What could I answer. ..We all knew well that if we succeeded in taking Ringelblum out of there and bringing him to us as a shoemaker or tailor ..his Family would still be doomed. My silence conveyed ..truth to him.” Julian Hirszhaut.

This is very far from the truth as in every corner of Germany and Austria, in Czechoslovakia and on into Poland, from these earliest days, the Jewish People were being Murdered and to scale. On March 5th. 1944, Emanuel was betrayed by the Pole, Jan Lakinski, and their place of hiding was uncovered by the Germans. Emanuel and his Family, and all the others in the hiding place, as well as the Pole who hid them, were taken to Pawiak prison. There are variants to the last details of Emanuel’s life, and those of his Family.

“..On ..morning of March 7th 1944 ..Germans and polish police came to ..kitchen where we were sitting ..my Mother ..my Brother Mieczyslaw ..Me and my sick Sister Halina. They took my Brother and led him straight into ..garden to ..greenhouse. I immediately went into another room and lowered ..blind as a signal of danger. Janusz was in front of ..greenhouse. When he saw ..drawn blind ..he jumped into Krysia and stayed there. Through ..window ..I saw ..Germans standing near Krysia as ..Jews emerged. They were then stood against a wall with their arms raised. That same day ..or ..next ..Krysia was pillaged and burned. ..polish police stood guard there for another 3 days before they were recalled.” Wanda Szandurska.

Some 130 Jews are recorded as having been in hiding alongside Emanuel and his Family and were caught by the Germans as they sought Emanuel and even his Archive. Other’s contest that it is within Pawiak Gaol that Emanuel and his Family were shot and either way, Emanuel Ringelblum has left to posterity what we surely gain from. We can afford him no other accolade than the saving of a Jewish Cultural rebellion that stood against the tide of such uncivilised atrocity, there is a victory we might not choose to mention while it is steeped in the blood of 6,000,000 Jews. Emanuel deserves more than just a mention far beyond what is to be learned of, and ahead of all of his effort for us.

“..populace is afraid that at ..crucial terrifying moment ..Germans will discover some clever way of turning to nought all our efforts ar self rescue. Whether this is true or not ..only future will tell.” Emanuel Ringelblum. #The Foresight to see, while all around you is crumbling into dust, that choking feeling of isolation being masked by the flames of destruction and all the time while facing the blanket of ash from the Slaughter of Your People, this is what confronted 11,293,3000 Jews of Europe and Emanuel Ringelblum ws one of those Jews. Emanuel Ringelblum established for all time what history now acknowledges is the formative archive of the Jewish Struggle to Survive. This idea, this concept worked tirelessly against Hitler’s plan to ensure no trace of any Jew could survive, either physically, culturally, or effectively.

“..If ..third part of ..Ringelblum Archive ..and with it my papers ..turned over for safe keeping after ..Great Deportation began ..is ever found ..it will include a ticket from ..Ghetto’s laundry with a poem by Yisroel Shtern about a tree in ..Ghetto.” Rachel Auerbach. #And here, as we recognise this day, March 7th. 1944, as the very day Emanuel and his Family are murdered, we know more of what happened to those who used to surround him in Warsaw, 300,000 to 450,000 Jews, filtered through the Umschlagplatz into oblivion. The Archive itself, this Onyeg Shabbes, and their wealth of evidences and materials that were preserved in metal cases, boxes, milk crates, is a treasure to be measured by 6,000,000 priceless lives. Uncovering thsee artefacts, one of the sites was uncovered in September 1946 with 10 cases of the Archive still intact. On December 1st. 1950, the second resource, the Milk churns containing more of these evidences and testimonials were discovered.

“..Everything depends upon who transmits ..who writes ..history of this period. ..they might wipe out our memory ..as if we had never existed ..as if there had never been a Polish Jewry ..a Ghetto in Warsaw ..a Majdanek. ..if we write ..history of this period of blood and tears ..I firmly believe we will ..who will believe us. Nobody will want to believe us ..because our disaster is ..disaster of ..entire civilised World. ..we are Abel ..murdered Brother.” Isaac Schipper.

This other large section, Rachel Auerbach’s 3rd. Section of the Archive has as yet remained hidden beneath the depths of the Ghetto and will possibly never be uncovered. What we have though, are the raw materials of Jewish Life while they are facing the daily perils of The Final Solution of the Jewish Question. This, at the time when the forces of Hitler were decimating Jewish existence is not to be measured lightly, nor forgotten easily. The physical evidence of the persistance of more than 3,000,000 Jews who were eradicated from all of Poland stands also as a testimonial to World failure and Jewish loss. 6,000,000 Jewish losses, all too easily forgotten by those who would seek to forget our lamentable failings as human beings has its reminders.

“..we die ..knowing ..we hurt ..enemy. ..unmasked his ..plan to destroy Polish Jewry. ..upset his plans ..revealed his cards. ..if England keeps its word ..goes through with its threats ..maybe we will be saved after all.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Emanuel Ringelblum
Yehudis Herman Ringelblum
Emanuel and Uri Ringelblum
Onyeg Shabbes Contained
A Wealth in Words


Wladyslaw Szlengel

Uncategorised Posted on Mon, June 28, 2021 14:29:43

Wladyslaw Szlengel (1912 – 1943)

“..poems which you will enter ..my dears ..without armbands ..are a jungle in which you will not find it easy to find your way. Topics and props are alien and incomprehensible to you ..they require many comments. There are words and points ..whose depth and horrifying sadness can be understood only after ..preparation in ..form of a life behind ..wall and under ..whip of ..SS.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Wladyslaw Szlengel was a born Poet, sometime in 1912, as records have proved inadequate to be more specific, he was born to Parents Mala and Maurycy Szlengel in the Warsaw District of Wola. In 1930, a Graduate of the Merchants Association Trade School, he had his first poem Published, Cjankali. He commenced his Theatre training and throughout the 1930’s his poetry was being read everywhere, in articles, newspapers and in songs for all of the theatres he frequented. With Hitler’s Invasion of Poland, September 1st. 1939 Wladyslaw was a fighter, defending his Warsaw and once Polish defeat was assured he and his Wife left for Bialystok and then onto Lvov.

“..With heart rozbitem and choir ..With thoughts about that page Sat down tonight Speaking. ..And I think to myself ..I’ll call ..To someone on that side ..When I’m on duty ..In ..Evening. ..And suddenly I think ..on God ..I don’t actually have to whom In ..year of trzydziestym ninth ..I went another way. ..Our roads parted ..Friendship are in Toni ..And now ..well please ..I don’t have ..Even who to call. ” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

With Hitler’s further demands East, Hitler Invaded Russia on June 22nd. 1941, Wladyslaw returned to Warsaw by way of the Janow Camp, after he was incarcerated by the Germans. Freed, around January 1942, he managed to finally return to the Warsaw Ghetto, to their apartment at 14 Walicow Street. At this time he created the Living Diary and attracted the attention of Emanuel Ringelblum, himself assembling like minded spirits for the Onyeg Shabbes. With this Living Diary, Wladyslaw chronicled the ups and the many downs of Ghetto life, producing a newspaper which not only contained his songs, it contained a spirit of resistance.

“..And ..autumn evening behind ..glass ..And ..autumn evening is on ..road ..And I think ..I would like to call ..But I have no one to. Taking ..phone to hand ..Pathetic link ..I friend number ..He’s talking ..girl. ..Excuse me ..do you recognize me. ..I’m asking .voice ..September years ago ..Before I went to road ..my room at dawn ..I knew what was starting ..And for ..last time ..That it’s six o’clock. ..Now ..do you want to talk to me ..Because my throat stands tears ..Tell me something zegarynko ..ten ..Fifty ..three.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

The paper was filled with interviews from other Performers, Writers and those who witnessed the life changing effects of the Ghetto as it was imposed. It was at such time that Wladyslaw came to also know Janusz Korczak of the Children’s Orphanage, a Home for the waifs and strays, the homeless and the destitute Jewish Children of the Warsaw Ghetto. His Poetry took on a newer meaning now as he was attracted to Emanuel Ringelblum’s efforts in establishing the Ghetto Archive. The songs, the poets of spirit in hope began to filter throughout the Ghetto as Wladyslaw became a component part of the Onyeg Shabbes Archivists.

“..How often I had to life ..With that voice of calm tie. ..Remember me ..zegarynko ..ten ..Fifty ..Six. ..Ten ..Fifty ..Six. ..You want ..we’ll mention ..In ..year ..I’m out of ..movies now. ..Ten ..Fifty Seven. ..Coming home zero ..With chmielna from Atlantic cinema ..With Gary Cooper. ..On ..corner of ..golden paperboy ..He was selling ..Kurjer Red ..On ..asphalt they are rolling like lights ..Colorful Neon.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Wladsylaw, who had been a member of the Jewish Police, up to the point of the First Great Action, the commencement of the liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto, when reality finally assailed him. Jewish Warsaw, its population having swelled from 300,000 Jews in the 1930’s, was now bulging with in excess of 450,000 Jews, adding those from outlying districts to the hugely over crowded Ghetto area. Here, Adam Czerniakow as the Judenrate Chairman sought to refuse the Nazi’s their list making effort and he committed suicide on July 23rd. 1942 as Treblinka awaited 900,000 or 1,000,000 of Warsaw’s Jews, Europe’s Jews and Poland’s Jews.

“..No he he ..Into ..heart of a nice city ..Do you say something zegarynko .. Eleven. ..A new world will be born ..Still for a walk parks went ..He also invited cafe club. ..Eleven Three. ..In quick fresh sausages ..And kolacyjny piston ..And rushed from adria cab ..From The Speaker Sang Fogg. ..Back to firehouse trams ..And ..night started to drive ..Which was more or less. ..Eleven ..Forty ..Six.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Here, Wladyslaw took leave of his policing duties, witnessing the Death and Destruction of his Jewish Warsaw, with colleagues, friends and associates all being harassed, tagetted and killed at the whim of the Nazi forces. Wladyslaw was moved to 34 Swietojerska Street and began working in the brushmakers workshop and began his life renewed, though in hiding there and finally in the basement at 36 Swietojerska Street. Here, Wladyslaw Survived during the Jewish Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, which began on April 17th. 1943 and he was still alive until its last days.

“..How good to talk to you ..No dispute ..no different opinions. ..You are ..nicest ..zegarynko ..Of all ..friends of ..ladies. ..Already Lighter now ..heart will be ..When I know that when I call ..Someone will listen to me ..Though He’s on that side. ..That someone remembers all this ..That we shared fate ..And talk to me is not afraid ..And so calm has a voice. ..Already night fall pluszcze ..And wind over murkami gna ..We dream ..we dream ..Girl and I. ..Be healthy my far away ..There are hearts where nothing changes. ..In five twelfth you say ..You’re right ..so goodbye.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Tragically, and not fully 2 days before the crushing of the Jewish Uprising, which came to an end, on May 10h. 1943, together with his Wife, on May 8th. 1943, the Nazi’s came across their hidden bunker and no one emerged alive of the some 130 Jews in hiding there. The carnage of their Murder leaves no resting place for them, so we Remember them all as Jews of The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. In the words of Wladyslaw Szlengel, both prophetic and deeply moving we recognise in:

Your Death and Our Death.

Your death and our death

are two different deaths.

Your death it’s a strong death,

tearing into shreds.

Your death in the midst of grey fields

fertile from blood and sweat.

Your death is death from bullets

for something for the Homeland.

Our death it’s a silly death,

in an attic or a cellar,

our death is a dog’s death

from around the street corner.

Your death will be marked with a cross,

it is being reported,

our death warehouse pile,

they will bury goodbye.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Wladyslaw Szlengel


Yoshue Perle

Uncategorised Posted on Sun, June 27, 2021 12:09:28

Yoshue Perle (1888–1943)

Yoshue Perle was born in 1888’s Radom, Poland and his Father, a merchant sent Yoshue to a Russian School to learn bookkeeping. In 1905, working in a Warsaw, Poland Bank, he pursued his literary career visiting theatres, meeting with other young Yiddish writers and honing his craft amongst Warsaw Jewry. His Shabes work was published in 1908 and he became a known quantity, perhaps through his regular interactions with the monied of local Jewish Society. Yoshue however, never quite sought to fit into the rather strange mix of assimilated Jewry who could never fit totally into Polish society, as all too often Polish Jews were considered outsiders in their own land.

This separation between assimilated and the more Observant Jews was continually expressed in the works of Yoshue at the time. In 1926 Sara, when Yoshue’s Wife took her own life a looming cloud descended over him and in 1935, when his Book, Ordinary Jews was Published, it caused quite a stir amongst the more reserved, conservative and religious Jews in Poland. However, since its entry into the lexicon of Jewish consciousness, it has come to be both respected and well regarded. It is a Book that is certainly one of Yiddish Literatures modern classics, ahead of its time.

It is a glimpse into the facets of Jewish life that was set to fade and there are small snippets of ordinary Jews in small provincial Jewish Towns in Poland which ensure we can reach past The Holocaust. Here, we are directly connected with those Jews still warm and vibrant, enduring hardships of antisemitic hatreds, but living none the less. With what has been taken from the World with the loss of some 3,000,000 Polish Jews, the Jewish World and more specifically the Polish Jewish World has been ransacked from all existence.

With this work intact, Ordinary Jews the novel, becomes in many ways a History of the Jews of Poland before The Holocaust brutally detained them. The Book in itself opens a portal to a Jewish way of life that has been, for all intents and purposes, eradicated throughout all of Poland.Yoshue’s work too has a direct connection with that past which Emanuel Ringelblum sought to source, in order to establish his own Shabes, the Onyeg Shabbes. In March 1936, Yoshue perhaps foresaw the consequences of the mounting hatred for the Jewish People now spreading through Europe.

“..It is bad and bitter here. When they slaughter us all ..there won’t be anywhere to bury us.” Yoshue Perle.

After Hitler’s forces invaded Poland, September 1st. 1939, Yoshue left Warsaw for Lvov and in Novemebr 1939 he worked alongide the Russian Writer’s Union, chairing the Yiddisher section. Then with Hitler’s attack on Russia, June 22nd. 1941, Yoshue returned to Warsaw and filed a report on the Russian occupation of Lvov for Emanuel and the Onyeg Shabbes. Here, Emanuel also managed to secure employment for Yoshue, at the honey factory, which would also employ Rachel Auerbach, and in order for them to maintain the Yiddish framework of the Archive.

“..Korczak’s true value was not what he wrote but that he lived as he wrote.” Wladyslaw Szpilman.

Also, as a part of the archive itself, Jewish life, was worked upon as a microcosm of individual lives that is to be played out as we are transported back to a time of great Jewish vibrancy and creativity. Here, in pre-Hitler’s intervention into Poland, how little could be perceived of what lay in store for all of European Jewry would be more certainly felt and within Poland, almost immediately. On August 5th. 1942, we reflect with Janusz Korczak and the 200 Children of his orphanage as they were marched through the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto to a waiting transport for Treblinka.

“..A miracle occurred ..these 200 Children did not cry ..200 innocent creatures condemned to death did not weep ..not one of them ran away ..none tried to hide. Like sick swallows ..they clung only to their Teacher ..Mentor ..Father ..Brother ..Janusz Korczak ..so that he might preserve and protect them. He stood in ..first row. He protected ..Children with his weak ..emaciated body. ..Hitlerite beasts showed no pity. ..pistol in one hand ..whip in ..other ..they barked ..March. Woe to ..eyes that had to watch this terrible scene. Janusz Korczak ..bareheaded ..with a leather belt around his coat ..and in high boots ..stooped ..held ..hand of ..youngest Child and led ..way. Several nurses in white aprons followed him ..and then came ..200 clean and freshly combed Children.” Yoshue Perle.

On August 6th. 1942, and along with 15,000 other’s of Warsaw Jewry, were those of the Orphanage that had been directed by Janusz Korczak, also known as Hersch Goldszmit. Amongst these were his assistant, Madame Stefa otherwise known as Stefania Wilczynska standing at the head of a column of orphans, and as Korczak walked them toward a more consoling end in Treblinka, where all were murdered in the Death Camp Treblinka, Poland and history recalls the loss alongside their 200 charges, All Polish Jewish Children.

“..We could have defended ourselves. ..Had all Jews ..run into ..Streets ..climbed over ..Ghetto walls ..flooded ..Warsaw Streets carrying knives ..axes ..stones ..maybe they would have killed 10,000 ..20,000 ..but ..never ..300,000.” Yoshue Perle.

These small, often times fragile Jewish Children, orphaned on the Streets of the Warsaw Ghetto, were among approximately 50,000 Jewish Children from the Warsaw Ghetto who were murdered at Treblinka, and this in a period of less than 2 months. While Ghetto life had gravely marked Yoshue, reeling still from his Wife’s death, he was left wondering more and more about why life could have much meaning without those they had loved ever still being present in their lives.

From then on Yoshue would become deeply concerned for their Son and he was overly cautious with him in their life together. In words, often critical of those who administered the Ghettos for the Nazi’s, and his critique of them is a slamming indictment of a bitterness he reserved for them, his words are somewhat poignant given the escalating attempts being made to eradicate all of the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto..

“..Today I saw Janusz Korczak,

As he walked with the children in the last procession.

And the children were in really clean clothes,

As if they were going in a walk in the gardens on Sunday.

Someone dashed up with a paper in his hand,

You can go back there’s a card from Brandt.

Korczak shook his head silently,

How could he get into those unfeeling heads

What it means to leave a child alone.” Wladyslaw Szlengel.

Luck remained on Yoshue’s side as he evaded deportation from the Ghetto and he finally decided to escape to the aryan side, which he managed in March 1943. Living under false identities and with The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising fullly engaged, the Jewish Warsaw Ghetto Uprising began on April 17th. 1943, and on May 10th. 1943 the Jewish Uprising came to an end, Yoshue was still on the wrong side of Jewish Poland. Polish Jews, always expecting to Survive but never surprised that Survival was hopeless, had nowhere to go and no one to look to for immediate assistance.

Monday May 17th. 1943 “..Warsaw Ghetto is free of Jews.” SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.

Meanwhile, rumours abounded that privilieged status could be afforded those Jews with exit visas and for these to be obtained from the Nazi’s at the Hotel Polski. The sham was not to be discovered until the doors of the Krematorium closed behing all of them who were misguided enough to believe anything the Nazi’s had said. It is certain that Yoshue, given some form of protective status with a highly paid for visa to the America’s, was placed on a transport which took him and his Son to Belsen and from there toward Switzerland.

While I have never wished to enter into why some Jews behaved so deliberately badly toward their fellow Jews, I have no desire either to place myself in their shoes. Knowing full well, as I do, no Jew was the arbiter of what was to befall all or any Jew, it was Hitler and his cronies who were. However, there is a certain stain which presents itself in all the searching research I have done, which is mentioned by those like Yoshue, and I mention them. For instance though, and this is the infamous transport of 1,800 Polish Jews that was redirected to Auschwitz and on into Birkenau.

Here, where Yoshue Perle was to be Murdered and with his Son in Krematorium III, Birkenau, Poland on October 23rd.1943, this is and was regardless of whether or not any Jew was ever present at any seeming point of influence of confluence along the way. What Yoshue is Not privy to, as History has surpassed his very life, is the amount of retaliation that was being conducted as he sought to save his own and other’s lives. Yoshu is also unaware that even in Birkenau, resistance would see more Jews take a knfe to the captor’s and strike deeply for more than a wounded pride, and for 6,000,000 lost Jewish existences that was Never a deserved fate.

“..If community of 300,000 Jews did not try to resist ..exposed its own throat to ..slaughterer’s knife ..if it did not kill one German ..maybe this was a generation that deserved its fate.” Yoshue Perle.



Jews Saved in Poland

Uncategorised Posted on Sat, June 26, 2021 11:03:00

“..Monsters exist ..they are too few in number to be truly dangerous. More dangerous are ..common men ..functionaries ready to believe and to act without asking questions.” Primo Levi.

Sometimes, and there are all too many of these times, so please excuse me a little for the amount of the push back that is necessary, so as to counter the disingenuous nature of some who see everything in the little that some do. Amongst the many who YadVashem have declared Righteous, there are 6,000,000 Jews who were systematically rounded up, transported to their deaths, arriving at places of execution and all along that proverbial route toward destruction, where there were witnesses everywhere who did absolutely nothing even to alleviate the Jewish suffering.

“..those who ignored ..law ..opposed populist opinion ..dared to do what is right.” Simhas Frumkin.

While I have no doubt that there will be many ways to interpret who is and who was a Righteous amongst the World’s indifference to the Jewish struggle. But, and while we allow an ethical balance to morally judge those who acted in accordance with all humanistic certainty, the counter demand is to denounce those who did not act accordingly. I am not here to say what I would have done, had I been alive to do so, but I can be categorically clear on, I know what I would not have done to betray a fellow human being to th hatred of another for the difference in their religious and ethnological persuasion.

“..It is of ..highest importance not only to record and recount ..both for ourselves and for ..future ..evidences of human degradation ..but side by side with them to set forth ..evidences of human exaltation and nobility. Let ..epic of heroic deeds of love ..as opposed by those of hatred ..of rescure as opposed to destruction ..bear equal witness to unborn generations. On ..flood of sin ..hatred and blood let loose by Hitler upon ..World ..there swam a small ark which preserved intact ..common heritage of a Judeo Chistian outlook ..founded on ..double principle of love of god and love of one’s fellow men. ..demonism of Hitler had sought to overturn and overwhelm it in ..floods of hate. It was saved by ..heroisim of a handful of saints.” Shholem Asch.

For me, and while my grounding will be founded upon a christian if not a catholic ethos,it is beyond question for me to countenenace other than that all human lives are more priceless than life itself. Human Beings being totally disregarded from all human existence, simply because they were Jews, speaks against us for not having the moral fibre, as these Righteous surely have, to say stop, desist or leave these People alone. The fact here also, and that the pertinence of knowledge to the knowing World was issued, is also an accusation of what is intolerable to the human condition while intolerance permeates the air we breath.

“..I saw a flood once in ..mountains. Wooden huts ..torn from their foundations were carried above ..raging waters. One could still see lighted lamps in them ..Men ..Women ..Children in their cradles were tied to ..ceiling beams. Other huts were empty inside ..but one could see a tangle of arms waving from ..roof ..like branches blowing in ..wind waving desperately toward heaven ..toward ..river banks for help. At a distance ..one could see mouths gaping ..but one could not hear ..cries because ..roar of ..waters drowned out everything. And that’s how ..Jewish masses flowed to their destruction at ..time of ..deportations. Sinking as helplessly into ..deluge of destruction. And if ..for even one of ..days of my life ..I should forget how I saw you then ..my people ..desperate and confused ..delivered over to extinction ..may all knowledge of me be forgotten and my name be cursed like that of those traitors who are unworthy to share your pain.” Rachel Auerbach.

Such awareness therefore, of the knowledge of the awful effects that placed the Jewish People upon a timed and graduating conveyor belt toward extinction. This fact is only important as to when those who issued these reports or testimony’s did so. Even when these truths were conveyed, and it is astonishingly clear they were conveyed well after the very truth of what was happening to the Jewish People, was in front of the World’s eyes. Whether this truth is evident in Germany, Austria or indeed in Poland alongside the Death Camps there, Jews iding in these Countries were being hounded out of existence on a continually worsening scale and by those who sought to profit from Jewish misery.

“..going into hiding which forced enervating passivity on ..Jews demanded constant activity and vigilance upon their helpers.” Joseph Michman.

Also me, and I am well aware of the fuller meaning that term of what Righteous means, and the very fact that the largest contingent of these Righteous are Poles. What remains inexplicable to me, and I hate using any examples of this gravest tragedy ever inflicted upon a people, let alone upon the Jewish People, but there are more than 3,000,000 Polish Jewish examples of this tragedy. What so inflicted itself upon the Jews here in Poland, was at the behest of Hitler, but entailed the conspiratorial efforts of all too many who were not Jews themselves.

“..It is ..duty of righteous men to make war on all undeserved privilege ..but one must not forget that this is a war without end.” Primo Levi.

It must be recognised too, that the sheer scale of what transpired within Poland to Polish Jewry cannot equate in any way as for us to ever condone the sheer lack of a more concerted response by a more knowledgeable national body. Simply put, this commemoration of those hugely upstanding Human Beings, who put the Jewish People first in their hour of need, placed their own moral concern before their own safety. Moral probity within a Community stands before that community or it is a failed community in need of an intersecting commentary. This has been my cause to uphold all truths, always, and I see in that act in itself, a human demand that should have prevailed.

“..For over a decade .in our time ..in full view of all our senses ..a great evil manifested itself in guise of a dictator. Deranged ..sadistic ..he gained power ..and during his regime perverted ..very nature and essence of man.” Philip Friedman.

We either each recognise that we are all Our Brothers Keeper and through that essential demand, the factual truth will uphold the integrity in history that outlines that effort. We each must search to see how the Jews were so mistreated, abused and then annihiliated, that we wonder why much more was not done to prevent this. We will of course, in the recounting of these horrific events, uncover the sheer lack of a Wold intervention that should have been presented, and on behalf of these Jews who were betrayed by such indifferences. What it was for the Jewish People to feel their abandonment, is in order for us to further the Remembrance of those 6,000,000 Murdered Jews.

“..If you get back tell our comrades that we are at Oswiecim because some of our comrades wanted to liquidate us as we were inconvenient to them.” Norbert Barlicki.

For that truthful search and reason alone, I have continued a narrative that must press for a more comprehensive understanding of what is lost and why we have lost so much more than some might consider. With that in mind. I draw attention to the clear cut fact that in a 2 day rage of despicable carnage, Hitler’s Einsatz under Paul Blobel Slaughtered 33,771 Jews of Kiev. Then, and whether or not we are to look to the Polish governments attempt today, in switching Poland’s geographical position, we identify Polish Jewry as having been consumed within Poland in all the 6 Death Camps established there, including Majdanek, in the City of Lublin, Poland.

“..In Majdanek and everywhere in Poland. They gave what is ..best in humanity. I have it all ..in my soul ..letters written to me by many. Everything is possible ..in spite of other manifestations. I ..myself have never experienced any animosity toward me and what I represent. There is always ..goodwill and hope.” Halina Birenbaum.

What we cannot ignore either is, that alongside the innumerable Jews from all over Europe, who were transported East, most of these understood that they were being deported to Poland. We must then consider why Poland’s past position, with regards its own Jewish People, they seek to distance even in Death, the Memory of the vibrancy of Polish Jewish life is so dismissed. In that regard, there can be no emphasis that would consider the forms of moralistic or ethical empathy this Polish government seems to countenance as a major unconcern.

“..circumstances of my present life ..impossibility of reaching a large library ..loss of my own books have made me dependent upon notes and ..memory. Both ..supplemntary reading and..research demanded by ..very laws of ..craft ..have been denied me.” Marc Bloch.

For instance, in more than 5 years of Hitlerite control in Poland, the responses from non-Jewish Poles and from their absconding government, had not sought to directly save the 3,000,000 of their own Jewish Community. So for the Polish Jewish Survivor, it was largely left to them and some element of luck to save themselves. It is equally certain that by whatever other means the Polish Jewish Survivor managed to Survive, whether this was a fated chance or not, it is they themselves who found some way to save their own lives, hindered by an indifference to their aim.

“..When I die there will be no one left who knew them. ..it keeps them alive when they are in people’s memories.” Leslie Baruch.

Sadly, and whether from an inbred, unchristian and an indifferent attitude, the Polish Jews were confronted by a totally inhumane and intolerable hatred. The Polish Jews were abandoned to their fate and to this day, and what is now being rankled over in very dispiriting terms, is a defining Polish moment which seeks to redefine its past. That distortion, which has 3,300,000 Polish Jews somehow responsible for the tragedy imposed upon them is as racist as any theory can profess. Perhaps too, in what Raul Hilberg themed as the 3 anti-Jewish policy’s, namely:

01 Conversion,

02 Expuslion and

03 Eradication, well perhaps there is a Fourth from here on in,

04 Denial!

Quite horribly, this limits what Jews are allowed to grieve over in the face of all that has been witnessed in the process leading toward their total annihilation. While numbering these 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, history has yet to clarify the exacting detail of this number and is quite probably well shot of the true assessment we should be making. Make no mistake. It is incumbent upon History to ensure the lasting legacy for these 3,300,000 Polish Jews, and the 6,000,000 Murdered Jews of Europe.

“..No Jewish inmate counted on ever leaving Auschwitz alive. We lived in ..shadow of ..chimneys both spatially and intellectually. ..chimney was ..alpha and omega of all conversations.” Lucie Adelsberger.

The lasting legacy toward memory is not to be forged from a failure to confront what was enacted by some non-Jewish Poles, with or without the Polish governmental connivance of the time. To ensure the rapid dissolution of any and All Jewish presence in the Jewish Poland that belonged to a Polish Jewry that is now vanquished, collusion did not need a national cohesion. Individual community’s and neighbourlyness was collectively absent. Comradeship no longer remained within Poland for much of the 3,300,000 Polish Jews left to fend for themselves. For Polish Jews, Mercilessly brutalised, abandoned and exorcised from their Polish status, their Jewish antecedence earmarked the demand for their destruction.

“..When we were transferred to ..school we starved ..because ..only food we received apart from small rations of bread was watery soup. ..Poles began secretly to barter their army gear ..shoes ..coats ..blankets ..for food with ..civilian population. Afterwards they would turn to ..Germans and point ..look ..that Jew has shoes and I haven’t. ..Germans ordered ..Jew to remove his shoes and give them to ..Pole. ..same thing happened with blankets ..coats and other items. ..within a few days we were left without shoes ..coats ..even uniforms.” David Leiser.

As we seek to recognise those who acted with true humanity, and for anyone of the 11,293,300 Jews of Europe, mandated by Hitler’s Wannsee Conference and targeted for destruction, those saviours are to be commended. To have Survived at all, without luck or sheer will, the Jewish Survivor of Poland and Europe must have been aided by those who Samuel Oliner calls the Altruistic Personality.

“..Altruism simply means devotion to ..welfare of others ..based on selflessness. Specifically ..I have characterized altruism as a behavior that is directed towards helping another ..that involves some effort ..energy ..and sacrifice to ..actor ..that is accompanied by no external reward ..and ..is voluntary.” Samuel P. Oliner.



My Island Ireland

Uncategorised Posted on Fri, June 25, 2021 12:24:05

My Island Ireland.

The universal catholic church has proved itself the operator of the Charnel House when it comes to morally reprehensible bias and even bigotry. Then, when it comes to antisemitism, the totally lamentable relationship record the church has with Our religious Cousins, has led with the incremental steps for all too many toward hatred. In Ireland in particular, Poland especially, the Religious influence in Community’s across their Country’s had their moral compass both distorted and misdirected.

Here for me, the concern in all of history has not been the confronting of the church’s attitude with the deliberate aims of catholic’s in Fascism to be evidenced. With awareness also of the churches own grass roots intelligence service, the allied intelligence agencies must have shared their knowledge of those gradual steps Hitler took, and more so than has been admitted to. Once we moved away from the rhetoric of Hitler’s Jewish hatred, and to the wholesale Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews, it becomes incumbent upon someone to raise their heads above the moral and ethical collapse.

In this, the Irish church and Irish g2 are no exception, and as they looked to see if the IRA would become involved, they must have seen Canaris’s Abwehr in light of his own opposition to Hitler. We certainly recognise that the IRA were willing to take Arms from anywhere, to mount the fight against Britains role on the Island. This did not in any way secure for Hitler, nor Eichmann’s RSHA IV B4 offices of Hitler’s Reich Security Main Office, an entry into Ireland as a back door to Britain nor access to Ireland’s 4,000 Jews.

The Final Solution of the Jewish Question would not then be converted into realisation on the Island due to the sheer lack of a willingness of the Irish to engage with Hitler’s terms. There were three things going on, and on this little Island of mine, as the Jewish People were being shredded from all existence, while a World of War raged and this land of ours was divided. At the time, there were not enough boats to take the more than 100,000 Men of Ireland, who wished to confront Hitler and Fascism, that were quick enough to get them all to the battle.

Those Irish who took up the challenge, to defeat a pestilence that was Hitler, sought out the good fight, and it was a fight that stood ahead of the one of Freedom still belonging to them all in their own Country. However, in Europe, and for what the Austrian corporal sought to achieve, this would not only have subjugated a World, Ireland included, it would have slaughtered a further 11,293,300 Jews. Those Jews who still remained, when at The Wannsee Conference of January 20th. 1942, and after more than 1,000,000 Jews had been routinely Slaughtered, the implicating, inculcating and entire complicity of all arms of the Reich was being made.

For those Jews already Murdered, and prior to the Wannsee Conference itself was conducted, had been shot into ravines, ditches and killing pits while others were being gassed in Vans, was recognised. The evidence of the Slaughter undertaken and accomplished was brought to the table by these 2 killer’s:

“..SS Oberfuhrer Dr. Schoengarth Security Police and SD Chief of ..Security Police and ..SD in ..Government General.

SS Sturmbannfuhrer Dr. Lange Security Police and SD Commander of ..Security Police and ..SD for ..General District Latvia ..as Deputy of ..Commander of ..Security Police and ..SD for ..Reich Commissariat ‘Eastland’.” The Wannsee Protocol.

But, and in this overall assessment of the systematic Slaughter, there were 4,000 Jews of Ireland too who would have been sought out for that exact same method of annihilation. For more than 400 years the Irish already had had enough of such oppressions and ransoms, that Irish Men and Women streamed across the Irish Sea to join the British Army. Some of these anti-Fascists were that keen to march, they headed North to Belfast so as to enter Britain from there and join up more immediately.

“..Under proper guidance ..in ..course of ..Final Solution ..Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in ..East ..Able bodied Jews ..separated according to sex ..will be taken in large work columns to these areas for work on roads ..in ..course of which action doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes.” The Wannsee Protocol.

Here too, and what also needs to be remembered, 3,600 of these loyal Irishmen, Men who saw the grave danger of a Nazified Europe, had died and were killed in the conflict. However, and while this amounted to some 7,500 Dead of the whole of Ireland, all of whom had fought together and died as one People in an honourable battle against an even worse tyranny realsied their unity as Irishmen. But, and while the position for those soldiers of the North was a given, they were a part of the United Kingdom, for the Irish Soldier of the South, he was all too often seen as a traitor to the Irish Cause.

“..possible final remnant will ..since it will undoubtedly consist of ..most resistant portion ..have to be treated accordingly ..because it is ..product of natural selection and would ..if released ..act as a ..seed of a new Jewish revival see ..experience of history.” The Wannsee Protocol.

With that in mind, at War’s end the Irish dead were our dead, a fact disregarded when on May 2nd. 1945 Eamonn de Valera signed the German Embassy’s Book of Condolence over Hitler’s suicide. This, at a time when it was clear in all of Europe that Hitler was responsible for some of the worst crimes ever committed against the Jewish People and all of Humanity. Then, when history looks back upon the integrity of the time, it will have to concede that de Valera, who could have struck a deal to harness the unity of the entire Island, refused to enter into any agreement to the detriment of this Ireland!

deValera would have been better serving the Nation, Europe and the World by saving his condolences for those who deserved them. Perhaps when on May 31st 1941 Hitler’s Reich sought to bomb the North Strand in Dublin, killing 28 Irish People, injuring 101 Irish People and making 300 Irish People homeless, this is where Irish sympathies must be expressed. At this point in History too, Reinhard Heydrich and General Eduard Wagner, Wehrmacht Quartermaster, were meeting to agree upon the respective roles and logistics for der Einsatzgruppe, about to Slaughter 1,250,000 Jews in the Baltics, Poland, Byelorussia, the Ukraine and in Russia itself.

Or do we stand with 7,500 of Ireland who gave their lives to defeat the ignoble Austrian and do they yet need condolences. Maybe too that the 6,000,000 Systematically Slaughtered Jews of Europe deserve more than a passing thought, even when 9 of whom were Irish Jews. Or even if he were to consider the some 50/70 millions of those who fought in World War II and lost their lives to prove Fascism has no place amongst us, would sentiment not be better served here. One thing though is so very certain! deValera did not do what Mary Elizabeth Elmes risked her life in achieving, and at risk to her own life.

Here, and what is certain of Mary, and what 200 other Irish People, or all too many other peoples on the Continent of Europe failed to do, was the fact that Mary Elizabeth Elmes saved an additional 200 Jewish Children’s lives. Mary’s story needs to be told as she managed, from the clutches of the most unprecedented and unparalled Slaughter in all of History, a Hitler resolve to murder them all because they were Jews, these more than 200 Jewish Children. For this Righteous Irish Woman speaks louder and more proficiently about the lives worthy of living than any diplomat who failed to grasp the essential in not adorning a book with his scrawl.

“..In ..course of ..practical execution of ..Final Solution ..Europe will be combed through from West to East. Germany proper ..including ..Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia ..will have to be handled first due to ..housing problem and additional social and political necessities.” The Wannsee Protocol.

In recording the extraordinary horror of The Holocaust is witnessed to by a memorial to what has been suggested is the only Irish Jewish Citizen to have been Murdered in The Holocaust. This was unveiled in Dublin, Ireland in 2014 but completely misses the exact relationship with The Holocaust that Irish Jews have been confined within. The dedication to Ettie Steinberg is a fitting one for any Jew who was taken from life for being a Jew, and with her Son Leon by her side.

“..evacuated Jews will first be sent ..group by group ..to ..transit Ghettos ..from which they will be transported to ..East.” The Wannsee Protocol.

However, while many now seek to accept that Ettie Steinberg is the only Jew of Ireland to become one of the Slaughtered, we have not done enough to ensure that this is a complete realisation and is not the fuller truth. For any of the 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, who are The Holocaust, we need a more inclusive certainty that links them to the past they used to belong to. Here then, of our Irish Citizens who were Murdered as Jews, we recognise at least 9 of these and must accept responsibility in History for recognising them as ours.

“..SS Obergruppenfuhrer Heydrich went on to say that an important prerequisite for ..evacuation as such is ..exact definition of ..persons involved.” The Wannsee Protocol.

The Edinger’s, Adam, Anna and Frida were all born in Dublin, Mordechai Hertzog was born in Ireland, Lina Merker was born in Dublin, Annie Rohrbach was born in Kerry, the Saks’, Afraim and Jeanne were born in Dublin while Philip Watchman was also born in Ireland. Here we must take note, that Ettie Steinberg, who had resided in Dublin and married Vogtjeck Gluck then left the Island, was born in the Czech Republic. They settled in Antwerp, Belgium in 1937 and both she and their Son Leon, who was born in Anvers, France on March 28th. 1939.

We know too that the whole Family were indeed Murdered in The Holocaust after they were arrested during the French roundups in Nice in 1942 and moved to the holding camp at Drancy. Here, aboard Convoi 27 with some 1,000 Jews, they were all transported away from Drancy on September 2nd. 1942 and toward destrucion at Birkenau. Here, we must assume that of the 800 Jews who arrived, Ettie, Vogtject and Leon Gluck were amongst the 677 Jews immediately Gassed in Birkenau, September 4th. 1942.

Incredibly, Ettie penned a postcard that was to reach her Family in Dublin a postcard that states:

“..Uncle Lechem (Hebrew term for Bread) ..we did not find ..but we found Uncle Tisha B’av (Traditional day of mourning for the destruction of the First and Second Temples.)” Ettie Steinberg.

Ireland’s 4,000 Sought for Slaughter!


Roza Symchowicz

Uncategorised Posted on Thu, June 24, 2021 14:52:36

Roza Symchowicz (1887 – 1941)

Dr. Roza Symchowicz was born in Slutsk, in the Minsk District of Byelorussia to Parents Shmuel and Zysl Slutsker and in 1896, after her Father’s death, she and her family moved to Minsk. In 1904 at the age of 17, Roza joined the young socialist movement and was soon arrested for seditious tendencies and was released on condition that she leave the Country. This Roza did, and she went to Switzerland and joined the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Pedagogical Institute in Geneva, also enrolling in the Philosophy course at the University of Geneva.

During the period of World War I, 1914 till 1918, Roza spent much of that time in Vienna working with the Children of Jewish refugees. Then in 1919, when she moved to Vilna, Lithuania, Roza began establishing courses that were organized by the Society for the Protection of the Health of the Jewish Community in Poland. Roza began running them also and she was the first manager of the Frebel course to ensure eucation reached more and more. Roza was heavily involved with the Local Lithuanian Jewish Committee for Aid for the Victims of War in Vilna.

 “..I met Roza Simkhovitsh ..first time in 1921 ..when I arrived as a pupil at ..Vilna Jewish teachers’ seminary. I noticed a slender ..young Woman ..with an oblong face ..a proud head ..short cut hair ..a pair of flaming ..large ..wise eyes. I have never once in this life forgotten those eyes. ..Each time when I would enter her room ..my heart beat with a special impetuousness. It was not fear. It was ..sense of reverence ..feeling of solemnity that you experienced every time when you met eye to eye with Roza Simkhovits.” Feyge Barakin-Melamdovitsh.

Again we see Roza immersing herself in the needs of their refugee Children and here in 1921 she took over the leadership of the Jewish Teacher seminary in Vilna. Roza now played a more prominent role in the establishment of the Yiddisher school movement. Generally though, as she reported upon the essentials of Pedagogical and Historical lessons to be had at the Vilna People’s Auditorium, she was more keenly interested in all aspects of Children’s Education. In this, Roza sought how best to deliver to all Children their essential needs in education. #Roza was an active participant in the many Teaching Conferences and Educational programmes set to establish good practice amongst all independent Schools. In 1923 she had to leave Vilna in part due to her apparent brush with Minsk sensitivities over her Social concerns and for some time she lived in Vienna, later moving to Berlin. Roza was offering assistance to the Pedagogical Section of the YIVO Institute.

This is when Roza came into contact with the more secular of Jewish Schools, introducing them to educating in Warsaw, Poland taking charge of the Pedagogy and Psychology Department of the Ciszo, the Central Jewish School Organization. Here, Roza developed a fondness for Warsaw itself and was to become the co-editor of 2 Papers, the Pedagogical Monthly, The New School and another was the School and Home. Amongst her essays written for these Publications are Jan Amos Komenski, Definitions of Things for Children and Thoughts on the Publications of our Kindergarten.

In 1926, Roza’s Brother Jakub died, while Teaching at the Jewish Gymnasium School in Lodz, Poland and Roza settled into life Educating and delivering future prospects to her Students. At an International Pedagogical Congress, held in Paris in 1937, Roza representing Ciszo, was presenting her report on the new Yiddish School system. Roza was also assisting in organizing the Jewish pavilion at the World’s Fair in Paris. For whatever reason, losing faith in teaching, as she felt the underfunding hampered Children’s futures, she approached a period of impoverishment, giving tuitions privately to language students.

“..Officials ..are setting up barriers in offices in order to stay separated from ..Street Children and to avoid dangerous lice ..carriers of typhus. ..great friend of Children ..an angel of Earth ..compassionate in suffering ..Roza Symchowicz doesn’t understand how one could ..from human ..pedagogical point of view ..separate themselves from Children ..these poor lambs seeking support from Centos. She does not agree to install a barrier between her and ..Street Children. When these heartbroken Children were coming to Roza ..she was stroking their heads ..supporting them and helping to ..extent she could.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Then, at the time of the Nazi occupation of Poland, September 1st. 1939, Roza was contributing to an under ground network educating Jewish Children who were now removed from the School environment. When Roza moved into the Warsaw Ghetto she once again became a huge contributer to the illegal schooling taking place. Roza became the leader of the Teacher Seminary and was active in the Jewish Social self help community, returning to what everyone considered was her main focus in life, the Jewish Children in need of her.

“..We had been living at 33 ..Chlodna Street. ..One night 11:00 o’clock. ..A ring at ..doorbell. ..releieved to see Korczak. ..he wanted me to help him organise a series of lectures for ..Children. He produced a list ..of well known People who had agreed to give talks ..Dr. Schiper ..historian ..Stein ..philosopher ..Rosa Simchowitch ..educationalist ..Emanuel Ringelblum ..future brilliant founder of ..Warsaw Ghetto archives.” Michael Zylberberg.

It has been so well articulated and expressed that Roza Symchowicz was ‘the closest friend of a Jewish Child’ and at a time when Jewish Children needed a friend. Then, when we accept that some 1,500,000 Jewish Children were taken out of their Homes and Murdered, Jewish Children were in greater need of a friend than we’d imagine. For Roza, a Teacher of implacable diligence, it was not enough that she tutored and educated, but that she used her position to be actively concerned, and this is where she becomes the socially minded member of her community we come to recognise.

“..despite suffering from hunger ..she was giving her breakfast to ..Children. She has a special love for them ..talks to them like a loving Mother.” Lea Rotkop.

Roza dedicated her entire life to Jewish Children and in the Warsaw Ghetto, this is where she helped the Jewish Orphan Children, and all of those living off of the streets, to feel a little less alone. But Roza soon descended to that same street level of the poverty that engulfed her Children, even refusing the food she was delivered in order to feed the Children in her charge. The Children’s Library at 67 Leszno Street, Warsaw, Poland was dedicated to Roza and named after her during the Autumn of 1941.

It was often suggested that Roza must separate herself from her charges, in order for her to avoid the debilitating illnesses that were squashing these Young lives out of all existence. It is a sickening state of affairs for those Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto that since the beginning of the year 1941, some 13,000 Jews had starved to Death and this was barely 6 months into the year in the Warsaw Ghetto. It is difficult to imagine that on any given month 2,000 Jews in the Ghetto would expire due to lack of Food, and many of these were Children.

“..Tall ..slim ..with a kind ..friendly face ..silver dusted hair ..about 50 years old. Thanks to her Teaching skills ..she was working for a longtime for Ciszo. ..travelling between Cities ..Towns ..telling Jewish Teachers how to love Jewish Children and bring them up in ..spirit of secularism and humanism. Deeply in love with Jewish past ..she wanted to link it with present day. Humble ..quiet like a mouse ..she walked around lost in thought ..like a human being from another planet. It’s impossible to describe directly how much secular Jewish Education in Poland owes to her ..especially in ..countryside ..where Teachers drew so much from her rich experience ..her exceptional knowledge in ..field of upringing problems ..but above all ..from her vast intuition. She was a born Teacher. ..she dedicated herself completely to ..World of Children.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

But Roza was not in the least bit amiable to the suggestion of being helped or fed ahead of those who needed to be helped more than she felt she was and so she stuck rigidly to the model of Educating and Social Concern she had set for herself. Roza was responsible in securing for so many Children of the Warsaw Ghetto at least a hope that they were not really alone. Sadly, Roza soon became infected with typhus and even now refused assistance from Jewish organisations, and in favour of other’s more worthy than herself, as she perceived things, placed herself at the back of the queue.

“..Symchowicz is qualifying candidates ..hearing every Child separately ..getting to know them ..eventually she directs them to boarding houses. Children of ..Street are dirty ..infected with lice ..most of them suffer from typhus.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Roza died on November 30th. 1941, with typhus taking her in the midst of the worsening conditions for all the Jews within the Warsaw Ghetto. Roza was buried on December 2nd. 1941 in the Jewish Warsaw Cemetery. Children, sitting in the Library named after her could be audibly heard sobbing, crying over her loss, long after Roza had been taken from us. Here, with the obituary to Roza Symchowicz we read:

“..With deep sadness ..we inform you about ..premature death of Roza Symchowicz. With her departure ..contemporary Jewish culture had lost one of its greatest contributors. May we honor her memory. ..funeral will take place on Tuesday December 2nd. 1941 beginning from her home ..Grzybowski square 10.” Her Family and Friends.

100’s of friends and acquaintances came to give ..last goodbyes. Due to strange chance ..hearse with ..body escaped us. ..humble Roza was embarrassed with ..impressive funeral we organized for her ..and ran away. This is how it happened ..we have gathered in ..small Ghetto ..in front of her house ..and walked along with ..hearse. ..small Ghetto ..was linked to ..large Ghetto ..in 2 places. ..pedestrian path led through a wooden bridge over ..Chlodna Street ..which was aryan and divided ..small and ..large Ghetto. Carriages were going down ..aryan side ..on Chlodna Street. We have agreed with ..coach driver that he will wait with us on ..other side of Chlodna. It happened differently. He went directly to ..cemetery ..not waiting for us in ..agreed place. He went directly to ..cemetery ..not waiting for us. Roza’s funeral was probably ..last one with a speech. A small group of friends passed through ..border at ..cemetery ..which was located on ..aryan side. ..JIKOR society published a hectograph paper dedicated to Roza.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

Following on from that there was an announcement about a memorial event that would be dedicated to her and this stated:

“..Dear Colleague ..we would like to invite you to participate in shloshim dedicated to ..memory of Roza Symchowicz ..on Sunday ..January 4th. 1942 ..at 5:00pm at ..ZSS hall ..Tlomackie 5. From the The Ringelblum Archive.

Roza Symchowicz
Roza’s Children
Roza’s Pupils
Roza’s Students


Vitka Kempner

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, June 23, 2021 13:58:17

Vitka Kempner (1922 – 2012)

Vitka (Witka) Kempner was born in Kalisz, Poland, on March 14th. 1922 to Parents, Hayyah and Zevi, who owned a retail business. There is much to be learned from the life that Vitka brought forward, and to those whose study is The Holocaust which has presented the Jewish People with many heroes, amongst these were many Women and one of those was Vitka Kempner. In 1939, at the age of just 17, Kalisz fell into Nazi hands on September 4th., the day following Britain and France’s declaration of War upon Germany. Here, with the Wehrmacht immediately provoking assaults upon the Jewish residents, and a formative Einsatz formation roaming freely and attacking and killing Polish Jews, wherever they found them, Vitka realised the serious predicament for All of Polish Jewry.

Vitka then escaped from certain assault and even death as a Jew in Kalisz and trudged her way to Vilna, Lithuania where Jews were more freely enabled by a more Soviet oriented outlook. However, when Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, and attacked Russia, June 22nd. 1941, Vilna too was now under occupation. Two days later, on June 24th. 1941 and the position of the Jews, some 57,000 Jewish People were living in Vilna, became more and more intense and then violently deadly. It didn’t take long for the Jews here, Vitka included, to realise what was coming for the Jews being shipped out toward Ponary Woods.

Friday July 11th. 1941 “..already know what was going on. ..3 pm ..large group of Jews ..taken ..300 people. ..hour later ..volleys began. Ten ..shot at a time.” Kazimierz Sakowicz.

What this witness, Kazimierz Sakowicz, notes in his Diary entry is the graduating procession of Vilna’s Jews toward Ponary and their destruction at the hands of the Einsatzkommando 9 and then Einsatzkommando 3. This was not entirely accomplished by the Nazi’s alone as other’s, Lithuanian and Ukrainian collaborative Kommando’s assisted. These formations were lined up to resolve the Vilna Jewish Question on behalf of Hitler’s demands for the Final Solution of the entire Jewish Question for all of European Jewry. On September 3rd. 1941 the Vilna Ghetto was established as one of the 9 Major Ghetto’s and with still over 55,000 Jews enclosed, was strictly administered.

A Ghetto Judenrate was forced to come to terms with what the Nazi’s would demand and with Shaul Trotzki and Anatole Fried, and eventually Jakob Gens becoming its Chairman, the reach of Hitler’s hatred was given to a Jewish distribution. On September 4th. 1941, when 10 Jewish Females who had been transported away from Vilna and toward the confines of Ponary Woods, returned to Vilna, their evidence was both incredulous and understood. With Judith Trojak amongst the escapees, their escape from Ponary alerted many within the Vilna Jewish Community, not least of these Abba Kovner. This report back to Vilna with the evidence of what Ponary meant for the Jews enraged and armed a Jewish Resistance that was to exemplify the coming fight back from Jewish Europe.

Wednesday December 31st. 1941 “..Ponar is not a ..Camp. Jews ..shot there. Hitler plans to destroy all ..Jews of Europe ..Jews of Lithuania ..first in line. ..We must not go like sheep to ..slaughter!” Abba Kovner.

In the Vilna Ghetto, Vitka joined the unit of the Hashomer Hatzair, a Zionist Youth Group being led by Abba Kovner and they soon transformed this into The Avengers, with Vitka as one of Abba’s ablest Chief Lieutenants. This Partisan Resistance Fighter Group, sought to bring the fight to the Nazi’s, their collaborator’s and any of those who would collude with the actions being taken against Lithuanian Jewry. By this time, Ponary was no longer recognised only as an isolated series of incidents, nor as a vague rumour of supposed atrocity. As the bold facts were now being laid out for the World, the Jews of Vilna and of all of Lithuania, it was evident that this was a coordinated and systematic approach to destroy all and any Jew the Nazis’ sought to annihilate.

Tuesday June 30th. 1942 “..Jewish population ..living under ..impact of news from London. ..world has been stirred by ..reports of ..slaughter in Poland ..aroused ..deepest emotions in all of us. Formany ..many months ..endured ..most terrible sufferings ..asking ourselves ..Does ..world know about our sufferings ..if it knows ..why is it silent. Why was ..world not outraged 10’s of 1,000’s of Jews ..shot ..at Ponary. ..10’s of 1,000’s of Jews poisoned in Chelmno. 100’s of 1,000’s of Jews ..slaughtered in Galicia. ..slaughter in Vilna. ..180,000 ..in Rostov ..Jews ..murdered ..in Kiev. ..blood is flowing in rivers. Is ..blood of ..Jews more precious…Only now have we come to understand ..cause of this silence. ..Polish government ..its own radio station .knew nothing about it. ..if London knew ..next day 100 people ..shot ..Pawiak prison ..why ..did it take many months before they learned of ..100’s of 1,000’s murdered Jews…a question which cannot be turned away by excuses!” Emanuel Ringelblum.

With Vitka fully ensconced as a fighting member of The Avengers, she also became an immense force in her own right dealing with the Nazi threat on her doorstep. While it is true that most of the Jews in the Vilna Ghetto still believed, hopefully, that within Ponary Woods there was a Labour Camp, Vitka and Abba Kovner grew to appreciate the overwhelming evidence of the concerted effort being undertaken to destroy all of Lithuanian Jewry. The Nakam force set in motion every effort to ensure the fight back would save more and more Jews from being annihilated in Ponary.

“..only reply to a murderer is resistance. Brothers ..it is better to die as free fighters than to live at ..mercy of killers. Resist ..resist ..to our last breath.” Abba Kovner. #The truth for the Nakam, as it became the truth for 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, the Slaughter mounted would not be derailed, detained or stopped. Hirsh Glik, more famous for his Partisan bravery and the Song he wrote that commemorates their heroism in Vilna in particular and Ponary and Rudnicka Forests, also wrote a song of Vitka Kempner, Die Shtil, Di Nacht Iz Oysgeshternt, The Silent Night is Filled with Stars. This reminisces over what Vitka and Moyshe Brause with Itzik Matskevitsch achieved when they destroyed a German military transport with 200 German troops aboard.

The Quiet Night is Full of Stars

The quiet night is full of stars

And the frost has strongly burned;

Do you remember how I have taught you

To hold a gun in the hand?

A girl, a fur coat and a beret

And holds in her hand tightly a Nagant

A girl with a face as smooth as velvet

Holds up the enemy’s caravan.

Aimed, fired and hit its target

Has her tiny pistol.

A vehicle filled with weapons

She has stopped with a bullet.

Before daybreak, she comes out of the forest

With snow garlands on her hair,

Encouraged by a minuscule victory

For our new, free generation.” Hirsh Glik.

The wreckage caused by the Nakam was the first known Jewish assault upon the German logistical lines of both supply and communication. The very detail of the account has been much comented upon and none less so than that of Abba Kovner, who as the combative leader of one of The Holocaust’s most recognised Resistance fighter’s knew of Vitka’s leadership qualities as he relates to her:

“..Lithuanians did not do it ..nor Poles ..nor Russians. A Jewish Woman did it ..a Woman who ..after she did this ..had no base to return to. She had to walk 3 days and nights with wounded legs and feet. She had to go back to ..Ghetto. Were she to have been captured ..whole Ghetto might have been held responsible.” Abba Kovner.

A mine, constructed in the Vilna Ghetto was placed by Vitka on a train line on July 8th. 1942 and an immediate dent was made against the Reich’s entire War effort, the first of the many made by Jews, just like Vitka. As it was not believed feasible that the Jews could have done this, there were no reprisals against the Jews conducted at the time. It was to be the first of many acts of resistance in which Vitka Kempner was to be no ordinary Partisan, nor was she an ordinary Jewish Woman. Vitka was to prove an exemplary focus for all physical assaults, retaliations and retributions exerted against the Nazi’s and their Collaborators.

“..Jews ..Prepare for Armed Resistance. ..German and Lithuanian hangmen have reached ..gates of ..Ghetto. They will murder us all. They will take us ..group by group, through the gates.” Vilna FPO.

On September 1st. 1943, the FPO called for an uprising in the Vilna Ghetto and while the call went largely unheeded, Vitka sought to extricate as many Jews as was possible from the noose that surrounded their necks within the Vilna Ghetto. Here, the sewer system provided the perfect place for Vitka and her teams of fighters to deliver more and more Jews from Vilna to the Forests.

“..October 29th. 1943 Sabotage operation ..Vilna ..4 transformers ..mechanical water conveyor ..destroyed. ..sabotage party ..Witka Kempner ..Matys Lewin ..Rozow ..Chajele Szapiro.” Rudniki Forest Partisan Unit.

There they harried and pressed the Germans until the Russian Army was close enough for them to join forces and assist in the final Liberation of Vilna. From their positions in these Forests, Vitka and the members of the FPO returned repeatedly to Vilna to destroy the infrastructure of the City and therefore deny the Germans any of the amenities they had need of. All the while, raiding parties entered the Ghetto to extract more and more Jews, to become liberated and then Fighters against the Nazis.

“..November 2nd. 1943 ..60 People were brought to ..partisans from Vilna. ..by Witka Kempner and Chajele. ..safely.” Rudniki Forest Partisan Unit. #Continually in hiding in the Rudniki Forest and around Ponar Woods, the Nakem ventured further and deeper with their sabotage operations against the Nazis. Whether they were killing Nazi’s or their Collaborators, they also set about destroying both the power plant and the waterworks of the City of Vilna. This made life challenging both for the remaining Jews in the Ghetto, thought their lives were in excess of the challenge that met the residents outside the Ghetto, but it was enough for the Nazi’s to know, The Jews Fought Back.

“..December 31st. 1943 Discovery of Gestapo agent Andriuszkiewicz from Dajnowa village. Those who took part ..Lipenhole and Witka Kempner.” Rudniki Forest Partisan Unit. #On July 13th. 1944 Vitka, alongside her FPO units, with Abba Kovner, marched with other Jewish partisans to help liberate Vilna. More than 55,000 Vilna Jews were Murdered and barely 2,500 of Vilna’s Jews had survived Hitler’s fuller intention for them all. The cost of liberation of Vilna and Lithuania came at too hefty a price and amidst the sought after German defeat, the loss and grief over so many Jewish lives, literally torn from all existence, tormented many like Vitka to act punitively. Their operational command Nakam, the Hebrew reference to their Avengers Partisan group, was not yet finished with the Nazi’s, and more particularly, their SS.

“..We did not want to come back to Palestine without having done something ..and that is why we were keen. ..to kill Germans. ..As many as possible.” Joseph Harmatz.

On April 13th.1946 Vitka got a position within the bakery at the Stalag 13-D POW Camp at Langwasser, near Nuremberg alongside fellow FPO Fighter, Joseph Harmatz and Leipke Distal. This Allied run camp, which detained nearly 15,000 members of the SS was an obvious choice for the Nakam to act against those whose ideological remit was the destruction of All Jews, everywhere. Here though, this Jewish contingent sought to lace over 3,000 loaves of bread with arsenic and Murder as many of them as possible. This however, only subsequently resulted in more than 2,200 of these Criminals being sick. The Nakam Team made their escape toward the Czechoslovakian border where an Auschwitz Survivor, Yehuda Maimon extricated them and ensured their safe passage to Eretz Israel. With Vitka Kempner and Abba Kovner Married, they brought about the increased smuggling of Jewish Survivors to Eretz Israel.

They themselves settled into Israel to raise their 2 Children. Vitka was widowed with the passing of her Husband Abba, in 1987, and Vitka herself passed from us on February 15th. 2012 at their home in Israel. For me, it is essential that for Justice to be recognised, and in doing so it has to be recognised that retribution is Not justice, Justice must serve all those in need of it. But, and while 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews seek some form of a Just response, the lack of any Justice seethes with the Jewish demand for it. That said, and it is fully understood, who am I in this civilised World to deny the Nakam, the Jewish Survivor, 6,000,000 Revenges.

“..I lived life fully ..actively ..without dragging grievances and offenses behind me.” Vitka Kempner Kovner.

Jewish Fighters Zelda Vitka Kempner, Nisanilevich Treger, Rozka Korczak-Marla
Jewish Fighters Rozka Korczak, Abba Kovner, Vitka Kempner.


Hirsh Glik

Uncategorised Posted on Tue, June 22, 2021 15:02:25

Hirsh Glik (1922 – 1944)

Hirsh Glik was born on April 24th. 1922, in the area of Shnipeshok, Lithuania where his Father Velvl dealing in second hand clothing. The nature of poverty ensured Hirsh was unable to finish his formal education earlier than he had hoped and he began a career as an apprentice in the paper business. He was wholly unsuited to such a discipline, which offered him no vision or outlook however, and he then began work as a clerk in a hardware store. The word outstanding is often used to describe Hirsh when, as a 13 year old in 1935, this young writer began writing his own Poetry, usually in Hebrew. 

“..Never say this is ..final road for you ..though leadened skies may cover over skies of blue ..As ..hour that we longed for is so near ..Our step beats out ..message we are here.” Hirsh Glik.

The switch to writing in other disciplines evolved till he was more frequently writing in Yiddish as a way of preserving his words in the discipline of a language that was more widespread. Here, Hirsh became well known amongst his peers of poets and fellow writer’s and we have to recognise, in the literary integrity of the Jewish People, that this was still a push back against everything that the Nazi’s demanded from the Jews. Anything outside what the forces of Hitler’s Final Solution required of the Jewish People under duress and suppression would be an instant death sentence for any Jew contradicting these intentions.

“..From lands so green with palms to lands all white with snow ..We shall be coming with our anguish and our woe ..And where a spurt of our blood fell on ..earth ..There our courage and our spirit have rebirth.” Hirsh Glik.

On May 1st. 1943 there was such a literary gathering in the Vilna Ghetto with a group of Jewish poets, thinkers, writers all meetting for the Spring in Yiddish Literature. This was such an Evening for an expression of the freedom to be afforded by the composition of words that those like Hirsh and his fellow poet Szmerke Kaczerginski issued and which could be momentarily uplifting. Outside, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was being waged and Jews everywhere were awakening to the very sense of opposition to the barbarism that they had encountered.

“..early morning sun will brighten our day ..And yesterday with our foe will fade away. But if ..time is long before ..sun appears ..Then let this song go like a signal through ..years.” Hirsh Glik.

While being somehow free to challenge edicts and decrees to slightly subvert the Nazi intention to crush all Jewish Culture. On this particular occasion, where Hirsh presented his Song of the Partsans, the Zog nit Keynmol, Never Say, we owe to the recollection of his Friend Szmerke, who recollects in these terms what Hirsh sought to deliver, the pertinence of his symbolic Poem. Also, the words are brought back to the Vilna Ghetto by Joseph Glazman who met Hirsh in the Rzesza Labour Camp.

“..listen carefully ..I’ll sing it for you. He began to sing it softly ..full of excitement. His eyes glowed with little sparks. ..hour for which we yearned will come anew. Where did he get his faith. His voice became firmer. He tapped out ..rhythm with his foot ..as if he was marching.” Szmerke (Shmaryahu) Kaczerginski.

The clear Jewishness of Civilisation was to be maintained in the jaws of an immeasureable atrocity that was slaughtering the Jewish People. In effect though, that challenge not to conform, but to express the validity of words and expression, which came in many forms, grew in both popularity and resonance with the Jews of Lithuania. Hirsh was well acquainted with stalwarts of the literary elite of Vilna, Avraham Sutzkever and Leah Rudnitski and these wrote and used words that were issued both literally and, raised in the voices of those like Hirsh declared them in Poems and the narrative of a defiant hope that was forever springing eternal.

“..This song was written with our blood and not with lead ..It’s not a song that summer birds sing overhead ..This is a song a people sang amid collapsing walls ..With guns in hand they heeded to ..call.” Hirsh Glik.

As the Wehrmacht occupied Vilna on June 24th. 1941, Hirsh and his Father were among the Jews taken into forced Labour units to work in the peat bogs at the Labour Camps of Biala Waka and Rzesza. Then, in early 1943, with the Biala Waka Camp being liquidated, and this is where Hirsh wrote The Cornstalk or Dos Zangl, before he was returned to the Vilna Ghetto. Here, Hirsh joined the FPO, the United Partisan Organization or Fareynegte Partizaner Organitzatsye. On September 1 st. 1943, Hirsh was captured along with his FPO unit and was transported to the Estonian Campa at Narva and then Goldfilz.

“..So never say ..road now ends for you ..Though leadened skies may cover over skies of blue ..As ..hour that we longed for is so near ..Our step beats out ..message we are here!” Hirsh Glik.

At sometime during the Summer of 1944 Hirsh, together with another 40 interned and some fellow fighters of the FPO escaped from the Camp at Goldfilz. The Russian Army was in the vicinity and liberation was imminent and the group sought to enjoin further elements of the Russian Partisan groups operating in the area. However, this is where the life of Hirsh ad his fellow Partisans was ended with the likelihood beeing they were trapped by German skirmishers and were killed in action.

“..At most Holocaust commemorations we sing ..Partisans’ Song ..Zog Nit Kein’mol ..by Hirsh Glick. Hirsh Glick was my Friend ..and I was privileged to be ..first ..together with 2 others ..to whom Hirsh read ..words of ..song.” Phillip Maisel.

Added to memory are Hisrsh’s works, as they were distributed aurily and thanks to much of this effort, his work is remembered. It is feared that most of his written words were buried in a safe space somewhere within the Vilna Ghetto and are all now lost to posterity. All the while as Hirsh wrote and produced works befitting an artiste of his literary quality his efforts were uplifting as they became framed by his growing skills as a Partisan Fighter.

Song of the Partsans, the Zog nit Keynmol, Never Say.

“..Never say this is the final road for you,

Though leadened skies may cover over skies of blue,

As the hour that we longed for is so near,

Our step beats out the message we are here!

From lands so green with palms to lands all white with snow,

We shall be coming with our anguish and our woe,

And where a spurt of our blood fell on the earth,

There our courage and our spirit have rebirth.

The early morning sun will brighten our day,

And yesterday with our foe will fade away.

But if the time is long before the sun appears,

Then let this song go like a signal through the years.

This song was written with our blood and not with lead,

It’s not a song that summer birds sing overhead,

This is a song a people sang amid collapsing walls,

With guns in hand they heeded to the call.

So never say the road now ends for you,

Though leadened skies may cover over skies of blue,

As the hour that we longed for is so near,

Our step beats out the message we are here!” Hirsh Glik.



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