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This Holocaust Author's Auschwitz Blog

This blog describes my thoughts and experiences in visiting Auschwitz, Belzec, Majdanek and Sobibor and Anne Frank's House from 2014 to 2018

I blogged my preparations for my visit, I posted daily during my visit to Poland...there are also my ongoing thoughts posted here; in the aftermath of my visit...
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Distortion in Denying the Hatred.

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, February 17, 2021 00:01:18

February 17th. 1945

“..Einsatzgruppe ..established after an agreement between ..Chiefs of ..RSHA ..OKW ..and OKH regard ..use of ..Sipo in ..area of operation. ..Einsatzgruppe ..first appeared during ..Polish campaign. ..agreement with ..OKH and OKW ..first arrived at before ..beginning ..Russian campaign. ..agreement specified ..official of ..Sipo and SD should be assigned to ..Army Groups ..or ..Armies ..and ..this official would have at his disposal mobile units of ..Sipo and ..SD ..form of Einsatzgruppe ..subdivided into Einsatzkommandos. ..Einsatzkommandos should be assigned to ..Army Units as needed ..particular Army Group or Army. ..agreement must have been reached about 1 or 2 weeks before ..beginning of ..Russian campaign. ..As far as ..actual instructions of ..Chiefs of ..Sipo and SD ..concerned ..guided by ..general practice that they could issue orders to ..Army if ..operational situation made it necessary.” otto ohlendorf.

When I was first sent the image of Tovah ‘Tokele’ Olshak, I sought to find out about her and why some poles would consider, as Hitler did, she was unworthy of life. This is the genesis of a journey that has taken me to Poland, to all of the 6 Death Camps placed there by Hitler, and spoken to museum’s and centres for learning of a Jewish past that has been extinguished from within Poland. For what I have learned of Tokele’s short life, and I have read extensively from the words and works of Dr. Szymon Datner, Michael Maik and Avraham Kalifowitz to find her, from what they recorded, witnessed and escaped from here in Sokoly, Poland, innocence and beauty was too readily destroyed.

“..mass resettlements of Jews began ..and on October 18th. 1942 ..Germans ordered all Jews to go to Izbica. We walked ..five hours ..Zolkiewka to Izbica. We all gathered in front of ..cinema ..divided by groups according to ..towns we came from ..Krasnystaw ..Piaski ..Turobin ..Zamosc ..Zolkiewka. ..I remember it was very cold and raining that day. ..Germans ordered ..inhabitants of Zolkiewka must go to ..train. ..whole group ran to ..train ..then ..Germans changed ..order ..sent another group ..we were tormented until ..evening. ..they shot at us. ..killed victims ..rain ..blood ..crying ..screaming. ..Rabbi Feldhendler ..Wife ..Daughter were killed. My family and I went to ..train. ..cattle cars for animals ..on ..floor ..chlorine. ..air was stifling .. huddled in this cattle car ..some ..were dying ..some ..dead ..we stood on their bodies and ..chlorine stung our eyes. food ..water ..I stood close to ..wall. Through ..hole in ..wall ..I could gather ..spoon of rainwater drink a little of it. I was able to write a letter to Mr Krol ..I threw it out. After three hours ..train started in ..direction of Belzec we knew exactly where we were going. pulled out ..grate in ..window. People started to jump out of ..train. My brother had already jumped out mother told me ..’Jump out child have so many girlfriends ..they will help you’ ..I jumped out after ..second railway station ..Zawada ..I was lucky ..I landed in ..ditch. Others ..jumped out ..under train ..or were ..killed by ..German bullets. ..I got a bullet in my thigh but I did not feel it. I had sprained both legs ..I could not walk. ..a man with a big heart ..called Marcin Szewc. He drove by with a horse and wagon ..he found me. ..asked me what ..happened ..I lied ..saying I was a Pole and ..Germans wanted to deport me to Germany for slave labour but I had escaped them. Mr Szewc ..put me on his wagon ..took me to his home.” Mila Szternzys.

From there has been a huge omission of decency and acceptance to emerge of an ignominy for this little town in Poland. Here in Sokoly, where hatred meets a 4 year old Jewish Girl, this grows with each evocation of edicts or laws aimed at discrediting the discredited deeds of these collaborationist Murders. That individual hatred alone shown toward Tokele was also written with a greedy fuelled enterprise from local poles seeking to enrich themselves from what Sokoly’s Jews owned and what local poles had taken from them and sought to retain. I cannot begin to validate the hatred  without pointing an accusation at an entire nation which seems capable of accepting the distortion of a history they must never deny.

Friday December 12th. 1941 “..In respect of ..Jewish question ..make a clean sweep. war is here ..annihilation of ..Jews must be ..necessary result. This question is to be regarded without sentimentalism. We are not here to have sympathy with ..Jews ..but ..with our German people. If ..German people have sacrificed 160,000 dead in ..eastern campaign ..authors of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives.” adolf hitler.

Here though, where this innocent 4 year old Child Tokele was Murdered, and simply because she was Jewish, and while this coincided with a general polish hatred, Sokoly acquiesces to where this becomes compatible with an intention to add to Hitler’s demands. Tokele was not meant to Survive what was Hitler’s demand for her, and within that Final Solution to destroy all of European Jewry, Tokele is now one of the 6,000,000. It is obvious from many nations within Europe, and clearly, and perhaps even especially here in Poland, and with Jews having Survived and seeking to return to their Homes, too many poles did not want to lose all they had gained.

“..Germans could not tell ..Jews apart from ..other Polish soldiers. ..depended on ..Poles to tell them that.” Shep Zitler.

For the poles to relinquish their hold on what they had taken from their Jewish neighbours, and for whom they had never expected to survive, placed the avarice of greed ahead of humanity, compassion or even a christian conscience. What was formerly owned by Polish Jewry would not be relinquished once it had been worn, trodden on or dwelt in by unconscionable poles. This too has had governmental interventions to ensure all of this theft has been endorsed ever since the end of the War. For me, these Jews of Sokoly I have learned from, are the Jewish Survivor’s who confirm this brutal fact of hate filled Murder toward them, even though they are former allies in the fight against Hitler and Nazism.

“..when ..walls will fall ..when a new life will open ..we shall be able to look our brothers in ..face ..and ..if some day a monograph of ..ghetto written ..we will be mentioned favourably.” Moshe Berman.

So with all that there is to learn, and I have come to appreciate that there is No recompense that would be extensive enough to cover 6,000,000 losses. There are no such restitutions that are available which would lessen the blow to humanity for the abandonment of these 6,000,000 Jews. How then could there ever be a retribution worthy of Justice that will satiate the hunger for that lack of justice that these 6,000,000 Jews cry out for. From the beginning of Hitler’s intervention in Poland, there were some 2,000 Jewish residents of Sokoly, Poland, Friday September 1st. 1939, also unleashing his formative Einsatzgruppe murder squads.

“..decided that of 3,000 Einsatzgruppe they were aware of ..just 24 ..highest ranking commanders would be indicted simply because there was not enough room in ..dock.” Benjamin Berell Ferencz.

For these Polish Jews, who were under immediate threat without realising it then, and from the occupying German forces they assumed were civilised, they were still awakening from what the hatred within Poland had soured for them. It is clear from the abundance of evidences that not all was well for the Jewish presence prior to, during and even after Hitler declared his intention for the Slaughter to emerge. Neither from within the local community, as many non-Jewish poles vied for the space still occupied by their Jewish neighbours, could the hatred for the Jews be harnessed more gravelly. However, it was after Hitler launched his attack on Russia, operation Barbarossa, Sunday June 22nd. 1941 that things for the Jewish People became increasingly more precarious across the rest of Europe.

“..teachings ..about ..people ..ethics ..I had to learn myself in ..hell of concentration camps ..without my Mother who was put to death in ..Gas Chambers in Majdanek Father ..put to death and burnt in ..crematorium in Treblinka Brother Sister in law young ..but cared for me like my Mother ..tormented and burnt in Auschwitz. ” Halina Birenbaum.

Already, some of the Jews of Sokoly were being murdered into killing pits alongside some 600 Jews from Tykocin on Thursday July 17th. 1941. Then with some 1,500 Jews from Tykocin on Monday August 25th. 1941 at the killing site in Lupochowo Forest, these Jews joined their former Friends, Relatives and Jewish Community. But not until Monday 2nd. November 1942, when 850 of Sokoly’s own Jews were removed toward Bialystok, did these fuller ramifications hit home. Bialystok was to be the gathering space for the Jews from all around the region and here they awaited their eventual resettlement to one of 3 Death Camps in Poland, either Birkenau, Majdanek or the more likely journey to  Treblinka.

“..big speculators are sitting at home in Warsaw and Lublin ..where ..special organisations ..send their people with truck  loads of goods out to ..huts around Treblinka. ..entire region ..far and near blood out of this greedy slaughterhouse. It is their direct interest to keep Treblinka going to keep its valuable by-products flowing”  Richard Glazer.

With a further 500 more of Sokoly’s Jews, who were expelled on Sunday 11th. April 1943, the increasing gloom was to settle over the Ghetto here, and it could not be lifted. Meanwhile, of the Jews being assembled in Bialystok, many were shot and otherwise killed while awaiting their turn to be delivered to the Death Camps. For Alter Ginzburg, the Sokoly Judenrat Chairman, his Wife Ida and the local dentist and their son Monik, these boarded the 1st. Transport to Treblinka from the Bialystok Ghetto on Tuesday 9th. February 1943. We learn from Efraim Barash, speaking on that Spring deportation from the Bialystok Ghetto, that Barash, the Judenrat Chairman, while believing that work would fully secure a Jewish future, totally endorsed the uprising there and suggests:-

“..who knows ..with Gods help would be a real springtime for all of us.”    Efraim Barash.

Up until 10,000 Jews had been finally removed by Sunday 13th. February 1943, the transportation of much of what was left of Sokoly Jewry, and the random killing amongst all age groups of those Jews within Bialystok and the outer perimeters of Sokoly was relentless. In what is seen as a fact of Jewish Resistance though, and from within Sokoly itself, these Jews acted:-

                                             “..As Wolves before ..battlements.”

In the works of Dr. Szymon Datner, a Resistance Leader and head of the Bialystok Jewish Regional committee, he offers us both an insight into what was assailing the Jews of the region and their gradual demise. Also, as an historian of Bialystok, he regularly reported on the murders of his Jewish People from all of the outlying districts. As Jews had hoped sanity had at last arrived, just after the war ended in 1945, Dr. Datner was asked to compile his report on an atrocity that had occurred in Sokoly even before Wars end. What Dr. Datner was to discover, and he has evidenced many such attacks upon Surviving Jews by the local non-Jewish polish population, it is here at Sokoly where the tragedy that takes hold, this is where much that has directed me ever since began.

“..Nazis were responsible for this tragedy it is they who murdered most of 3,000,000 Jews who lived in Poland before World War II.  ..Germans were able to mobilize segments of ..Polish society to take part in their plan to hunt down ..Jews and help them carry out their Final Solution.” Jan Grabowski.

On Saturday February 17th. 1945, this Sabbath day was interrupted by a group of local poles who had sought to ensure all they had stolen, acquired and gained from the Jewish People would not be returned to these Jews. What these hate filled poles managed to do is beyond the comprehension of those of us who studied the Survival of the Jews of Europe, recognising that 6,000,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children did Not Survive. Here in Sokoly, with the murders of some 9 of these Jewish Survivors, events such as these has cast a long shadow over what is still a plague within Poland, the antisemitic hatred of a growing few.

“..Jews must adjust themselves to all conditions ..we shall endeavour to create such conditions for them as will make ..adjustment difficult.”  Dr. Ludwig Fischer.

The report Dr. Datner compiled suggested that Tokele, a 4 year old Jewish girl, and the Daughter of Shaine Olshak’s Sister was amongst those murdered in Sokoly. There is a photo of Tokele, though this has become separated from the collective photograph of ‘The Last Victims of Sokoly.’ So here, Dr. Datner is to oversee what happened in the aftermath of those murder’s from amongst some 20 of Sokoly’s Survivors. These Jews, who had gathered at the home of the Gritzik family, we now extrapolate what has been a concern for me for more than 25 years. It is of course a deeply imbedded concern for the Jewish People that such hatred has been present for them since time immemorial.

“..There is a difference between ..German orchestrated systems of terror against ..Poles and ..Jews. ..Germans want to ruin ..Polish state as a state. ..with regard to ..Jews ..they want to devastate ..biological substance of ..Jewish Nation. If ..Germans do not change their method of dealing with ..Jewish population ..if there is no effort at Allied intervention ..whether through reprisals or other action ..barring some unforeseen circumstance ..within 18 months of ..time I left ..Homeland ..Jewish People of Poland will cease to exist.” Jan Karski.

Reference too is made that this pogrom by local poles states that only Seven were murdered here and this might be explained by the fact that David Kostshevski was removed from the House, and died from his wounds in the Bialystok Hospital. Also, it is clear that Shaine Olshak had been shot outside of the house while she was attempting to escape, and this might skew the assessment somewhat. All told, some 20 or so Jewish Survivor’s were residing and visiting an apartment of the house of Mordechai Suraski on Mazowiecka Street 32, in Sokoly, Poland. They were made up of 3 Family Groups of about 12 People in all, of varying ages, from the Child Tovah, aged 4, and from there aged upwards.

“..I didn’t want to go back to Poland. Poles were killing a lot of Jews who returned to claim property ..other possessions. My Parents were dead. There was nothing to go back to.”  Bianca Lerner.

They had simply come together so as to afford each other some form of comfort after all they had struggled to Survive, and even for some them, surviving through the Death Camp system. So tragically that all too frequently the Jewish Survivor awaited news of those other’s who might as yet have Survived. While for us it is clear that no one Jew should have been expected to have lived through what Hitler had planned for and for what non-Jewish poles now seemed set to administer. There was also an engagement party to be celebrated, a signal of the continuance of Jewish persistence, even after the great catastrophe.

“ is easy to cope with ..Jewish problem when ..Jews are small in number ..but it is more difficult in Poland where their number is so much larger.” jozef pilsudski.

These 12 Jewish People in total, from the above-mentioned 20 Jewish People who met to celebrate receiving the apartment, and also to celebrate the return of Dawid Kaszczewski, who had arrived back a few days earlier. He had returned to Sokoly from the camps to see the engagement of Benjamin Rachlew from Sokoly to Basia Wajnsztajn from Swiecieniny. The latter also returned from the concentration camp. So here we are on this Saturday February 17th. 1945, and this Sabbath day gathering of Jewish Survivor’s that was taking place no doubt filled with the sense of relief for their survival, this all gave a positive air to celebrating that fact.

“..When ..Poles saw how ..soldiers were victimising us they piled on ..too. ..a German guard was marching me ..some other men to ..nail factory. ..a Polish boy ran up ..stabbed me in ..hand.” William Schiff.

Their very Survival had been against all the odds that had been thrown at them, without realising a further throw of the dice was hurtling toward them. As we begin to see it, when a group of local poles sought to ensure that all that the local polish population had stolen, had acquired and had illegally gained would not be returned to these Jews, a pogrom ensued. I denounce these poles as hate filled for what they managed to achieve in the murder of 9 of these Jewish Survivors. Their every effort in atrocity affords theses particular non-Jewish cowards, and even Poland to this day, their infamy in all of history.

“..arrived to Camp Kommandant ..SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Bothmann. ..addressed us in his living quarters ..presence of SS Untersturmfuhrer Albert Plate. ..explained ..we had been dedicated to ..Kulmhof extermination camp as guards and added that in this camp ..plague boils of humanity ..Jews ..were exterminated. We were to keep quiet about everything we saw or heard ..otherwise we would have to reckon with our families’ imprisonment and ..death penalty. ..extermination camp was made up of ..’castle’ and in ..woods. ..castle was a fairly large stone building at ..edge of ..village of Kulmhof. ..Jews ..transported by lorry or railway were first brought. ..lorry arrived ..following members of ..SS Sonderkommando addressed ..Jews ..Camp Kommandant Bothmann ..Untersturmführer Albert Plate ..Polizei Meister Willy Lenz ..Polizei Meister Alois Haeberle. ..explained to ..Jews ..would ..all be given a bath ..deloused in Kulmhof ..then sent to Germany to work. ..Jews then went inside ..castle. get undressed. ..sent through a passage ..ramp to ..castle yard where ‘gas van’ ..parked. ..back door of ..van would be open. ..Jews ..made to get inside ..van. ..done by three Poles ..sentenced to death. ..Poles hit ..Jews with whips if they did not get into ..gas vans fast enough. When all ..Jews were inside ..door was bolted. ..driver then switched on ..engine ..crawled under ..van ..connected ..pipe from ..exhaust to ..inside of ..van. ..exhaust fumes ..poured into ..truck so that ..people ..suffocated.”  Polizei theodor malzmueller.

But this is Not all of why I write, as words have mattered to me many more years than I have imagined the horror of The Holocaust. Clearly though, this sense of rage gained pace as I recognised the gravest hatred was waged against those who have already been abused, accosted and brutalised enough, and assumed they had reached safety. All the Survivor’s in one nation or another are still faced by other’s who now perpetrated these exact same crimes. This is why I have chosen to write on the Murder of a 4 year old Jewish Girl, who remains confined within the Slaughter of the 6,000,000 Jewish People, her People, who are The Holocaust.

“..attitude of ..non–Jewish population ..almost all Poles ..was hateful. They rejoiced at our misfortune ..enriched themselves with Jewish property.” Betzalel Papial.

There are 6,000,000 Jews of whom faced complete ignorance in their own homelands, total hatred in their supposedly christian community’s and found a complicit destruction that inveigles many, nations and nationals. For me it is quite simple and how dare any pole choose to deny to this 4 year old Child a life and because she is a Jew. Tovah ‘Tokele’ Olshak should have lived to being near her 80th. year and yet, all of those intervening years were trashed by the ignorance of a pole whose hatred matched clearly the collaborative effort Hitler fully expected in Poland, from Poles. I am from an era which arrived after the Jewish Catastrophe.

“..Bitterness ..pain fill ..Children’s recollections of those poles who hunted them ..betrayed them ..handed them to ..common enemy ..of cruelties perpetrated by other children ..of every human ignominy. ..there are few such testimonies ..reason ..simple ..painful ..children ..are not here to record their stories.” Maria Hochberg-Marianska.

I am not a descendant of one of those Jews who we can rightfully attribute to themselves the term Holocaust Survivor, but I am no less concerned. There are so many I have seen, heard from, spoken to and I have sensed their overwhelming pain. As I listen to Rivka Yosselevska, or read Primo Levi and know the words of Etty Hillesum, whose words are to survive her, I learn to know and more of what they were fully cognisant of. Their evidence has placed the darkest emphasis on all that was done and achieved against 6,000,000 of their fellow Jews for being Jews and amongst them are these here listed, those Jews of Sokoly, Poland Murdered when hope had re-emerged for the Surviving Jew, even in Poland.

“..I knew ..Tokele ..she is Tovah Olshak ..the Sister of Shaina Olshak. Both of Tokele’s Parents were previously shot in the nearby Lupochowo Forest and she had been cared for and Loved by a Christian woman.” Yaffa Litwak.

(1)          Tokele, aka Tolkele aka Tulkale, aka Tulka,  and though the Last Survivors Photo p.136 does not list her we know that she was 4 years of age. I am now reliably informed by a Survivor, Yaffa Litwak, who knew of Tokele, that she is (Tovah Olshak) That said, Tovah Olshak is listed as the Sister of Shaina Olshak and in Last Survivors this lists her as Tovah Olshak. Both of Tokele’s Parents were previously shot in the nearby Lupochowo Forest and Tokele had been cared for and Loved by a Christian woman. Sadly, and though with difficulty, Tokele was given back to her Cousin by marriage, Shaine.

(2)          Shaine (Shaina) (Sheine) Olshak was a Cousin by marriage of Tokele, she was 22 years of age, the Wife of Zeev Velvel Olshak of Zeremow. Shaine Olszak nee Nilovitzki was born in Kobylin, Poland in 1923 to Shmuel and Ester and the Last Survivors lists her. Shaine was shot while attempting to flee the scene of the carnage.

(3)          David Zholti (Zholty) was born in 1939 and was 35 years of age and the Last Survivors lists him.

(4)          Yankele Litwak was shot by a Polish soldier while in Bialystok, a few weeks after the War and was 15 years of age. Yankele was the Brother of Shaikele, Shammai and Yaffa Litwak, formerly Shainie. Shainie (Yaffa Litwak-Cohen) now resides in Kiryat Bialystok Israel.

(5)          Shaikele (Sheike)(Yehoshua)(Shaikeleh) Litwak appears in the Last Survivors Photo p.136 which lists him and was 13 years of age. Shaikele was the Brother of Yankele, Shammai and was the Son of Chaim?

(6)          Chaim (Tuvia) Litwak, who was the blacksmith from Siemietitz was the Father of Yankele, Shaikele, Shammai and Yaffa Litwak.

(7)          Shammai Litwak is in the Last Survivors which lists him was 19 years of age. Shammai was the Elder Brother of Yankele, Shaikele and Yaffa Litwak.

(8)          Batya Weinstein was 20 years old, she had managed to survive Auschwitz and had been born in Swiecienin, and

(9)          David Kostshevski (Koschevsky)(Koschavsky) who had Survived both Auschwitz and Majdanek was 28 years of age. David was the Son of the Milliner Itza (Yitzhak) Koschevsky, who were also shot in a room there. All were staying or visiting in the home at the time. David is named in the Last Survivors which lists him. David died from his wounds in Bialystok.

There are those who still managed to survive the attempt by these anti-Semitic poles were and these are:-

I)             Zeev Gritshak,

II)           Avraham Kalifovitz, and

III)          Issur Wondolowicz.

Both Benyamin Ratzlev(Rachlev), who had been engaged to Batya Weinstein, and Benyamin Gorkovitz, who had accompanied Avrahamel Goldberg to Lendowa-Budy to take back his Sister’s Daughter, Feigele Tabak, from a Woman Farmer, these were away at the time. Upon their return to Sokoly, they found out about what had transpired and felt powerless to do anything to gain the form of justice the carnage necessitated after what had been waged. For me, all of this is in Memory of Tokele, a four year old Jewish Girl, who was murdered while 6,000,000 of her fellow Jews were laid to waste.



“..On Sabbath ..February 17th. 1945 ..Survivors had a celebration in Sokoly at Mordechai Surasky’s house near ..Mazowieckie road. During ..first period of ..liberation ..residence of Colonel Dubroshin ..Soviet Kommandant. ..10 days before ..fateful evening ..Colonel Dubroshin handed over ..Surasky house to 3 Jewish families numbering 12  souls.

..celebration took place

..a) as a housewarming for ..3 families

b) to celebrate ..engagement of one of ..survivors from Sokoly ..Benyamin Rachlev Batya Weinstein from Swieciany, Lithuania ..a survivor of ..death camps

c) that same week ..a boy from Sokoly ..David Koschevsky ..Son of Itza (Yitzhak) ..milliner ..had arrived from ..death camps.

About 20 people were gathered in where ..celebration took place. ..torn ones who had suffered so much now celebrated ..evening with happiness and joy. ..young people played cards ..elderly talked among themselves ..women took care of and fried latkes. In ..there was a conversation led by ..young engineer David Zholty ..who accompanied Sheintze Gritshak home after her visit to ..Zholty family. Suddenly ..back door opened. A pole with a large moustache ..and dressed in an Army uniform ..came in with an automatic rifle in his hand. Zeev Gritshak saw ..Pole first ..and cried out ..Robbers have come. He ran to ..other room and locked ..door. ..Pole opened a round of fire. With ..first shots he killed engineer David Zholty and ..bride from Swieciany. Batya Weinstein ..who had been frying latkes ..fell dead with a knife in her hand. A third victim was ..pretty ..4-year-old orphan Tulkale. After that ..murderer entered full of guests and started shooting again. Panic arose. For a moment ..his rifle jammed. A number of celebrants succeeded in breaking ..window and escaping through ..front door ..and they thereby were rescued from death. But a few ran in panic and hid under ..beds. A kerosene lamp that stood on ..table fell down on ..wood floor. ..kerosene spread and a fire broke out. Additional robbers entered and shot Shammai Litvak and David Koschevsky. Shammai Litvak’s body covered Avraham Kalifovitz. ..shots did make holes in his clothing ..but he was saved by a miracle. Issur Wondolowicz ..who was standing behind ..closet ..was also saved. Shaina Olshak ..22 years old ..who had been recently married ..fled outside and was shot on by ..robbers guard. ..robbers stole and shoes from their victims well as possessions from ..beds and closets. In ..middle of ..robbery ..13 year old boy ..Sheike Litvak ..came in. ..robbers asked him ..To whom are you going. He answered ..To my brother. One of ..robbers shot ..boy in ..face. ..boy instinctively covered his face with his hands and cried. ..Are you still alive .. asked ..murderer ..and shot him a second time. ..boy fell down ..rolling in his own blood. 7 victims fell in that bestial murder ..6 of them on ..seventh victim ..David Koschevsky ..was wounded. They took him in a military vehicle to in Bialystok. After suffering horribly for a few days ..he returned his soul to his Maker. He was fully conscious until his last moments.” Michael Maik.


“..On Saturday night ..I visited Zeev Griczak ..Raclav and Zeev Olshak ..who lived together in Mordechai Surasky’s house. A number of other friends gathered there. ..apartment had 4 rooms and it had 2 entrances at ..front of ..building and one in ..back. ..4 Poles approached Zeev Griczak ..and asked him if he lives here. ..Behind Zeev ..they invaded into and opened fire on those who were there. ..Jews who were sitting in an inner room began to flee. Being ..last of those who were sitting there ..I hesitated to run ..lest they injure me. I succeeded in hiding between ..closet and ..bed ..and Shammai Litvak lay on my legs. of ..rioters entered ..saw Shammai ..yelled ..Yaatcza yadin Zhid ..Another Jew. ..Pole ..shot 3 bullets at Shammai. ..victim fell to ..ground and covered my feet with his body. One of ..rioters moved ..bed away from ..wall to see if there was another Jew. I moved my body together with ..bed. ..Sheikele Litvak ..a boy of 12 ..appeared in ..doorway. ..robber asked him who did he come to see. Sheikele answered ..My brother. ..Immediately he shot 2 bullets into ..boy’s head. ..rioters began to chop one of ..doors ..with an axe to discover more victims to kill. Those who had been in the room were lucky enough to have escaped outside earlier ..through ..window. ..members of ..gang ..lurking outside signalled their companions and they ran away from ..gang of murderers numbered 9 men. I went out of and ran to ..police. day I saw that my jacket was punctured. At ..time of ..shots ..I had felt something pass by a part of my body. In ..we were 19 Jews. 7 of our companions were shot to death ..and succeeded in escaping. After ..murder ..I remained in Sokoly for 3 days and ..together with my friends ..I left my town forever. Our path led to Bialystok. of these sorrowful days had a strong influence on my mind. For many months ..I felt ..horrors and saw before my eyes my murdered friends ..and how I laid under ..bed and Shammai ..who was killed ..was spread over my legs. I sometimes burst into tears and was attacked by spasms over my entire body. I was not able to calm down and stop crying. Even today ..when I bring up ..memory of that terrible day of blood ..I am choked with tears. My hatred and anger grow within me ..against ..Polish murderers who helped ..Germans to shed ..blood of refugees ..few in number ..from The Holocaust.” Avraham Kalifowitz.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

June 8th. 1935 in Grodno, Poland.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

March 9th. 1936 in Przytyk, Poland.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

April 30th. 1936 when the {onr oboz narodowo-radykalny}, attacked 5 Jews returning from Warsaw to Minsk-Mazowiecki.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

June 1st.1936 in Minsk-Mazowiecki.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

May 13th. 1937 when the Jews of Brest were attacked by locals and police who looted, robbed and beat up the local Jews and the Jewish store owners and their workers.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community’s in those ‘Pogrom’ conducted on April 5th. 1938 which raged across Poland.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

April 15th. 1938 Dabrowa-Tarnowska, Poland which sees Jews Murdered.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

April 29th. 1938 Vilna, Poland when Jews were Murdered.


“..In memory of the Jews of Jedwabne and surrounding areas, Men, Women, and Children, fellow-dwellers of this land, murdered and burned alive at this site on 10 July 1941.” Memorial.

Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

July 10th. 1941 those 340 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children were Burned to Death in a Barn at the hands of their non-Jewish neighbours. All told, more than 1,600 of Jedwabne Jews were Murdered, most at the hands of an Einsatz kommando.


Thursday October 15th. 1942 “ ..located near ..Belzec ..well known all over Poland from ..tales of horror ..circulated about it.” Jan Karski.

Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community when we are made aware of what all should have known. Unless we are going to revise the words of such a distinguished, and Polish scholar, what the Polish locals knew should have defined their resolve to do something to cease the annihilation of their Jewish neighbours, as they faced it at the front door of every Polish community within Poland.


August 1943 “..return of ..Jews to their jobs and workshops is ..out of ..question ..even if ..number of Jews is greatly reduced. ..non-Jewish population has filled their places in ..towns ..cities much of Poland this is a fundamental change in character. ..return of masses of Jews would be perceived not as an act of restitution ..but as an invasion against which they would have to defend themselves ..even by physical means.” Roman Knoll. Polish Foreign Affairs Office.


“..murders of Survivors right after ..War ..intimidated many who might have sought their property back. Fearing for their lives ..many made no attempt to retrieve their assets.” Naphtali Lavie.

Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

February 17th. 1945 in Sokoly where local poles murdered 7 Jewish Survivors.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of stealth of March 8th. 1946 when Poland decreed Jewish Restitution claims for Property, Homes and Possessions to be made by end of 1947. At the end of this period, a year’s extension is granted.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of

July 4th. 1946 in Kielce when polish soldiers, polish police officers and polish non-Jewish civilians Murdered 42 Polish Jewish Survivors and more than 40 other Polish Jews were wounded.


Do not allow for distortion to deny the hatred of some poles toward their Jewish Community in the ‘Pogrom’ of stealth of December 31st. 1948 when Polish Measures are brought to bear to ensure Jews cannot reclaim what Jews have been deprived of.


July 11th. 2001 “..We can have no doubt that here in Jedwabne Polish citizens were killed at  ..hands of fellow citizens.” President Aleksander Kwasniewski.


Anna Pyzewska in the 2005 IPN bulletin of the Bialystok Institute of National Remembrance described what happened in Sokoly: Kazimierz Kamienski, made in 1953. This event is also mentioned by reports of both the Polish underground and PUBP in Wysokie Mazowieckie – in these materials, however, apart from general information about the number of victims, there are no details about the course of the incident. ” Anna Pyzewska.

 “..bandits had come. ..Pole opened fire ..killing Dawid Yellow ..Basia Wajnsztajn and 4-year-old Tolka Zytawer. ..there was a fire. ..attacker’s weapon jammed ..some of ..gathered  ..managed to escape. ..further victims a room adjacent to 20 year old Szamaj Litwak was shot (he hid under bed) ..Dawid Kaszczewski ..died a few days later in ..was shot. 22 year old Szajna Olszak was shot outside by ..guards. ..last victim was 13 year old Szyjke Litvak. Shamaj’s brother. ” Anna Pyzewska.

“..huzar did not deny his presence in Sokoly on February 17th. 1945. As he claimed ..on that day ..when he was returning with his unit from Kobylin ..he met a 4 man self defence unit led by Karol Gasztoft ..who was going to Sokoly to liquidate 1 person of Jewish nationality. Revenge was to ask huzar to take part in ..action as well. As huzar argued ..he did not know of ..person who was supposed to die ..nor ..reason for ..liquidation. ..he went to Sokoly together with his unit. His unit took care of setting up a” Anna Pyzewska.


February 28th. 2019 Wyborcza Poland. “..On ..occasion of ..National Day of Remembrance of .. Cursed Soldiers on Friday March 1st. President Andrzej Duda is to lay flowers at ..monument to Kazimierz Kamienski (huzar) and his subordinates in Wysokie-Mazowieckie. ..same ‘huzar’ who participated in ..murder of Jews who survived The Holocaust in February 1945 ..including children. In February 1945 in Sokoly ..40 kilometres away from Bialystok ..70% before ..war inhabited  by Jews ..a branch of Karol Gasztoft ..revenge murdered Jews who survived The Holocaust. 7 people of Jewish nationality were murdered ..including 3-year-old Tolka and 13-year-old Szyjke. ..unit of .huzar participated in ..murder.” Anna Pyzewska.

It is so obvious for me, that Poland would be better placed evaluating all that it had failed to do to save 3,000,000 of its own Murdered Jews. As Poland seeks to hide behind a continuous hatred that is out of sync with humanity and human compassion, and dare I mention christian morality, History must reclaim its past from lies and distortions. Poland it seems has so disowned everything Hitler established in Poland except what has proved lucrative to them, including the Destruction of 3,000,000 of their own Polish Jews. It is ever more essential with that in mind that we do not allow for any such distortion to then deny the hatred of some poles toward their own Polish Jewish Community.


October 2020 “..Will we live to see when ..Polish authorities also admit that hostility toward Jews was widespread among Poles ..and that Polish complicity in The Holocaust is an historical fact.” Katarzyna Markusz.

Sadly, even after the departure of Hitler’s forces the hatred of and for the Jews of Poland continued and in the intervening years 1934 to 2021, it has little abated. Within Poland itself, much of the hatred directed toward the Polish Jewish Community is aligned to what Hitler sought in the territory’s he wished to remove all Jews from. It is a confusing mix of considerate and compassionate Polish People being led toward the same hatred which has blighted their humanitarian credentials by those ignorant of the torrent of bitterness antisemitism esposes. The lessons of the past are there for the many Poles who seek it out, and I have spoken to many of those who know the truth of The Holocaust is worth defending despite the truth of former poles who betrayed all humanity to deliver what Hitler sought.

Memorial for the Holy Martyrs of Sokoly

“..We dipped our pen into the valley of tears

To record an immortalization for the holy martyrs of Sokoly

Every page of the book is a scroll of fear

About our dear ones, who were cut off with a sharp sword.

We lived in the community, we spent time together

We drank gladness and poison from the same cup

The dynasty of his grandfather – the grandson the blacksmith

A continuation of the generations of the Nation of Israel.

We sat on the same bench of learning

In the same “cheder” we expounded Torah

We had the same study hall, rules and procedures

The same cemetery and the same graves.

We walked the same roads and streets

Young girls and youths, grandfathers and grandmothers

Under the wedding canopies we heard, with rhythm,

Notes of a Jewish melody of joy and sadness.

We were transported to those Treblinkas in multitudes

We were squeezed into cattle cars like sheep

Our destination was massacre, we turned into dust

The story of our people is written here in the book.

Where are you, Sokoly, you were our cradle

You were eroded like dust and broken like clay

Where are your Jews, infants and fathers

Old people, grooms and beautiful brides?

Where are the pulpits of gemara, and around them the sounds of commentary

Of the yeshiva students explaining portions of the Midrash

Prayers and hopes lifted up to G d on high

Were choked off, were silenced with the smoke of destruction.” Reuven Lev.

And What Would You Do, Again.

Uncategorised Posted on Sat, February 13, 2021 14:10:53

I cannot begin to contain the words of loss that are detained in a Worlds need for remembering the 6,000,000 Jews who were Slaughtered. These Jewish People, all Men, Women and Their Children, who are The Holocaust, are resident in the most evil atrocity ever inflicted upon humanity. That is why I find great difficulty with my own work, though the truth is there and it is factually correct. While it upholds the integrity, the very veracity of the historical search such a catastrophe demands, there are Never enough words. Make no mistake though, I know there are never enough words that can be written to comprehend this travesty and so, while I can, I will deliver all the words I am able to.

“..We all know how we were ..we were all lost. ..drifting in a world of bitter memories ..trying to hold on to sanity ..not to give in to despair.”  Alicia Appleman-Jurman.

I am sure there is a realisation, that within the accusation as to what I might have done, this is aimed specifically at my effort on behalf of at least 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews. That there is the abandonment of the Jews within each and every such accusation which is once more to the forefront of anything they seek in response. In all honesty, I have to respond that I do not know if I would have saved another Jew from the catastrophe. I do know I would Not have betrayed any Jew for who they are, nor would I have stood on the side-lines and offered the Jewish People no assistance whatsoever.

“..summer ..1943 ..Gestapo squad arrived in Zawichost ..called in ..Jewish leaders ..starszyzna ..announced that in a few days ..Jews would have to leave town. They should be ready to march and await ..arrival of ..escort. This happened at a time when Jews even in remote provinces had no illusions as to what was in store for them. ..whole ..Jewish population of was on ..looking at ..road by which ..German police was supposed to arrive. asked his companion. ..Do they know what is in store for them. ..companion ..Surely ..Why do they not disperse ..why do they not escape ..companion ..Where. ..To what place can they escape.” Ferdynand Goetel.

So with that, and believe me, no Jew should be asking any other Jew this question as to what would they have done, should have done or even done differently. There are  6,000,000 absent Jewish voices whose responses are sufficient enough to qualify, and in their silence there is my response. However, each and every Jew has an awareness that no other being in humanity can come close to understanding what was done to their People. That said, the Jewish People have to deal with so many of us who were too silent, and there was so much silence that it screams of the complicity of far too many Nations who would screech otherwise. It is clear from every page testifying to what is The Holocaust, far too many nationals and a glut of the guilty in the atrocity are as yet unaccountable.

Sunday October 11th. 1942. “..Everyone knows ..what happened in Warsaw ..Slonim is already time to count ..cities where ..catastrophies did not occur. ..understand ..better to be sent to Wolkowsk than ..Treblinka.” Ephraim Barash.

For me, there is No Jew who had any choice whatsoever even within those parameters set by the Nazi’s which gave them room to move. Even when their accusers might suggest differently it is clear, whenever a Jew struck back the intensity of the violence fell heaviest upon the most frail and innocent of us all, the Jewish Elderly and Jewish Children. When I remember back to reading Lawrence Langer, who asserts that such was this absence of choice, I am more certain than ever that All Jews faced these choiceless choices. So if we are to use such terms, simply to describe the fate of the Jewish People in The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, then we must suggest this accurately with the truth. 

“..Everywhere I go ..I want people to know where I’m from background ..where my family came from because of ..struggle they had to go through. Every week when I play and I see ..Israeli flag brings me a lot of pride and I think it’s because of what my grandparents had to go through. Not just them but everybody during World War II and The Holocaust. That brings me anger but what I’m trying to do is bring ..anger and do something meaningful.”  Laetitia Beck.

For what emerged as The Holocaust, adding terms with meaning and significance can only increase a comprehension still yet to be understood in this monumental calamity for civilised humanity. Such is the uniquely unprecedented and unparalleled nature of the catastrophe, and while it is the gravest atrocity ever to face the Jewish People, at the behest of too many within humanity, it is a challenge to what civilised us. In any study of the depths and margins in which such a disaster is defined, it is essential to remind us that not all victims were Jews, though All Jews Were Victims. There is no discernible conflict or conflict in this assertion either, Hitler’s final solution was a question that the Jews of Europe were to answer for with their lives, and without exception.

“..Since ..campaigns of murder were conducted with ..strictest secrecy ..there was considerable temptation to delude one’s conscience into believing  that ..deeds committed outside any social control never happened. Who was ask at home ..what was done to ..unknown Jew in ..forest near Minsk or behind ..barbed wire of Auschwitz.”  Hans Buckheim.

Study and research will not access what we know in all that we have yet to comprehend of The Holocaust, how human beings were so abjectly mistreated, other human beings did this. That the Jewish People had been given no choice in how they were expected to live was legislated for, was a systematic calculation and was then enacted without concern. The Jewish route toward death was accorded to 6,000,000 of them in the many sites set aside for their destruction and even in the Death Camps that death was a confusion of uncertain betrayals and false truths. The shower room was still a death sentence, a mockery of human compassion imposed upon them by a cruelty beyond human comprehension.

Friday, 7th. April 1944. “..millions of Jews ..captured ..who knows where they are. ..We have come ..from place where your brothers are. ..Two thousand years have we brought into this world children ..doomed to suffer.” Moshe Flinker. 

This fact still remains that human beings did this to other human beings and simply because these were Jewish human beings. What was not set aside by the hatred became the tool for the destruction that consumed all of these Jewish People without a single thought of consideration. In this truth there is no version and The Holocaust remains more precisely a factual veracity that maintains the standard for the scientific search in history it must demand. The sought after distortion of any element of that fact will deviate the line of essential obedience to the truth that our trajectory demands.

“..Let me explain that even though I had been in Auschwitz I did not know about ..gas chambers. Can you imagine that. We thought ..when we were there ..that our parents and ..children were taken to camps which were much better. We assumed that they couldn’t live through we were in. It was not until a large contingent from Auschwitz came to Belsen that I had to give up that idea that they were safe. I met 2 women in their 30’s who spoke Hungarian and they asked if it was true that ..Hungarian transports were so severely selected people to ..camps and ..others to be gassed. I said ..What are you saying. ..And they looked at me as if I were foolish ..but they didn’t want to destroy my hope and so didn’t try to explain. I ran back to ..tent and collapsed. I think I cried for weeks. I finally realized that everybody was killed.”  Maria Frank-Abrams.

The decisions the Jews made in the midst of this conflagration, while they might appear crucial in terms of how they were affected by them, there was a jackboot which stood permanently astride them. Here, Police, Waffen SS, Wehrmacht, SS, SD,  and not all were Germans, were armed with whip, gun, rifle and aboard a gas chamber which consumed more than we will ever know. So the crucial decision is a pertinent one and one which remains outside the body of the Jewish People for whom the choice had been designed to be taken away from them. I have often pointed to the Jewish Parent who would refuse to leave their Children and so deliver those last moments of Love and Devotion to them.

“..During 20 months of this trial ..court had to relive ..suffering and tortures ..people were subjected to ..forever coupled with of Auschwitz.  There will be some among us who ..will not be able to look into ..happy ..trusting eyes of a child without seeing ..hollow ..questioning uncomprehending ..fear filled eyes of ..children who went their last way there in Auschwitz.” Judge Hans Hofmeyer.

Of these multitude of Jewish Children, each Child who had been their everything from inception, could Not be allowed to go into eternity without the compassion they deserved. I had spoken to so many Survivor’s whose loss of a Parent was such, they would have held them up all the way toward oblivion just to be with them their. For both Parent and Child, to feel those last moments as a unified one must have been a strength beyond our limited imaginings. For far too many Jewish Children, all 1,500,000 of them, and then for far too many Jewish Parents and Adult Jews, some 4,500,000 of them, all choice was taken away from these 6,000,000 Jewish People and that can never resonate with a sound as:

And What Would You Have Done

” ..Did you make sure to scrape the ashes of friends and relatives from the furnace?

And did you haul the cart in the snow

To the heap of ashes of those cremated before them?

Were the words “You’ll certainly live as long as the furnaces send smoke aloft, because you’re needed,” directed at you?

And when you were covered with those ashes, did your mouths report what had happened in the language of the barracks?

That extra soup, is it the price of the labor of your spade

And the double ration-the price of the sweat that you gave forth?

And was it to you that the words “Only some time later, at an unknown time,

After the coal, the miner of the coal also comes” were directed?

Not you, not me! We were not put to that ordeal!

You may scrape furnaces every night

And push the cart to its side in your dreams.

But to have the slightest inkling of what happened in that man’s heart, you cannot.

Rather, from time to time you may turn your eyes heavenward, as if reflecting,

And what would you have done.” Gunther Anders.

And What Would You Have Done!

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, February 10, 2021 20:37:05

And What Would You Have Done.

“..We all know how we were ..we were all lost. ..drifting in a world of bitter memories ..trying to hold on to sanity ..not to give in to despair.”  Alicia Appleman-Jurman.

Believe me, no Jew should be asking any other Jew this question. There are  6,000,000 responses that are sufficient enough to qualify the Jewish silence. However, each and every Jew has an awareness that no other being in humanity can come close to understanding. That said, they have to deal with so many who were silent and so much silence that it screams of the complicity of too many Nations, far too many nationals and a glut of the guilty in The Holocaust, as yet unaccountable.

Sunday October 11th. 1942. “..Everyone knows ..what happened in Warsaw ..Slonim is already time to count ..cities where ..catastrophies did not occur. ..understand ..better to be sent to Wolkowsk than ..Treblinka.” Ephraim Barash.

For me, No Jew had any choice whatsoever even if their accusers might suggest differently. When I remember back to reading Lawrence Langer, who asserts that such was this absence of choice, I am more certain than ever that All Jews had these choiceless choices. If we are to use such terms to describe the fate of the Jewish People in The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, then we must suggest this accurately with the truth. For what emerged as The Holocaust, adding terms with meaning and significance can increase a comprehension still yet to be understood.

“..Everywhere I go ..I want people to know where I’m from background ..where my family came from because of ..struggle they had to go through. Every week when I play and I see ..Israeli flag brings me a lot of pride and I think it’s because of what my grandparents had to go through. Not just them but everybody during World War II and The Holocaust. That brings me anger but what I’m trying to do is bring ..anger and do something meaningful.”  Laetitia Beck.

Such is the uniquely unprecedented and unparalleled nature of the catastrophe, it is the gravest atrocity ever to face the Jewish People at the behest of too many within humanity. In any study of the depths and margins in which such a disaster is defined, it is essential to remind us that not all victims were Jews, though All Jews Were Victims. There is no discernible conflict or conflict in this, Hitler’s final solution was a question that the Jews of Europe were to answer with their lives for.

“..Since ..campaigns of murder were conducted with ..strictest secrecy ..there was considerable temptation to delude one’s conscience into believing  that ..deeds committed outside any social control never happened. Who was ask at home ..what was done to ..unknown Jew in ..forest near Minsk or behind ..barbed wire of Auschwitz.”  Hans Buckheim.

What we know in all that we have yet to comprehend of The Holocaust, is that the Jewish People had been given no choice in how they were expected to live. Their route toward death was accorded them in the many sites set aside for their destruction and even in death that death, the shower was a death sentence, a mockery  imposed upon them by a cruelty beyond human comprehension. But the fact remains that human beings did this to human beings and simply because these were Jewish human beings set aside by hatred for destruction.

Friday, 7th. April 1944. “..millions of Jews ..captured ..who knows where they are. ..We have come ..from place where your brothers are. ..Two thousand years have we brought into this world children ..doomed to suffer.” Moshe Flinker. 

In this truth there is no version, The Holocaust remains merely a factual veracity which maintains the standard the scientific search in history must demand. The sought after distortion of any element of that fact will deviate the line of essential obedience to the truth our trajectory demands. The decisions the Jews made in the midst of this conflagration, while they might appear crucial in terms of how they were affected by them, a jackboot stood astride them armed with whip, gun, rifle and aboard a gas chamber which consumed more than we will ever know.

“..Let me explain that even though I had been in Auschwitz I did not know about ..gas chambers. Can you imagine that. We thought ..when we were there ..that our parents and ..children were taken to camps which were much better. We assumed that they couldn’t live through we were in. It was not until a large contingent from Auschwitz came to Belsen that I had to give up that idea that they were safe. I met 2 women in their 30’s who spoke Hungarian and they asked if it was true that ..Hungarian transports were so severely selected people to ..camps and ..others to be gassed. I said ..What are you saying. ..And they looked at me as if I were foolish ..but they didn’t want to destroy my hope and so didn’t try to explain. I ran back to ..tent and collapsed. I think I cried for weeks. I finally realized that everybody was killed.”  Maria Frank-Abrams.

So the crucial decision is a pertinent one and one which remains outside the body of the Jewish People for whom the choice had been designed for them. I often pointed to the Parent who would deliver the last moments of Love and Devotion to the Child who had been their everything from inception. I had spoken to so many Survivor’s whose loss of a Parent was such, they would have held them up all the way toward oblivion just to be with them and feel their last moments as a unified one. For too many Jewish Children, 1,500,000 of them and far too many Parents and Adults, 4,500,000 of them, all choice was taken away from these 6,000,000 and that cannot resonate with:

And What Would You Have Done

” ..Did you make sure to scrape the ashes of friends and relatives from the furnace?

And did you haul the cart in the snow

To the heap of ashes of those cremated before them?

Were the words “You’ll certainly live as long as the furnaces send smoke aloft, because you’re needed,” directed at you?

And when you were covered with those ashes, did your mouths report what had happened in the language of the barracks?

That extra soup, is it the price of the labor of your spade

And the double ration-the price of the sweat that you gave forth?

And was it to you that the words “Only some time later, at an unknown time,

After the coal, the miner of the coal also comes” were directed?

Not you, not me! We were not put to that ordeal!

You may scrape furnaces every night

And push the cart to its side in your dreams.

But to have the slightest inkling of what happened in that man’s heart, you cannot.

Rather, from time to time you may turn your eyes heavenward, as if reflecting,

And what would you have done.” Gunther Anders.

January 27th.

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, January 27, 2021 14:56:47

“..Written by ..Sonderkommando ..Crematorium II August 5th. 1944 ..Zalman Lewental ..Ciechanow ..Poland.  No one can imagine exactly how things happened ..for it is unimaginable that a precise account of our experiences can be given. ..We ..a small group of grey people ..will give historians a ..hard time ..also ..psychologists who want to know ..investigate ..mental condition of ..people who tackled this dismal ..dirty work. ..who knows whether these investigators will fathom ..truth ..whether anyone will be able to thoroughly.”  Zalman Lewental.

Today in History, January 27th. we come together, though 76 years further down the line to remember those Jews of The Holocaust who were never intended to emerge from this particular Jewish Catastrophe. Historians attempt to capture an essence of the truth only the Jewish Survivor, and there are far too few of those today who can still afford us more of the incomprehensible detail of an atrocity against them that we need to at least attempt to understand. It is, accusingly though, that this was not the end of the Jewish suffering but a continuance of the pain inflicted upon them for being Jews.

“..By this time ..Nazis had plenty of experience ..they knew how to process mass murder efficiently and quickly. We were deceived continually and ..deception at that point was that they would take us somewhere to work.” Lily Ebert.

For every year of Hitler’s rise to power he spoke endlessly of the penalty he would exact upon the Jewish People as Jews. His ascendency to that power brokerage ensured that he would deliver on what he professed would be The Final Solution of The Jewish Question. With the passing of 12 years of Hitler’s dictatorial insistence the final resolve delivered on The Holocaust a shame so ingested, the most vicious, unprecedented and uniquely unparalleled slaughter in all of history was inflicted upon 6,000,000 Jewish People, as Jews. Here in Poland, where Hitler’s teutons had moved heaven and earth to the eradicate the very evidence which Poland and the World had known of, of the escalating genocide, and for over 5 years of its conduct, time was being called on the catastrophe’s enactment.

“..As one who survived ..infernos of Auschwitz Birkenau ..Buchenwald eyes are still burning from of that nightmare ears ..still ringing with ..agonizing sounds of Men ..Women ..little children ..lured ..driven into ..gas chambers ..solely ..exclusively because they were Jewish.”  Mel Mermelstein.

What the World would then come to realise, which had always been true and yet hidden from most in the World, would enter into evidence the testimony of this enormous and flagrant move away from humanity. Though here at Birkenau the nazis were not quite finished with their resolve to complete Hitler’s effort for the destruction of all the Jews of Europe, and he had been counting on 11,293,300 to be annihilated, there was a further effort. On March 19th. Hitler’s forces occupied all of Hungary, he had dispatched an entire ss Army 13 days previously and with some 725,000 of Hungarian Jewry facing Hitler’s immediate and final resolve, no other consideration was given to what now confronted Hitler.

On April 5th. 1944 attempts are being made in an attempt of saving as many of Hungary’s Jews as possible, the basis of the Blood for Goods deal. It is clear though that the feint is blinding the Jewish attempt being sought and during the height of the effort some 84,000 Hungarian Jews are ‘resettled’ to Birkenau on a weekly basis. Here, with this as evidence there are many historians who cannot see in Hitler’s Weltanschauung, his World View, other than a dominance over a World he did often allude to. But, and here in Hungary, while Allied forces were pushing strategically toward Germany from the West, East and South of Hitler’s borders, the prize was and always had been the complete annihilation of the Jewish People.

“..From now on not answer by your name. ..felt like ..not ..human person anymore. ..shaved our heads ..I felt so ashamed. And also when they told us to undress and to shower ..they made us feel like ..animals. were walking around ..laughing and looking at us. And you take a young girl at that age ..who had never been exposed to a person a man ..and you stay there naked ..I wanted ..ground to open ..and I should go into it. We were packed like sardines. ..beds were bunks ..3 layers. I was on layer. If one person wanted to turn ..we all had to turn. They gave me ..little rations of hard ..dried up bread which was half mildew ..I could hardly eat it. ..a tin can of soup rotten and vile ..when I tasted it I couldn’t eat it. .. I just ate ..bread and drank a little water ..which was just rust running out from ..sink that they had over there. ..finally so hungry ..knew I had to eat ..soup vile. terrible. I never ate anything like that in my whole life. ..If I want to survive I have to eat ..soup. ..So I started eating ..soup. And I ..forcing ..soup down my throat ..big tears coming down my face. Eating ..crying ..eating ..crying ..this is how I was in Birkenau. Every day ..I woke up and I would find 1 ..2 people who wanted to end their lives and couldn’t take it anymore. ..throw themselves to ..electric wires ..make an end of it. ..every once in a blue moon ..couldn’t take it anymore. ..try to sneak out of ..barracks late at night and I would see to myself ..can’t believe ..stars ..looking down at us in this Hell ..this camp ..same stars ..shining at ..outside of ..other people ..looking at ..same stars ..they are free. do what they want to do. a good life. ..we are Hell ..human beings worse than animals. ..nobody is doing anything about it.  ..young as I was ..asking myself these questions. ..Where is ..Why isn’t doing anything about this ..I would question God ..Where is God ..How can He let us be killed like that ..after I cried myself out real good ..I would go back to ..barracks.” Lily Appelbaum.

On May 15th. 1944 the mass deportation of Hungary’s Jews toward Birkenau is underway and the speed and then swiftness of the destruction proves devastating for the last Great Jewish Community within Europe, as the ‘resettlement’ process begins the following day May 16th. 1944 and within Birkenau. It is clear that all that had been perfected for the destruction of the Jewish People at Birkenau was in readiness for this moment in Hitler’s final challenge and his dedicated resolve to act finally against the Jews. It cannot be denied that Hitler sought to pit his armed forces against those in the World, but his military view was subsidiary to that of his clamour for more Jewish blood.

Wednesday May 31st. 1944 “..destruction of all roads leading from Hungary to Poland.”   Rabbi Michael Dov Weissmandel.

By June 27th. 1944, with over 380,000 of Hungary’s Jews already sent to Birkenau, more than 250,000 of them have already been murdered. In the space of 5 weeks, 50,000 Hungarian Jews were processed through the extermination machinery of Birkenau on a weekly basis, at a working rate of more than 7,000 Jews Gassed, Cremated, Exterminated in any given day. It is essential to recognise here that, and though the vast majority of the 6,000,000 Jews of The Holocaust had already been Slaughtered, the bombing of the rail lines to Auschwitz and Birkenau might well have spared many of these 380,000 Hungarian Jews from arriving at the place of their annihilation.

Wednesday July 5th. 1944 “..Bomb ..railway lines from Hungary to Birkenau. Zero in on ..facilities of ..death camp.”  British Embassy Telegram Bern.

On July 7th. 1944 when the Hungarian government of General Horthy halts the Jewish deportations, some 438,000 Hungarian Jews have already been murdered Birkenau. However on July 8th. 1944 a further 50,000 more Hungarian Jews are transported toward Birkenau in a week long action and a further move is made to ensure 14,491 more Hungarian Jews are then transported to Birkenau. Such was the crescendo of killing, the logistical structure to enable this, that no other consideration, political or militarily was being considered as a priority as seen by Hitler and his killing kommando operating in Hungary expelling Jews toward extinction.

Saturday July 8th. 1944 “..Our transport was among ..last ones ..from Hungary July 8th. 1944 ..and due to ..unusual number of arrivals ..SS were forced to change their customary procedures. ..gas chambers ..crematoria could not accommodate everyone judged unfit for work 100’s were piled along ..railroad tracks to be immolated. ..due to ..heartless haste ..clothed in rags ..marked with ..painted red cross ..hardly any food or water ..also due to this haste ..escaped tattooing.”  Judith Magyar Isaacson.

On July 9th. 1944 and with the final mass transport of 14,491 Hungarian Jews to Birkenau arriving Hitler’s planned elimination of the Jews of Europe was all but accomplished. What we contest in discovering all those who make up the atrocity that is 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews of Europe, are their names lost to History. What we also have in this final push, and it is a devastating aktion as the walls of Hitler’s 1,000 Reich were crumbling around him, Hungary would be bled dry of more Jews than could be imagined. In total, some 502,491 of Hungary’s Jews were transported in just 147 Trains with different accumulations of carriage’s, but in just over a 55 day period,  over 9,000 of Hungary’s Jews were Murdered on any of those given days.

“..Birkenau existed to suffocate hope ..annihilate logic ..provoke madness and death.”  Giuliana Tedeschi.

In total 559,000 Hungarian Jews were fed through the destructive processes of The Holocaust, and enduring legacy of what History must untangle from what might have saved them from what did not save them. On November 26th. 1944, as orders are given for the destruction of the Birkenau Krematoria preparations commence to conceal further the evidence of what is known of the Genocide in Poland and the rest of the World. The truth of what this particular Death Camp at Birkenau, and the other 5 Death Camps that had been established within Poland had managed and accomplished was an open secret. The scope for the denial of this fact has been confronted by the truth which proves essential in holding the integrity of all History to account.

“..Up to January 18th. 1945 ..a total of about 5,000,000 were burned in ..crematories of Oswiecim and Birkenau. ..more than 3,000,000 were Jews poisoned by gas or ..victims of epidemics.” Seweryna Szmaglewska.”

On January 18th. 1945 as the Auschwitz Camp itself is being abandoned, for the Jewish People, these remnant of the over 1,100,000 Slaughtered Jews of Birkenau, they were not clear of danger. Together with those Jews holding up in Auschwitz and inextricably, the still living Jews of Birkenau, would all be force marched West and away from the Russian forces wo were closing in on the site. Now begins a Death March beyond others with some 66,000 Auschwitz and Birkenau Survivors steadily moving toward a rail junction at Wodzislaw. Tragically for some 16,000 of these Jews they died or were Mordred along the way.

“..Our family was sent to Auschwitz. ..My sister and I ..sent to one side mother little brother to ..other. all happened so fast ..I looked around ..they were already gone. To Birkenau. ..where gas chambers where. My little brother was 15.”  Fela Drybus.

When, on January 20th. 1945 the ss had dynamited the remaining Krematoria in Birkenau, and with this effort a tentative step had been taken to disguise further the truth, the Jews could rebuild upon a hope they had long held. But, and while it was a wish that all the evidence of the atrocity would be buried alongside the memory of the destruction of 1,100,00 Jews, the memory poured forth from the survivor was not complimentary of those who could have saved more of them. As we know, that effort to secrete the evidence of this most shameful episode in human evolution would fail as those who Survived such a murderous experience have delivered their evidence to us.

“..This is where they load freight for Birkenau for of ..and People for ..gas chambers.” Tadeusz Borowski.

It is a shocking testimony to the inhumanity that was to be witnessed by more than 6,000,000 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children that such places as Auschwitz and Birkenau were constructed. In that it is a cumulative accusation of how debased the human being can be and how hope can then become a beacon, a lucky talisman which can deliver back to humanity some of those Jews never supposed to recover from their death sentence. As liberation for the Jews, and others, came at Auschwitz on January 27th. 1945, Russian forces of the 322nd Rifle Division were a welcome sight as this was only a beginning of the Survival for some of the Jews for whom Hitler had not Murdered.

“..Dear finder of these notes ..I have one request of you ..which is fact ..practical objective for my writing ..that my days of Hell ..that my hopeless tomorrow will find a purpose in ..future. I am transmitting only a part of what happened in ..Birkenau ..Auschwitz Hell. You will realize what reality looked like. ..From all this you will have a picture of how our people perished.”  Zalman Gradowski.

That deception of Survival however, which continued for the Survivor as they emerged into a flux of hate and disbelief that any Jew had or could have survived, would manage to kill further the Jews in their weakened and hopeful state. As we look to the period in the hope that any remaining Jewish survivors now liberated, along with many non-Jews, could return to their former lives, we know that was not to be so. While there are estimates as high as 2,500,000 Jews to 4,000,000 Jews having been murdered at Auschwitz and Birkenau, we live with the threat to civilisation that such inhumanity presents to us.

“..What I put down on paper ..must be perfect straight away.” Etty Hillesum.

We know too that within Poland and many other Country’s the Jewish survivor was not welcomed back to their homes, as they had already been taken from them and neighbours moved themselves in. So today we celebrate the lives of those we have lost, and those who have Survived against all the odds that was aimed to confront them. I am certain here that this is no celebration though, as how can there be when 6,000,000 Jews have been forced to miss what we might choose to celebrate on their behalf. There are times when in the language of literature, we cannot come to an adequate source of words that deal with such an awful  tragedy that is The Holocaust without seemingly lessening is somehow. But we best endeavour in a way that ensures Always to Remember, Never to Forget.

“..My Israel. ..Coming from a Europe that historically had cast out most Jews in certain roles ..denying them others. I saw for ..first time free Jews ..I was very proud. Finally ..we were like other People ..not just a minority. ..This was my Country ..I vowed ..I would do everything preserve it for ..Jewish People.  How often had I had to knuckle under in Europe often was I reviled because of my Jewishness. Holding my head high ..I ..swore never again to bow down to anyone.” Ruth Elias.


As I step into the position of Acting and Deputy Chairman of the Yad Vashem Directorate, I fathom the weight of this role not only for Yad Vashem, but also beyond. I am honored to take the reins of Yad Vashem at this critical time and feel privileged to be part of such an esteemed institution. I wish to take this opportunity to introduce myself, with some background into my close personal connection with the history of the Shoah.

I was born on 27 January 1955, which was the 10th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz by the Soviet Red Army. My late father, David, who lost his leg fighting the Nazis, viewed my birth as a victory of life. For him, I was living, irrefutable proof of the enduring survival of the Jewish people and the establishment of its state from out of the ashes of the Shoah.

My birthdays, as celebrated by my parents, were loaded with meaning. On the one hand, my mother would bake me a birthday cake decorated with colorful candles; on the other, we lit memorial candles. The joy of the day was interspersed with sad wartime accounts and my father’s battlefield legacy, which he insisted on recounting in minute detail, on the great day of liberation that was also my birthday. How at 9:00 AM the first soldier from the patrol unit of the Red Army’s Infantry Division reached the gates of Auschwitz, a half hour before the entry of the entire Division, and how they suffered heavy losses from the retreating German forces. I knew the entire tale of the battle by heart; I swallowed every word and adulated my father.

My historic date of birth, my complex birthday celebrations and my father’s battle stories instilled in me at an early age a sense of mission, a personal moral obligation to remember the Holocaust and to tell others about it. Since then, throughout my public service career, I have been accompanied by the spirit of my amputee father and the imperative of my mission, as indicated by my birthdate and encapsulated in two words: Never again.

Fifteen years ago, something changed in this world. The United Nations designated 27 January, the day in 1945 that Auschwitz was liberated, as the International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust. A day on which the entire world should unite in commemoration of the Shoah, to remember, to study and to commit to the fight against antisemitism and hate crimes. This designation does not detract from the power of the original anniversary, but rather has provided it with a global platform which actually reinforces the imperative of Holocaust remembrance.

In my previous position as Director General of the Knesset, I took upon myself to organize our Parliament’s largest-ever delegation to Poland. We traveled 60 Knesset Members, Cabinet Ministers and senior parliamentary officials – on a journey of life, to declare “We, citizens of the vigorously empowered Jewish State, are here to stand above the valley of slaughter and death.” During that journey in Auschwitz-Birkenau, I marked my 60th birthday. Facing the remnants of the smoking furnaces, in front of the survivors – human embers that emerged from the very fires of death which they had confronted, I stood with my head bowed and with great pride to represent our people, who rose from the inferno and established a glorious State.

When, approximately one month ago, it was suggested that I take on the position of Acting and Deputy Chairman of Yad Vashem, the sanctuary of generations-long memory, faith and hope, I perceived it as yet another dimension of the mission that was placed upon me on the day of my birth. With reverence, I have accepted this position, which is particularly challenging this year, during which all of humanity is grappling with the daunting, complex and burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. Unfortunately, it has also been a year during which Yad Vashem has generally been closed to visitors and may not host large commemorative events with survivors, heads of state and dignitaries, other than virtual ones.

It is precisely at this time, a year devoid of trips to Poland, conferences and large-scale ceremonies, that we are presented with an opportunity to make Holocaust remembrance more accessible to the young TikTok generation across the globe. According to surveys, many of them do not know nearly enough about Auschwitz and its horrors. Through digital media platforms, social networks and Zoom, International Holocaust Remembrance Day must and can be present in the world’s consciousness. It is important that social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter post messages of remembrance, and world leaders must commit to never again permit genocide.

On this day, 27 January 2021, as our world order is threatened by an inhuman virus, hopefully now in early stages of containment, we must recall and call out against antisemitism – the cruelest epidemic of hatred that human beings have ever perpetrated. It is a plague which led to the extermination of a third of the entire Jewish people. Even after our national rebirth, antisemitism continues to raise its ugly head, and we are witness to its horrible manifestations, even the preposterous blaming of Jews for the outbreak of COVID-19.

I pledge on behalf of the second generation of Holocaust survivors and in the name of future generations that we will do everything in our power to fortify Israel and to pass on to our children and grandchildren, here and in the Jewish world, a torch of remembrance and heroism that can never be extinguished.

As I enter my new role at this juncture, I am filled with a sense of responsibility towards Yad Vashem, towards the entire Jewish people and towards our global society to perpetuate Yad Vashem’s mission. In doing so, I am strengthened by the record of remarkable leadership and the enduring legacy forged by Chairman Avner Shalev. Together with you, Yad Vashem’s loyal partners and supporters, I am committed to enhancing Yad Vashem’s ability to foster Jewish continuity worldwide and to ensure that Holocaust remembrance forever inspires the Jewish people and humankind.  

Warm regards, Ronen.

A Moment in The Holocaust

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, December 23, 2020 20:47:05

“..All ..people buried ..had been in ..ghetto ..seemed to come to life. ..cemetery wall had been destroyed break down ..division between ..two worlds of life and death. ..walked back through ..ruins of ..ghetto. My footprints ..snow ..they were ..only ones.”  Michael Zylberberg.

Act I

The Hitler letter written to Herr Gemlich in 1919.

Act II

A conversation between Hitler and the journalist Josef Hell in 1922.


Hitler gains power in 1932

Act IV

Hitler’s Racist Nuremberg Laws in 1935 are passed defining the biological detail for Jews as a race.

Act V

Hitler recognises an indifferent World will not move to assist the Jews in 1938.

Act VI

Hitler escalates his hatred in 1938 with Death and Destruction.


Hitler in 1938 hands Goering charge of die Endlosung der Judenfrage, The Final Solution of The Jewish Question.


Hitler’s World War in 1939 sets the precedent murderous tempo of his operation of The Final Solution into the field.

Act IX

Hitler in 1941 has brought to bear all that he prophesised for the Jewish People and their eradication in an annihilation. with the killing operation at the Chelmno Death Camp, the first of his 6 Death Camps in Poland 

Act X

Hitler in 1945, with all that he had sought now crumbling around him, a lasting legacy of hatred for the Jewish People endures.

“..That was mere foreplay. Where they have burned books  ..they will end in burning human beings.” (Das war Vorspiel nur. Dort, wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen.) Heinrich Heine.

Back in 1821 it could never have been imagined that such would be the state of any cultured civilisation that Books would be burned on the streets of Germany in the 20th. Century. Less comprehensible would be Heinrich Heine’s assertion that the criteria that would be established on the Unter den Linden and then across so many campus’s of Germany with the burning of Books, that this could eventually lead to the Annihilation of the Jewish People. While this Book burning would clearly lead to Auschwitz, Chelmno, Belzec, Birkenau, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, where Jewish bodies were cremated in a bloody purge, the incremental stages were delivered by Hitler. The aftermath however, has demanded of history an understanding of how 6,000,000 Jews of Europe could have been laid to waste.

“..So many times I have tried to write but somehow hands could never find ..strength.  .who knows whether there will be a single witness left of this disaster.” Rachel Auerbach.

Of course the World simply cannot allow for a part of History to admonish any single one of the 6,000,000 Jews whose core belief in the culture of civilisation betrayed them. While the World stood idly by, 6,000,000 People were submitted to the most outrageous of crimes imaginable, and before they were singularly selected for extermination, simply because they were Jews, they witnessed the disintegration of civilisation. Of course, as Rachel Auerbach offers, and so many others afforded us, what we now have as a less entrenched view, is our need for the very deep rooted essential preservation of their Jewish past. For the sake of the World entire, and for its future to mend, that resolve is much more eminent than Hitler clearly expected would be the outcome after The Final Solution.

“..You may also wonder why 8,000 people did not fight ..Nazi’s. But ..100 men ..with machine guns are more powerful than an unarmed crowd. ..young ones would have tried to escape ..but refused to abandon their parents ..they knew it would mean ..death of ..older people ..and how was it possible to leave behind ..helpless little brothers ..sisters without support.”  Aizik Rottenberg.

While it is difficult, in terms of what the Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews must present to  human civilisation, in any meaningful way of an understanding of the desolation this caused, incredulity reigns. The idea that there can be any resurrection of anything approaching positivity however, is always evidenced in the memory brought forth by those who Survived the evil they encountered. In terms of Survivors, and there is an emergence of what might have been so lost of Jewish Culture and Literary greatness, we have examples of great heroism mixed and fused to this effort. The delivery of so much that is evidential, and by so many who ensured that the presentation out of the crucible of shocking brutality, gives us more than a modicum of what informs us of what Jewish antecedence remains for those willing to know. 

“..After my Mother was Murdered ..I was deported together with my Father to Transnistria. We have spent many weeks on a penal trek of sorts. For days we have been slogging along roads deep in mud ..a lengthy convoy surrounded by Romanian and Ukrainian soldiers who flog and shoot at us. Father holds my hand tight feet no longer touch ..ground. ..sound of ..water slices at my legs and my hips. It’s dark all around ..apart from Father’s hand I don’t feel a thing. Truth to tell ..I don’t feel his hand either ..since my hand is already partly numb. If I move just a little I’ll surely drown. Even Father won’t be able to pull me out. Lots of Children have already drowned this way. I fall asleep ..still clutching his hand. But not for long. While the sky is still dark ..soldiers light up ..convoy with sniping and gunfire. Father holds my hand and tugs me. ..mud is deep and I can’t feel ..bottom. I’m still half asleep and tremendously afraid. It hurts. I call out. Father hears my call and answers at once.” Aharon Appelfeld.

These are my words here, but given the emergence of what Oyneg Shabes presents and what YIVO brought forth from the desolation of The Holocaust, what we have is a further continuance of Hitler’s abject failure. Of course that end result, and though acutely measured in Human terms whose margins extend 6,000,000 fold, there is a literary achievement that is promoted by so many Jews in these direst times. That this is a recorded triumph we have to look to both Yitskhak Leib Peretz in Vilna and Emanuel Ringelblum in Warsaw, for what has been secured for posterity. Their effort is an abundance of Testimony, and while it falls short of the fuller manifestation of what these Jewish People could have delivered, should all these 6,000,000 Jews have Survived speaks volumes for what has emerged.

“..Without Hebrew ..folk has no past. Without Yiddish we have no folk.” Yitskhak Leib Peretz.

In such words as Peretz delivers, we are lead on a charge toward gathering Chronicles, Letters, Diaries, Words and observations of a vanquished Jewish daily life that has all but vanished. Here, I am reminded that Raul Hilberg signified that the entirety of The Holocaust belongs to the presence of Hitler in the 20th. Century, and I do not contest that very truth. It is evident to me that every word, with each syllable of hatred directed against the Jewish People, all was fostered by Hitler and engineered and hatefully constructed by Hitler. Also, and along with all the evidences of words of what was thought destroyed, by a homicidal intention created in Hitler’s fetid mind, for some of what emerged and might still re-emerge, all confronts Hitler’s clear intention for the dismissal and suppression of all Jewish antecedence.

“..first and foremost perpetrator was Adolf Hitler. ..without him it would have been inconceivable.” Raul Hilberg.

Of course the confluence and convergence of events within The Holocaust ensures there is not a Day, Date, Month nor Moment that will not be presented. What this manages, in binding Hitler to the greatest Catastrophe to strike and effect all of Human Civilisation, is an accusation which some in history cheapen with ameliorating Hitler’s obvious hatred for the Jewish People. During the period of the very catastrophe that will be presented there are sways and emergences of tacit agreement by World powers with what was focused upon those Jews being abused and finally destroyed. While this certainty is being contended by those who seek to expunge human guilt from the atrocity it sought not to prevent, I restate their position with an accusation that will not be removed by demand as will Hitler’s resolve.

“..I know. ..never in ..history of mankind ..never anywhere in ..realm of human relations did anything occur to compare with what was inflicted on ..Jewish population of Poland.” Jan Karski.

What then comes together, to broaden out the vista of all measures raged against the Jewish People of Europe is the most panoramic view of the destruction of a People. While this was borne to fruition due to a Jewish antecedence that has persisted, we neither neglect nor doubt that many other’s succumbed to the wildness of Hitler’s hatreds. But, and seemingly so, the very assault ranged and then raged upon the integrity of 6,000,000 Jewish lives is to remain so overwhelming, it is The Holocaust. That this precedent is hardly perceived as a consequence to history, we simply install the truths linking Hitler to only the Jews as his eventual victims in order to do so. In stages from Act I to Act X, and from his failed suicide and eventual death at the hands of his SS, we recognise an all consuming bitter hatred that consumed Hitler’s every waking moment.

“..Once I really am in power first ..foremost task will be ..annihilation of ..Jews. As soon as I have ..power to do so ..I will have gallows built in rows ..Marienplatz in Munich many as traffic allows. ..Jews will be hanged indiscriminately ..they will remain hanging until they stink ..they will hang there as long as ..principles of hygiene permit. As soon as they have been untied batch will be strung up ..and so on down ..line ..until ..last Jew in Munich has been exterminated. Other cities will follow suit ..precisely in this fashion ..until all Germany has been ..cleansed of Jews.” Adolf Hitler.

How that hatred then emerges, and for the purposes of accuracy, I will list such events that fully reflect the appalling atrocity of Hitler that goes on to meet genocidally with the Jews of Europe. In that essential to gather this evidence of Hitler’s fuller place in The Holocaust, we recognise the approaching period of murderous intent which must commence with Hitler’s rise to power. Hitler’s grasp upon a dictatorship grown out of his Chancellorship and until he was finally confirmed dead as Fuhrer, Hitler set about the destruction of as many Jews as were presented to him. While there are two significant dates prior to this however, when Hitler clearly presents to the World his expressed and vocal hatred, not only is his intention to deal a deadly blow to the Jewish presence within Europe odious, it is obvious.

“..I walk in Auschwitz ..tracks of ..abandoned shoes ..of ..extracted teeth ..of ..cut off hair ..of ..misplaced baggage in order to find ..last moments of my family ..The Schneider Family.” Yossi Sarid.

Hitler though would establish a machinery of destruction, and of such inordinate brutality, that the World had to come up with suitable terms to recognise the uniquely unprecedented nature of it. Of course, the invention of Auschwitz, Birkenau, the Death Camp system and The Holocaust term itself is brought to focus to more define what the emergence of The Final Solution of The Jewish Question would mean. In a series of vocal, written and detailed 10 Acts, as I have defined them, Hitler will deliver from the words of his hatred for the Jewish People toward their isolation from the World and their condemnation from life itself.

Firstly, let us turn to the letter Hitler wrote to Herr Gemlich in 1919 as Act I, which proved Hitler’s sheer hatred for the Jewish People had been confirmed.

“..Herr Gemlich ..deduction antisemitism based on purely emotional grounds will find its ultimate expression in ..form of ..pogrom. ..antisemitism based on reason ..must lead to systematic legal combating and elimination of ..privileges of ..Jews. ..ultimate objective ..irrevocable removal of ..Jews in general.” Adolf Hitler.

Here too, Hitler had given notice to those who might not yet prove concerned that he would always be a leader with a hatred for the Jewish People, and which was way beyond all of his other hatreds, that hatred would direct him. Then with this partial conversation Hitler had with the journalist Josef Hell in 1922, Act II is availing itself to us, and clearly this expands the rhetoric of hatred into a programme of design which will deliver the Jews to the gallows along the Marienplatz in Munich. Then, when in 1931 The Munich Post picked up on what appeared to be a definite resolve to confronting the civilised World with the Jewish Question, endlosung became a word which pronounced a deadlier fate for all the Jews in Germany than had been considered.

“..Once I really am in power first and foremost task will be ..annihilation of ..Jews. As soon as I have ..power to do so ..I will have gallows built in rows ..Marienplatz in Munich.” Adolf Hitler.

But clearly, history demands that though All Jews Were Victims, not all victims were Jews and as such, many other’s suffered the consequences of Hitler’s rage. For the Jewish People though, not only was Hitler’s hatred just for these resulting 6,000,000 Murdered Jews, when the time was ripe and it came along, there would be a confrontation with the Jews of all of Europe and eventually with the entirety of World Jewry. When the study of the period looks for those who might have stood taller, who refused to bend to the dictat of Hitler’s Judeocide, we might well have been counting far more decent Germans than are to be recognised. So we are arriving at the gates of a powerful enactment that would blight civilisations passage through time and cast a darker shadow over History than any event has produced in all of time.

“..If there were only one decent German ..then he should be cherished despite that whole barbaric gang ..and because of that one decent German it is wrong to pour hatred over an entire people.” Etty Hillesum.


The Formative period of Hitler’s rise toward power recognises the connivance of his methods and it is written with a tendency to lie his way through to ultimate power. Here we have the establishment of Act III as Hitler assumes the power necessary to deliver his written hatred and commits it toward an orchestrated endeavour at annihilating all the Jews he could.

“..I can remember early as 1932 ..Storm Troopers came marching by singing when Jewish blood splatters from ..knife.” Otto Frank.

Thursday February 25th. 1932 “..Now I have them in my pocket! They have recognised me as a partner in their negotiations.” Adolf Hitler.


“..When in ..early days of 1933 ..first civil servant wrote ..first definition of non-Aryan ..fate of European Jewry was sealed.”  Raul Hilberg.

On January 29th. a pastoral letter of Austrian Bishop Johannes Gfollner of Linz states that it is the duty of all Catholics to adopt a ‘moral form of anti-Semitism,’ while Bishop von Preysing suggested Hitler was a deep contaminant in the life of the German people.

Sunday January 29th. 1933 “..we have fallen into ..hands of criminals and fools.”  Bishop Konrad von Preysing.

Saturday April 1st. 1933 “..concerned with questions about Catholic schools ..organizations and sterilization which are more important for ..Church in Germany than ..Jews ..Jews can help themselves ..why should ..Jews expect help from ..Church.”  Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber.

On April 26th. Hitler meets with the Bishop of Osnabruck, Wilhelm Berning and Monsignor Steinmann of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany. Hitler explains that his was only the continuance of what the Church’s own 1,900 year policy toward the Jews had been. Hitler reminds the Church that it was they who had regarded the Jewish People as dangerous and it was the church which had forced them into ghettos and away from Christian areas. The Church describes this meeting as ‘cordial and to the point.’

Wednesday April 26th. 1933 “..Berlin’s nationalist student body will begin making ceremonial holocausts of such literary works as do not measure up to their ideals of the German spirit.”  New York Times.


Wednesday May 2nd. 1934 “..rise of Hitler in Germany ..caused by ..preponderance of Jews in ..German government ..universities lawyers physicians bankers ..complete domination of all exchanges commerce ..moving picture industry.” Louis T. McFadden.

On August 2nd. when President Paul von Hindenburg dies, Hitler declares himself Fuhrer of the German State whilst combining both Offices of the President and Chancellor. Hitler is now Commander-in-Chief of Germany’s Armed Forces and members of the Armed Forces take an oath of personal and total allegiance to Hitler and on the following day, August 3rd. Hitler now assumes total power.


“..Yiddish itself has been recognised as a territory anarchic republic ..its capital ..Vilna and YIVO is ..scholarly academy of ..territory of Yiddish.” Noyekh Prilutski.

Unknown to Noyekh Prilutski in 1935, there was no boundary established by a civilisations culture that could withstand the barbarism Hitler had settled upon. Such was the devastation Hitler unleashed, the acculturation to be gained 6,000,000 times over was decimated in an annihilatory way. This effort of territorial Yiddishness, and which was endorsed by the Vilna YIVO Institute, would later predict the need for the effort of Emanuel Ringelblum’s Oyneg Shabes in Warsaw.

On May 12th. as the Polish dictator Jozef Pilsudski dies anti-Jewish measures now escalate within Poland and its government, and most Polish political parties, will call for discrimination, economic boycott, expulsion, and physical violence against their Jews. Meanwhile, the Polish Catholic Church, most of its priests, the Catholic press and schools will sanction discrimination and or acts of violence against their own Jewish Community and following on from this, on June 9th. there are anti-Jewish riots orchestrated in Grodno, Poland.

Friday August 16th. 1935  “..solution of ..Jewish question of ..Fuhrer ..not ..individuals.” Heinrich Himmler. 

On August 25th.  Pastor Martin Niemoeller an anti-Nazi minister, preaches that the Jews are ‘The Christ Killers’ and their history is both:-

Sunday August 25th. 1935 “..dark and sinister and under a curse for they brought ..Christ of God to ..cross but are also responsibility for ..blood of all ..righteous men who were ever murdered.”    Martin Niemoeller.

On September 15th., and as the Racist Nuremberg Laws are passed, Act IV prevails itself in defining all that Jews are and as Jews they are now legislated against. This is to be fully affirmed by the Jewish Grandparents religious persuasion and are now biologically confirmed as Jews by ‘race.’ The National Citizens Law now strips away Citizenship from its Jews as the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour is adopted. Marriage and extra Marital relations between Jews and ‘aryans’ is forbidden and Jewish Employers and Jewish Householders cannot employ German Women under the age of 45.

Friday November 8th. 1935 “..Like so many Nazi catchwords… “May Jewry perish!” – was meant literally and will be literally brought to pass if the fanatics have their way.” The Times of London.

On November 15th. the German Churches supply the Nazi party with the Baptismal details of their congregants and this is recognisable as a collaborative effort to identify the Jewish Community.


On February 29th. Cardinal August Hlond, head of Catholic Church in Poland, issues his ‘pastoral letter’, discriminating against the Jewish People. Then, during March, there are anti-Jewish pogroms across Poland with the Polish Cardinal  speaking out against Jewish “usury, fraud, and white slavery.”

Sunday October 11th. 1936 “..Jews are ulcers in ..Polish body.”  The Polish Catholic News.


On April 24th. Pastor Martin Niemoeller preaches that Jesus being born a Jew was God’s mistake and on June 16th., in a speech to the Polish senate General Lucjan Zieligowski declares:

Wednesday June 16th. 1937 “..there is no place in Poland for ..Jews.” General Lucjan Zieligowski.

On July 1st. Pastor Martin Niemoeller, an antisemitic minister of the church is arrested over his opposition to Hitler.

“..First they came for the Communists

And I did not speak out

Because I was not a Communist

First they came for the Socialist

And I did not speak out

Because I was not a Socialist

First they came for the trade unionists

And I did not speak out

Because I was not a trade unionist

First they came for the Jews

And I did not speak out

Because I was not a Jew

Then they came for me

And there was no one left

To speak out for me.” Pastor Martin Niemoller.

On July 8th. Werner Otto von Hentig of the German Foreign Office issues a memorandum to his superior, Ernst von Weizsaker, suggesting that poorer Jews should be expelled ahead of richer Jews in order to extort a greater levy from Germany’s more prosperous Jews! Then, on December 14th. the first issue of The Jewish Question ‘Die Judenfrage’ is published in Germany, edited by Georg Haller and as Poland investigates the possibility of deporting resident Jews to Madagascar, ‘The Madagascar Plan’ is first muted.


Friday January 21st. 1938 “..Jews must leave Romania is for to find a residence for’s Jews ‘Madagascar seems a suitable spot’.” Alexander Cuza.

On March 31st. the Polish government threatens to revoke the citizenship of its Polish Jews residing in Germany and on April 15th., in Dabrowa Tarnowska, Poland, there is a pogrom which sees many Jews killed and on April 29th. in Vilna, Poland a further pogrom sees more Jews being killed. What emerged from the Evian Conference held between July 6th. and July 15th. July, and from the mouth of the Australia delegate on Refugees Thomas Walter White:

“ we have real racial problem ..we are not desirous of importing one.” Thomas Walter White.

On July 6th. A Refugee Conference called for by President Roosevelt is convened at Evian-les-Bains, France, this becomes Act V, in what Hitler realises a World’s unwillingness to intercede on behalf od European Jewry. As 29 of the 33 Nations invited turn up to meet and discuss the growing crisis for Jews under Hitler’s yoke, the desire to make a concerted effort is neglected! As if the Jews don’t feel isolated enough, or even abandoned completely, Hitler has captured the mood of the World to their predicament. This then is reflected in a News Paper article the day before the Evian Conference ends.

Thursday July 14th.1938 “..Jews for Sale at a Bargain price. Who Wants Them? No One!” German Newspaper Reichswart.

When, on July 15th. the Evian Conference ends, and while none of those present could resolve the major issue, to admit large numbers of Jewish refugees into safe keeping, the Jews of Germany and Austria are abandoned. Increasingly facing such weight of severe abuse, this all combines with their now perceived further isolation to suggest to them that they are fully abandonment.

Friday July 15th. 1938 “..delegates take ..floor to say ..We feel sorry for ..refugees and potential refugees but.” The Washington Post

On August 8th. the use of Gassing Vans is utilised to murder inmates of asylums and disablement centres and on September 27th. Dr. Heinrich Rothmund, the Swiss Chief of Police, who seeks to stem the flood of Jewish refugees to Switzerland, meets with Werner Best of the Gestapo and Gustav Roediger of the German Foreign Office to sign the Red letter ‘J’ decree. Meanwhile, on October 6th., the Polish Government revokes all passports of its Jewish Citizens who have been resident outside of Poland for over 5 years. This culminates soon after when, on October 28th., as Germany expels 17,000 Polish Jews to Poland’s border, 8,000 Jews are left stranded at Zbaszyn, neither admitted by Poland and not allowed back into Germany, they are stateless.

Saturday October 29th. 1938 ” ..shall ..take ..Jewish Question toward its total solution. elimination.” das Schwarze Korps.

On November 7th. when Herschel Grynszpan shoots the German Embassy official, Ernst vom Rath, over treatment of his Family’s removal to Zbaszyn, a Pogrom is unleashed which should leave no Western nation with any doubt other than that the Jewish People are under direct threat of all manner of a punitive resolve from Hitler.

Wednesday November 9th. 1938 “..I remember sort of being yanked out of our flat and being ordered to march to in in and there we were separated ..Men ..Women ..Children ..stood there in ..bitter cold November night wearing short trousers.”  Bernd Koschland.

For the young Bernd Koschland, who is a 7 year old Jewish Boy from Fuerth, near Nuremberg, recalling at the time that what progressed on that night of November 9th., is an escalation of Hitler’s hatred for all of Judaism. With a Hitler sponsored attack upon the Jews of all of Germany, known as Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass, will be orchestrated throughout Germany, Austria and the Sudetenland.

Thursday November 10th. 1938. “..we know what happened yesterday. We do not know what tomorrow holds. However ..we have experienced what happened today. Outside ..synagogue burns. That is also a house of God.”   Father Bernhard Lichtenberg.

Here, Act VI, is played out which brings both Death and Destruction to Jewish existence, while recognising a World’s indifference to the Jewish situation, Hitler will act with impunity. Wherever Hitler will meet with a Jewish presence, the disintegration of Jewish existence will be restricted, strangled and eviscerated. This newer outrage, which will see some 267 synagogues ransacked and destroyed, 7,500 Jewish Shops looted, over 50,000 Jews removed to Concentration Camps at Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen and over 240 Jews Murdered as Hitler now endorses Madagascar Plan.

Friday November 11th. 1938 “..I was in Berlin at that time and saw some pretty revolting sights ..destruction of Jewish shops ..Jews being arrested and led away ..police standing by while ..gangs destroyed ..shops ..even groups of well dressed women cheering. Maybe those women had a hangover next morning they were intoxicated all right when this was taking place. I found it ..utterly revolting. In fact to a German journalist who saw me on that day and asked me what I was doing there ..I remember I just said very coldly ..I’m studying German culture.”  Hugh Greene. (Daily Telegraph)

Following on from this Hitler sponsored assault, the following day on November 12th. Goering convenes a Conference Ordering the elimination of Jews from German economic life. Here he discusses the 1 Billion Reichsmarks fine to be applied to German Jews for the cost of ‘Kristallnacht’. Goering also toys with idea of removing Heydrich and the Gestapo from the Jewish ‘evacuation’ cum ’emigration’ programme, the Madagaskar Plan. German Insurer’s pay out a total of 10 million Reichmarks to the Reich as Reinhard Heydrich proposes the ‘Jewish Badge.’ But Hitler does not wish to see Jews so marked just yet, though this is a precursor to their being expelled from all of German society. Heydrich proposes a German equivalent of Eichmann’s Vienna model for the expulsion of Jews from Germany and Goebbels urges Jews are kept from public parks and are not allowed attend concerts, cultural events or movies. Heydrich admits that if Jews are to starve, they should be allowed to.

Saturday November 12th. 1938 “..We want only one thing loves ..Jews enough to rid us of them all.”  Joseph Goebbels.

On November 16th. the Chief Rabbi of Palestine, Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog, sent a telegram to the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire, Meir Berlin over the proposed position which would lead directly from the recent events surrounding ‘Kristallnacht’.

Wednesday November 16th. 1938 “.. Propose You proclaim Jewish day of Mourning for Holocaust Synagogues, Germany.”  Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog.

On December 14th. 1938 Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering is given charge of die Endlosung der Judenfrage, ‘The Final Solution of The Jewish Question’, and here we arrive at Act VII, and any euphemism now employed will never hide from those seeking the truth, this very intention of Hitler’s resolve. However, we clearly cannot rely solely upon this continuing formation of words to establish the exact date at which Hitler arrived at the overall kill policy. It is clear though, that with the coming invasion of Poland on September 1st. 1939, that War was merely a staging post upon that already traversed ground toward the annihilation process.

Wednesday December 14th. 1938 “..destruction of Poland is in ..foreground ..aim is ..elimination of living forces ..not ..arrival at a certain line. I shall give a propagandist cause for starting ..war ..never mind if it is plausible or not. ..victor will not be asked later on whether he told ..truth or not.” Adolf Hitler.


At the beginning of 1939 Jewish Refugees to Canada were prohibited by the uterance of an immigration official on how many Jews could be allowed in:

“..None is too many.”

Sunday January 15th. 1939 “..Church ..always regarded living side by side with Jews long as they remain Jews ..dangerous to ..tranquillity of Christian people. ..for this reason ..intended to brake ..limit ..action ..influence of ..Jews ..isolating Jews.”  Bishop Giovanni Cazzani.

Monday January 30th. 1939 “..shameful spectacle to see how ..whole democratic world is oozing sympathy for ..poor ..tormented Jewish people ..but remains hard hearted and obdurate when it comes to helping them. ..result of a war will be ..annihilation of ..Jewish race in Europe.” Adolf Hitler.

On May 15th. the St. Louis passenger liner leaves Hamburg for Cuba, with 934 Jewish refugees aboard and they have entry permits to both Cuba and the US. When, on May 17th. Britain’s, MacDonald White Paper, sets seal on Jewish immigration of 50,000 into Palestine for coming 5 years, there seems a concerted effort to keep European Jewry from escape. On June 17th. the St. Louis docks in Antwerp where Britain takes 287 Jewish passengers, France takes 224 Jewish passengers, Belgium takes 214 Jewish passengers and Holland takes 181 Jewish passengers. Only 6 Jewish passengers managed to disembark in Cuba.

Sunday July 30th. 1939 “..No doubt Jews are not ..lovable people not care about them myself. ..not sufficient to explain ..pogrom.” Neville Chamberlain.

On August 22nd. Hitler is nothing but specific in the detail of what he will achieve and his speech on Living Space, with the amount of ‘Lebensraum’ expected and with his Pact of Steel intact, he now urges his Wehrmacht Generals toward a War of total eradication of the Jews in Poland.

Tuesday August 22nd. 1939 “..Our strength is our quickness and our brutality. Genghis Khan had millions of women ..children hunted down ..killed ..deliberately. ..What ..Western European civilization alleges about me ..does not matter. I have given ..order ..and will have everyone shot who utters but one word of criticism ..aim of this war does not consist in reaching certain geographical lines ..but in ..enemies’ physical elimination. ..for ..time being only in ..East ..I put ready my Death’s Head units ..with ..order to kill without pity or mercy all Men ..Women ..Children. Only thus will we gain space that we need. Who still talks nowadays of extermination of ..Armenians.”  Adolf Hitler.

On August 26th. the Times Literary Supplement alighted the World to Hitler’s intention of an impending Holocaust for its Jews.

On September 1st. Germany invades Poland and World War II begins and Goering, appointed successor to Hitler moves die Endlosung der Judenfrage to greater prominence. Here, Act VIII, sees both the Wehrmacht and SS Mobile Murder Groups, the fledgling ‘Einsatzgruppe,’ set about murdering the Jews of Poland. From here, The Final Solution of The Jewish Question will not be restricted to merely burning Synagogues, nor attacking the Jewish and non-Jewish intelligentsia.

Thursday November 7th. 1939 “..when ..Germans entered ..familiar tortures began ..robbery of Jewish property and goods. ..local population ..quick to help them in their robberies. When ..Russo ..German war broke out ..they shot Jews daily.”  Meir Shvimer.

But, as ‘Operation Tannenberg’ dictates, the emergence of the wholesale Slaughter of all Jews within Poland is clearly recognised. Also, in the coming days the very words of Hitler’s hatred has sped from the words of hatred, through to the euphemism of a Jewish Destruction and on to where the continuous mass Murder of all of Jewry, as witnessed throughout Poland, has begun. On October 8th. 1939 in Piotrkow Trybunalski, Poland, this becomes the first Ghetto to be established and 10,300 Jews are enclosed rising to some 25,000 Jews by October 1942.

Thursday November 9th. 1939 “..I can assure you ..Jewish Question is no longer a problem ..even in places where we encounter it in ..mass form here. It is here so that we can solve it and we will.” Arthur Greiser.

Here, with the establishment of the Ghetto, that incremental staging post from transportation through concentration and on to resettlement has begun. This is to be the staging post where the Ghetto becomes the concentration centre, the holding pen established for the eventual eradication of all Jewish existence. All future transports ‘East’ will have a direct line to these concentration centres, in existence prior to the establishment of the Death Camp System, and will be employed to ensure death comes to the Jews deposited within them.

Wednesday November 15th. 1939 “..coming to terms with God and living with myself. Fate has cancelled my account.” Adam Czerniakow.

Today in the period of christ 2020 we are merely moments away from a newer christmas, and the celebration we take too readily. But from here, at this exact juncture in 1939 we recognise, and we are fully accepting of German methodology, that according to Hitler’s own statisticians, 11,293,300 Jews were still alive. How then is it to this day that we can look forward to celebrating knowing that 6,000,000 Jews were taken from life in an ostensibly christian epoch in the midst of Europe. These Jewish People are no longer alive to even breath the air, which some might suggest is a god given blessing, but only for some can such hatreds be expressed. My despair runneth over and there is not a single lesson from what this christ-mas period must stand for that can be equitable with what was allowed to happen to 6,000,000 of these Jews, the Chosen People of the god of christianity’s choice.


Thursday March 28th. 1940 “..Polish youth ..armed with clubs ..sticks ..make pogroms against ..Jews. ..Jews ..beaten and wounded. ..Jewish quarter ..abandoned to toughs and killers.”  Chaim A. Kaplan.

On April 27th. the establishment of Auschwitz Concentration Camp forms the link to be established between the Ghetto and the Death Camp and a British Foreign Office official, H.F. Downie argues that the Jewish People are to be treated just as the Germans should be; as enemies.

Saturday April 27th. 1940 “..Jews are enemies just as ..Germans are ..but in a more insidious way ..and ..are linked together by secret and evil bonds.” H. F. Downie.

During December, Emmanuel Ringelblum begins his historical archive, the ‘Oyneg Shabes,’ and is to be hidden inside the Warsaw Ghetto.


At the beginning of 1941 the Warsaw Jewish Ghetto inhabitants face starvation ration restrictions of 183 calories a day while in comparison Germans are allotted over 2,300 calories per day, other Nationals will receive over 1,700 calories per day and non-Jewish Poles will subsist on 934 calories per day. On January 30th. Hitler repeats his threat to destroy all of European Jewry.

Thursday January 30th. 1941 “..Today I will once more be a prophet. If Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging nations once more into a world war then ..result will not be .. bolshevization of and ..victory of Jewry ..but ..annihilation of ..Jewish race in Europe!” Adolf Hitler.

Saturday February 1st. 1941 “..I have made it my aim to regulate life in ..Ghetto at all costs. This aim can be achieved employment for all. main slogan has been to give work to ..greatest possible number of people.”  Chaim Rumkowski.

On September 22nd. the Majdanek Death Camp is to mirror the Auschwitz and Birkenau Blueprint for mass murder and on just 2 days, Monday September 29th. and Tuesday September 30th. 1941, 33,771 Jews of Kiev were Slaughtered into a Ravine at Babi Yar. This is the single most devastating atrocity perpetrated against the Jewish People in all the period that existed to enable Hitler to achieve his Final Solution of The Jewish Question. While the World might manage the displacement of the Jews from The Holocaust, History will always acknowledge die Endlosung der Judenfrage took the words of Hitler and delivered the Jews toward extinction.

Monday December 1st. 1941 “..Today I can confirm that our objective solve ..Jewish problem for Lithuania ..has been achieved by EK 3. In Lithuania there are no more Jews ..apart from Jewish workers and their families. ..distance between ..assembly point to ..graves ..on average 4 to 5 Km.”    SS Standartenfuhrer Karl Jaeger.

In the most uniquely grotesque, unparalleled and unprecedented atrocity in all of history, and against the Jewish People as a priority, a final resolve is constructed into The Holocaust of 6,000,000 Jewish People. On December 1st. the Jaeger Report states clearly that 85% of all Lithuanian Jews have already been murdered and this is represented as some 137,366 individual Lithuanian Jewish dead. For those who seek to remove the commencement date of The Final Solution beyond this point, the disingenuous nature of such an exercise exposes its major flaw

Thursday December 4th. 1941 “..10’s of 1,000’s of Jews from abroad were brought here. I saw them walking with their suitcases ..many of them well dressed. Young men and women in good spirits ..relaxed. They observe everything around them. They look at our city with curiosity. They were told that they were brought to work and were ordered to bring their best clothing with them. Afterwards they were murdered at ..Ninth Fort. It was said that these young people had no suspicions of anything bad happening to them and they even danced in ..evenings. On ..following day ..they were taken in groups of 50 and shot. Lithuania earned ..label  ‘cemetery of ..European Jews’.”  Helena Kutergiene-Buividaite.

On December 7th. the Chelmno Death Camp’s Extermination operations begin as Act IX, the establishment of 6 such Death Camps in poland sees the accumulating effects of the charge toward destroying 6,000,000 Jewish lives as Hitler’s major objective. Here also, and as we have Hitler and his Einsatz cohorts acknowledging that The Final Solution of The Jewish Question is well under way, The Holocaust of the Jews is certain. Of course, the paper trail which leads from the transmissions of der Einsatzgruppe Operational Situation Reports to Hitler’s desk has floundered upon many diverse reasonings. Amongst, and including these, are the fact that Hitler’s was an unknown knowledge which history seems on course to demand Hitler’s absence in this distorting of that very truth of Hitler’s presence.

Friday December 12th. 1941 “..In respect of ..Jewish question ..make a clean sweep. war is here ..annihilation of ..Jews must be ..necessary result. This question is to be regarded without sentimentalism. We are not here to have sympathy with ..Jews ..but ..with our German people. If ..German people have sacrificed 160,000 dead in ..eastern campaign ..authors of this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives.” Adolf Hitler.


On March 17th. the killing operation within the Death Camp at Belzec begins.

Monday September 14th. 1942 “..We are a remarkable People ..indestructible. No decrees or edicts will break us. I declare this People will never be destroyed ..despite their unspeakable suffering ..therefore it is an eternal People and ultimately it shall overcome its enemies.”  Tamarah Lazerson.

For Avraham Tory, who managed to eventually Survive Kovno, luck was not with more than 34,700 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children of Kovno who would be brutally murdered. 

Wednesday September 16th. 1942 “..Unrest in ..Ghetto (Kovno) caused by ..coming visit of ..commission from Berlin. ..Rumours about new reduction of ..Ghetto area.” Avraham Tory.


On January 4th. the Czestochowa Ghetto rises up and the following day, on January 5th., reprisals against the Jews of Czestochowa sees 250 Elderly and Children shot. Elsewhere, and in an effort to put a stop to the Axis practice of seizing property and goods from occupied nations, 18 Allied nations agree that property transfers and similar business conducted under Nazi German or Italian occupation can be declared null and void, at the discretion of the occupied government.

Wednesday February 24th. 1943 “..Not many Jews will survive. ..conditions of ..remnant ..are difficult. ..peasants ..assisting ..Germans in ..forest raids ..even Jews hiding in ..villages ..turned over to ..Germans.” Ludwik Landau.

It is an understatement for the Polish underground to not only conclude that the Jews had undergone a further deterioration in their position, which assumes it was fully cognizant of what had transpired up to this date but that some 3,000,000 of Poland’s Jews have been effectively Murdered. So, knowing too that the order of that destruction in places like Auschwitz, Belzec, Birkenau, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka are recognised as Factory’s of Death for the Jewish People, and other’s, they are also aware who was the Perpetrator, the Participator and the willing, complicit, duplicitous collaborator in the scale of the atrocity waged against their own Jewish Citizens.

Tuesday March 23rd. 1943 “..Insofar as ..can be ascertained ..fate of ..Jews has undergone a further deterioration. Considering barely several hundred thousand Jews have remained out of 3,500,000 one has a fair insight concerning ..scale of atrocities ..perpetrated.”  Polish Underground. 

On April 7th. Chelmno Castle is blown up and ‘Sonderkommando 1005’ has commenced with its onerous duty here to destroy the evidence of Hitler’s final solution. Blobel’s Sonderkommando then moves on to Belzec, and spends three months there with operations to obliterate all traces of the Crimes committed here, as they are within all 3 of Aktion Reinhard Death Camps, these are conducted in house. Blobel’s Sonderkommando are merely an advisory team with their expertise.

“..I myself arrived in Warsaw ..April 17th. 1943 ..and took over command of ..Grossaktion at 8 o’clock.”  SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.

On April 17th. Jewish Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins with the remnants of Warsaw’s Jews, some 70,000 Jews, still alive.

Friday April 23rd. 1943 “..Great things are happening ..this action ..we have dared to take is of enormous value. ..Jewish self defence has become a fact.”  Mordechai Anielewicz. 

On April 29th. the Polish Underground Newspaper reports the struggle for the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising without mentioning the lack of assistance afforded to it.

Wednesday May 5th. 1943 “..In Poland there were ..about 4,500,000 Jews ..there remain ..only 100,000. ..Warsaw Ghetto containing ..650,000 ..only 20,000 ..25,000 Jews there. ..majority killed. ..Special death camps at Lublin (Majdanek) ..Treblinka near Brest-Litovsk. ..several hundred ..jammed into large rooms ..where they die by gassing.”  Vatican Memo.

On May 5th. The Vatican produces a Memo which clearly acknowledges what it already knows of the fate of more than 4,400,000 Jews of Poland.

Friday May 7th.1943 “..raiding parties shoot 30 ..50 Jews each night. ..a considerable number of Jews are still underground. and only method for destroying ..Jews ..remains ..setting of fires.”  SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.

On May 8th. In the Warsaw Ghetto, the Headquarters of Jewish Resistance, at 18 Mila Street, is surrounded and liquidated. Mordechai Anielewicz and 97 Resistance Fighters Died that Day with their refusal to succumb to the Nazi brutality and 2 managed to Survive which will point the way toward all future Jewish Persistence and Resistance! More than 50,000 Warsaw Jews have been murdered in recent months.

Tuesday May 11th. 1943 “..responsibility for ..crime of ..murder of ..whole Jewish nationality in Poland rests first of all on those who are carrying it out ..but indirectly it falls also upon ..whole of humanity ..peoples of ..Allied nations and on their governments ..who up to this day have not taken any real steps to halt this crime. By looking on passively upon this murder of defenceless millions tortured children ..women and men they have become partners to ..responsibility. ..My friends in ..Warsaw ghetto fell. ..I did not succeed in dying ..same way or ..with them. ..I  belong to them and ..mass graves there.”    Shmuel Zygielbojm. 

The tragedy for Shmuel Zygielbojm, who committed Suicide this day, is his awareness, not just who the criminals were but also who those Allies were who took no real steps to halt the crimes.

Monday May 17th. 1943 “..Warsaw Ghetto is free of Jews.”  SS Obergruppenfuhrer Jurgen Stroop.

On August 18th. Blobel returns to Kiev and ‘Sonderkommando 1005’ exhumes and disposes of much of the evidence of the mass murder of over 100,000 of Kiev’s Jews at Babi-Yar who are disinterred, Blobel’s 33,771 Jews who were murdered almost 2 years previously these are included.

Sunday, August 29th. 1943 “..two thirds and more ..Axis world’s Jewish population has been murdered ..foully ..unnaturally murdered.”    Rabbi Dr. Stephen S. Wise.

Do we assume here, as the numbers stated at the Wannsee Conference, 11,293,300 Jews still to be Murdered, that we are looking at over 7,500,000 Jews of Europe already destroyed.

September 5th. 1943 “..We know today that Sobibor ..Treblinka ..Belzec ..Auschwitz are annihilation camps. In ..camps parties ..create ..impression ..they are ordinary camps.”  Gisi Fleischmann.


On March 19th. Hitler’s forces occupy all of Hungary, with some 725,000 of Hungarian Jewry facing Hitler’s immediate and Final Solution.

Tuesday March 28th. 1944 “..Our fate is not only material ruin ..not even only a chain of physical and mental tortures and beating down of ..last fibres of our human dignity .but rather certain physical annihilation.”  Nison Kahan.

On April 7th. Two Jews, Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escape Auschwitz and are about to inform the public of nations what governments of those nations already know. With ‘The Auschwitz Protocols,’ this provides a detailed overview of operations at Auschwitz, by both Vrba and Wetzler. What is delivered to Jewish Leaders and subsequently, to the knowledgeable Allied Powers is a litany of crimes not unknown to all who have looked the other way.

Friday April 7th. 1944 “..Cautious estimate of ..number of ..Jews gassed ..Birkenau ..April 1942 ..April 1944 by Country of origin

..Poland               ..transported by truck                    300,000 Jews

                              ..transported by train                    600,000 Jews

Holland                                                                            100,000 Jews

Greece                                                                               45,000 Jews

France                                                                              150,000 Jews

Belgium                                                                             50,000 Jews

Germany                                                                            60,000 Jews

Yugoslavia }

Italy           }

Norway                                                                             50,000 Jews

Lithuania                                                                           50,000 Jews

Bohemia    }

Moravia     }

Austria  }                                                                            30,000 Jews

Slovakia                                                                             30,000 Jews

Camps for foreign Jews in Poland                             300,000 Jews

Total                                                                            1,765,000 Jews.”  The Auschwitz Protocols.

What is reprehensible, and forms a somewhat uninspiring deflective shield of guilt for all those who either knew, participated in or perpetrated these crimes. What Rudolf Vrba adjudged the German Army and its General Staff correctly with should have gone further and denounced the World’s inability to acknowledge what it too knew!

“..attempts by members ..German General Staff to whitewash their complicity in these atrocities ..or by German historians to exculpate ..regular German Army ..should not be allowed to cover up ..fact of ..vital ..significant economic ..strategic advantages ..Nazi establishment together with ..German Army and its General Staff derived from this unprecedented ..unparalleled mass murder and robbery.”  Rudolf Vrba.

While the figures are somewhat altered by subsequent checks, counter balances and newer research, I fully acknowledge that both Vrba and Wetzler are better placed to state more accurately what the World seems to trip over to this day. The fact that the annihilation process leaked out to Civilised Humanity, and though History seeks to accept that 1,100,000 Jews were Murdered within Auschwitz and Birkenau, we cannot ever know why we do Not accept 1,765,000 Jews are Murdered here. For me, it is safer to accept the higher figure so that NO Jew can ever be denied their presence in this Catastrophe for the Jews of Europe.

“..Americans ..British in these regions. ..Why did they not drop ..bombs on ..horrible tomb ..sixty kilometres from their Northern Frontier. They could have wrecked  SS barracks ..ramps ..crematoriums ..roads ..rail track. Why didn’t they.”  Alfred Wetzler.

While acknowledging here the events these Jewish Survivors brought to a wider audience, it is unacceptable that little and nothing was done to alleviate their pain. Not just of Auschwitz and Birkenau either but from within the entire infrastructure of Hitler’s Final Solution. The rush to assist the Jews was not considered a priority by Allied leaders, so let me spell it out this way. While the continuation of the War might ensure the deaths of even more Civilians and troops, what the failure to intervene in the midst of The Holocaust could guarantee was the increasing numbers of Jews being continually Slaughtered.

Friday, 7th. April 1944 “..millions of Jews ..captured ..who knows where they are. ..We have come ..from place where your brothers are. ..Two thousand years have we brought into this world children ..doomed to suffer.”  Moshe Flinker.

Of course, there are those like Hoess who might have sought to exaggerate his accomplishment, or Eichmann who sought to immerse himself most accurately in the assessment. But no one can deny the potential for mass murder that existed here for all to witness, see, hear and smell. On a given average of 10,000 Jews Murdered on a Daily basis, during the period of Vrba and Wetzler’s incarceration, 10,000 over a 700 day period could compute to something approaching 7,000,000 of those Jews, treated to ‘Sonderbehandlung,’ with that capacity in mind.

“..She never grew up. She will be a 6 year child forever. A talented girl who taught herself to read. She was gassed 75 days after her 6th. Birthday ..June 3rd. 1944. ..there can be no justification. I will be there for Evika ..for all ..others who were murdered. I want to understand.”  Judith Kalman.

On July 8th. 50,000 more Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz in week long action with more than 488,000 Hungarian Jews having already reached Auschwitz. Eichmann now moves swiftly to ensure 14,491 more Hungarian Jews are transported to Auschwitz.

Saturday July 8th. 1944 “..Our transport was among ..last ones ..from Hungary July 8th. 1944 ..and due to ..unusual number of arrivals ..SS were forced to change their customary procedures. ..gas chambers ..crematoria could not accommodate everyone judged unfit for work 100’s were piled along ..railroad tracks to be immolated. ..due to ..heartless haste ..clothed in rags ..marked with ..painted red cross ..hardly any food or water ..also due to this haste ..escaped tattooing.”  Judith Magyar Isaacson.

On July 9th. The final mass transport of 14,491 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz arrived as Raoul Wallenberg, the Swedish Diplomat and emissary of King Gustav V, arrives in Budapest. Too late however, as a total, some 502,491 of Hungary’s Jews, transported in 147 Trains over a 55 day period were already Murdered within Birkenau. On any given day, between May 15th. and July 9th. with 3,500 Jews on each transport, some 9,200 Jews arrived  with 7,360 of these immediately gassed on each of these days. At this time, some 300,000 Hungarian Jews in Hungary remain alive with

170,000 of these Jews still surviving in Budapest.

Saturday July 15th. 1944 “..In spite of everything I still believe ..people are really good at heart.” Anne Frank.

On November 2nd. with the last gassings at Auschwitz, the deportations from Budapest resume and 50,000 more of Budapest’s Jews are evacuated toward Vienna. 10,000 of these are murdered as a result of their incapacity, or failure to move swiftly enough and on November 25th. Birkenau ceases its operations. Then, on November 27th. the 1st. Majdanek Trial begins and what cannot be assessed, though the contention now is that more than 200,000 Jews from the previous figure of 360,000 Jews and others who were murdered here. On December 2nd. the 1st. Majdanek Trial ends and the following day, on December 3rd. all but 1 of the 6 defendants are hanged, as one had committed suicide.


On January 18th. the Auschwitz complex of Camps is being abandoned and the Death March begins with 66,000 Auschwitz Survivors being moved toward Wodzislaw. On January 20th. 4,200 Jews shot in Birkenau as the SS Dynamite the remaining Krematoria in Birkenau.

“..highest number of gassings in one day was 10,000. ..most that could be carried out in a day with ..available facilities.” Rudolf Hoess.

The liberation of Auschwitz and Birkenau on January 27th. 1945 did not signal the end of the atrocity of antisemitism that would be constantly aimed at Jewish Life. Act X, now sees Jewish Antecedence and even the Destruction we recognise of 6,000,000 Jewish People was not enough hatred for human beings. But for me, my place in amongst this enormous hatred began on February 17th. 1945 with the cold blooded Murder of 7 Sokoly Jewish Survivors. Safely assuming they had received their freedom on home soil in Poland, they are murdered by their non-Jewish polish neighbours. Amongst the Murdered was the 4 year old little Girl Tovah ‘Tokele’ Olshak, Murdered because she too was a Jew to be included in these shameful murders. Here my effort began with this little Girl and it continues with 6,000,000 of her People, because they are Jews and my effort will Not end because I am Not a Jew.

Who Must Write Their History

Uncategorised Posted on Mon, November 30, 2020 20:34:01

“..Vision ..extends ..view ..mind can expand into.” Patrick Dempsey.

We adopt any opportunity, of some form of vision taken of The Holocaust, and even when we can never comprehend what 6,000,000 Jewish People were forced toward we do so, so that we too might understand the horror. It is essential, in what the Survivor imparts, that this extends the view that the incomprehensible mind can then attempt to expand into. For us researching its many layers, even when we can never massage the limits of that imaginary process to do so, we can blunt that effort by other than a fixed idea that the search will deliver for posterity a memory of all those we seek to recall.

What still does not allow the human mind to understand, that such inhumanity searched through does not protect the sensitivity of our minds. Any protective barrier thrown around such despicable hatreds, can dull the senses to meaning and what is deliberate in all we state so we remain open to the visible trauma that affected all 6,000,000 Jewish People. That we have been spared an insight into so much suffering and to those very Jews, too many of whom were destroyed, ensures we broaden our vision to access all points of the atrocity. Yet, we can still not come close to an understanding of all the horrors these individuals faced and no matter how intensely we delve into the recesses of a research so uncompromising, we are charged to do so.

The hatred which so tarnishes humanity forever, will never relent on the need to build  comprehensive bridge between the incomprehensible reality these 6,000,000 Jews People faced and our own incredulity at a World stood still whilst all of this happened. With such an effort, you find that you can liberate yourself from the thoughts that even my own words are confined to, because they can never reach the reality of what the Jewish People endured. Even before the annihilation process took hold and 6,000,000 Jewish People were swept into oblivion, there were incremental stages by which an early intervention would have stalled Hitler and would have saved many more of the 6,000,000 Jews we are set on recalling.

                                                            Abells, Chana Byers        

Abramowitch, Maja        

“..Salaspils ..largest of ..Camps. ..authorities do not encourage remembering. No where on monuments it mentioned that Jews died there.”  Maja Abramowitch.

Adelman, Yehuda            

“..We begin to tell stories about our town. ..Gorodok. ..we lost our parents ..we saw ..deaths of our brothers and sisters. After 2 ..3 years ..injured ..broken hearted we came to our devastated homes.” Yehuda Adelman.

Adelsberger, Lucie                         

“..This report tells ..story of ..victims of Auschwitz ..not with ..purpose of opening old wounds ..but of passing it on as a legacy for us Jews and for all mankind. It will fulfil its purpose only if it helps teach us become better human beings truly love our neighbours ..and to work toward ..eradication of brutality from ..face of ..Earth.” Lucie Adelsberger.

                                                            Adelson, Alan                                  

Adler, H.G.

“..problems of Nazism present nothing but an extreme ..special case of conditions ..possibilities that are encountered in modern society. ..Cruelty ..deindividualisation ..make a Concentration Camp possible ..both ..systematically fostered for it to exist and become ..a place of absolute ..ultimate subjugation beyond ..bounds of a life worth living.” H. G. Adler.

Ager, Eleanor H.     Altbeker, Ruth    Altman, Linda Jacobs      Aly, Goetz      Ancona-Vincent, Victoria

Anielewicz, Mordechai

“..One of our companies held out for 40 minutes and another ..for more than 6 hours. ..mine set in ..brushmakers area exploded. Several of our companies attacked the dispersing Germans. Our losses in manpower are minimal. That is also an achievement. Yechiel fell. He fell a hero ..machine gun. I feel that great things are happening and what we dared do is of great ..enormous importance. Beginning from today we shall shift over to ..partisan tactic. Three battle companies will move out tonight ..with two tasks ..reconnaissance and obtaining arms. Do you remember ..short range weapons are of no use to us. We use such weapons only rarely.  What we need urgently ..grenades ..rifles ..machine guns ..explosives. It is impossible to describe ..conditions under which the Jews of the ghetto are now living. Only a few will be able to hold out. ..remainder will die sooner or later. Their fate is decided. In almost all ..hiding places in which 1,000’s are concealing themselves it is not possible to light a candle for lack of air.  With ..aid of our transmitter we heard ..marvelous report on our fighting by ..Shavit radio station. ..fact that we are remembered beyond ..Ghetto walls encourages us in our struggle. Peace go with you friend. Perhaps we may still meet again. ..dream of my life has risen to become fact. Self defense in ..Ghetto will have been a reality. Jewish armed resistance and revenge are facts. I have been a witness to ..magnificent ..heroic fighting of Jewish men in battle.” Mordechai Anielewicz.



Hitler’s ability to tune the rhetoric of hatred into a carefully honed and demonstrable tool of destruction is evidenced here as on Tuesday September 16th. he penned a letter to Adolf Gemlich in response to the requirement for an answer to what he had considered was the Jewish problem. As the most formative piece of provocative evidence of Hitler’s very own transit from the vocabulary of hatred into the very deeply disturbing conduct of The Holocaust, here we are perhaps just boarding the train.

“..Herr Gemlich. ..antisemitism based on purely emotional grounds will find its ultimate expression in ..form of ..pogrom.  ..ultimate objective must ..irrevocable removal of ..Jews.”  Adolf Hitler.


               Anne Frank House                                                                       Apenszlak, Jacob

Appelfeld, Aharon                          

“..After my Mother was Murdered ..I was deported together with my Father to Transnistria. We have spent many weeks on a penal trek of sorts. For days we have been slogging along roads deep in mud ..a lengthy convoy surrounded by Romanian and Ukrainian soldiers who flog and shoot at us. Father holds my hand tight feet no longer touch ..ground. ..sound of ..water slices at my legs and my hips. It’s dark all around ..apart from Father’s hand I don’t feel a thing. Truth to tell ..I don’t feel his hand either ..since my hand is alreadly partly numb. If I move just a little I’ll surely drown. Even Father won’t be able to pull me out. Lots of Children have already drowned this way. I fall asleep ..still clutching his hand. But not for long. While the sky is still dark ..soldiers light up ..convoy with sniping and gunfire. Father holds my hand and tugs me. ..mud is deep and I can’t feel ..bottom. I’m still half alseep and tremendously afraid. It hurts. I call out. Father hears my call and answers at once.” Aharon Appelfeld.

Appelman Jurman, Alicia                                           

“..About 2,000 Jewish Men ..Women ..Children murdered in ..first aktion. ..shot ..buried in a mass grave on ..Fedor Hill. Some ..buried in ..Jewish cemetery.”  Alicia Appleman-Jurman.

Arad, Yitzhak                                   

“..Jews were compelled to establish relations with an alien ..hostile government that regarded them as subhuman only for exploitation and extermination. ..human values in which they believed and on which they had built their lives tottered and collapsed. In this cruel reality ..Vilna Jewry struggled to survive and seek rescue. ..daily struggle was for life itself ..survive in ..face of hunger ..disease. Jewish Vilna embodied ..majority of hardships ..torment ..European Jewry ..underwent during The Holocaust ..its responses sum up most of ..options ..available to ..Jews during this tragic epoch. Vilna Jewry was a microcosm of ..fate of all Jewish communities in Eastern Europe.”  Yitzhak Arad.

Arendt, Hannah               

“ conceivable chronicle of any kind could succeed in turning 6,000,000 dead people into a political argument.” Hannah Arendt.

                                                            Association of Jewish Refugees                                

Auerbach, Rachel

“..Remember ..there is a national treasure buried under ..rubble. It’s ..Ringelblum Archive. We must not rest until we find ..Archive. ..even if there are 5 layers of ruins over it ..we have to find ..Archive.” Rachel Auerbach.

Auerbacher, Inge                                                         

“..There was also resistance of ..spirit. Some children in ..ghettoes and camps were taught illegal classes. Just to stay alive one more day was an immense struggle for ..humans.” Inge Auerbacher.

Auschwitz State Museum             

“..of ..1,300,000 deported to ..Camp ..they were from amongst 20 nationalities ..and these nations gave up their Jews also. Of that total ..some 400,000 were registered and kept as Slave Labour and 900,000 were immediately Gassed. While Jews constituted 85% of all those deported here ..they represented more than 90% of all those who were murdered. ..400,000 Slave Labourers were gradually degraded till they could persist no longer and added finally to number of those Jews and others Gassed or otherwise Murdered. That stated ..we assess that of ..1,100,000 who were Murdered from all 1,300,000 deported to ..Camp ..some 900,000 Jews were Gassed immediately or otherwise murdered in Of ..400,000 of those registered for Slave Labour ..200,000 died or were otherwise Murdered. These included some 100,000 Jews ..64,000 Poles ..21,000 Gypsies ..14,000 Russian POW’s and a further 10,000 other nationals.”  Auschwitz State Museum.



Nor do we find on July 18th. with Hitler’s 1st. Volume of ‘Mein Kampf’, My Struggle, to be published, a purile effort in adding words to pages, we encounter the invective of a hatred for the Jewish People he had firmly set course for. In terms of what must be considered the outpourings of a confrontation with his own naked hatred’s we visit a person who incredibly intuitive instincts would inveigle the German people’s in the most horrific crimes of all time. The flavour of such hatred was not hidden and a World, weary of War must have considered the on coming resolution of such bile, an affront to all peace.

It is not simply that Hitler targeted the Jews, but that the Jewish People were to be confronted on every level of their existence. Remember too, and be well prepared that for every word concocted in his treatise of hatred, Hitler simply turned the words on their head and exactly acted out what he had considered in their words. While we will come eventually to the very realisation that without Hitler The Holocaust would not have come into being, we search through the words he used to pint us toward what he had always intended for the Jewish People, their removal as an intelligentsia and finally, extermination.

“..Now begins ..great last revolution. In gaining political power ..Jew casts off ..few cloaks that he still wears. ..democratic people’s Jew becomes ..blood Jew and tyrant over peoples. In a few years he tries to exterminate ..national intelligentsia and by robbing ..peoples of their natural intellectual leadership makes them ripe for ..slave’s lot of permanent subjugation.” Mein Kampf.


                              Bankowska, Aleksandra                 Bartov, Omer                                  

Bauer, Yehuda                                               

“..People seldom learn from history. Can we be an exception.”    Yehuda Bauer.

Bauman, Janina     Beckman, Morris     Becu, Yves     Benz, Wolfgang     Berenbaum, Michael    

Beres, Witold                    Berg, Mary                        Bergman, Eleonora                        Berman, Dr. Adolf

Berr, Helene                                                   

“..Why did God endow humanity with ..power to do evil well as ..capacity always to hope to be free.”  Helene Berr.

Birenbaum, Halina                         

“..teachings ..about ..people ..ethics ..I had to learn myself in ..hell of concentration camps ..without my Mother who was put to death in ..Gas Chambers in Majdanek Father ..put to death and burnt in ..crematorium in Treblinka Brother Sister in law young ..but cared for me like my Mother ..tormented and burnt in Auschwitz. ” Halina Birenbaum.

               Birger, Zev                                                                      Bitton-Jackson, Livia                                     

Blatt, Thomas                                  

“..15 years old ..I survived because you made me your shoeshine boy. Besides me nobody survived ..not my Father ..not my Mother ..not my Brother ..none of ..2,000 Jews from ..Izbica.”   Thomas ‘Toivi’ Blatt.

                                                            Bloch, Eliezer Lip

Bloch, Marc

“..Behold ..historian called to render his account. He does so not without an inner tremor. What craftsman ..grown old in his trade ..has not asked himself with a sudden qualm whether he has spent his life wisely. ..question far transcends  ..minor scruples of a professional conscience. ..our entire Western civilisation is concerned in it.”  Marc Bloch.

                                                            Boas, Jacob                                      

Bondy, Ruth

“..4 of us returned from The Holocaust ..Grandmother Hermann ..Cousin Ota ..My Sister Dita and I. 25 were wiped out in The Holocaust. Statistically ..we were a lucky family. Someone remained to tell ..tale.” Ruth Bondy.

                                                            Borowiec, Andrew                                                       

Borowski, Tadeusz                                        

“..This is where they load freight for Birkenau for of ..and People for ..gas chambers.” Tadeusz Borowski.

Braham, Randolph L.     

“..I reached ..decision with a heavy heart ..having followed ..recent developments in Hungary with great concern. ..history cleansing campaign of ..past few years calculated to whitewash ..historical record of ..Horthy era ..including ..changes ..legalised ..sinister measures that were subsequently taken to absolve Hungary from role it had played in ..destruction of close to 600,000 of its citizens of ..Jewish faith.” Randolph L. Braham.

Braz, Hans     Brecher, Elinor J.      Breitman, Richard       Breslav, Szmuel        Brostoff, Anita    

Browning, Christopher R.    Buber-Agassi, Judith          Burrleigh, Michael          Burrin, Philipp          

Carp, Matatias                                Cargas, Harry J.               

Celan, Paul                                       

“..Only one thing remained reachable ..close and secure amid all losses ..language. ..In spite of everything remained secure against loss. had to go through ..own lack of answers ..through terrifying silence ..through ..thousand darknesses of murderous speech. It went through. It gave me no words for what was happening ..but went through it. Went through and could resurface ..’enriched’ by it all.” Paul Celan.

Cesarani, David                               

“..Justice delayed may not be justice denied ..but history denied will never lead to justice.”  David Ceserani.

Czapnik, Liza                      Chesnoff, Richard Z.      Chostowski, Witold           Cohen, Elie A. 

“..would never have thought that ..given very inadequate nourishment ..insufficiently clothed ..slept little ..lived in ..worst possible hygienic circumstances to all conditions of ..would have thought it impossible ..he would go on living. ..powers of adaptation ..endurance great ..body is capable of efforts ..held to be impossible in normal life. ..many broke down ..perished ..but ..miracle is ..there are still Survivors.”   Elie A. Cohen.

Cohn, Norman                                 Confino, Alan                                   Corni, Gustavo                                

Czech, Danuta                  

“..Chronicle is not only a framework for research into’s history and ..fate of prisoner’s and an aid for criminal investigations is also an epitaph ..a memorial book for those who suffered and struggled in Auschwitz Birkenau ..for those who did not survive Auschwitz ..who died nameless ..those ..killed in ..gas chambers immediately after ..arrival.” Danuta Czech.

Czerniakow, Adam                         

“..Sturmbannfuhrer Hoefle charge of ..evacuation ..informed me that for ..time being my wife was free ..but if ..deportation were impeded in any way ..she would be ..first one ..shot.” Adam Czerniakow.

                                                            David, Janina                                   

Dawidowicz, Lucy S.                                     

“..Despite ..recent outpouring of popular and scholarly books on Hitler work has yet been produced that satisfactorily explains Hitler’s obsessive ideas about ..Jews ..readiness of ..German people to accept these ideas ..and Hitler’s ability to harness an enormous apparatus of men ..institutions ..facilities just in order to murder ..Jews. Hitler has proved to be an elusive and unrewarding subject for conventional biography because ..explanations for ..baffling mystique he exercised ..for ..power he came to wield ..and for his unspeakable accomplishments are not to be found in ..facts of a banal life ..but in ..ideas and feelings that created ..symbiosis between him and ..German people. Their mutuality and interdependence thrived Hitler first expressed and later gratified ..Germans’ most arrogant and abominable ambitions. He relieved their deepest fears and anxieties and ..near ..end ..disburdened them both of guilt and responsibility for ..wickedness they had given him warrant to commit.” Lucy Schildkret Dawidowicz.

Dean, Martin     Defonseca, Misha                           de Gaulle, Genevieve                     Deker, Sheila Cohn

Delbo, Charlotte                                            

“..Flora ..our ss ..was to accompany us to Birkenau. Just Birkenau filled us with trepidation. What reassured us was ..sight of a cart waiting for us. We would never have climbed into a truck. ..Trucks took people straight to ..gas chambers.”  Charlotte Delbo.



When on January 30th. Adolf Hitler is appointed ‘Reichskanzler’ a further founding effort toward the destruction of the Jewish People is gained. While some saw that the civilisation and culture of a Germany with its people would not turn its back on what Jews had already brought to such culture, it was to be a forlorn hope. By the following day it is recognised that such was the hope for the Jewish People within the sphere of Hitler’s reach, that we see to this day there was so much optimism displaced.

Tuesday January 31st. 1933 “..within ..German nation ..forces are active that would turn against a barbarian anti-Jewish policy.”  Judische Rundschau.


                                                            de Mendelsohn, Peter   

Dempsey, Patrick


“..the treatment of the civilian population ..presented the highest political and military leaders with a welcomed opportunity for carrying out their plans ..the systematic extermination of ..Jewry.”1:1

This Book is not just about the Holocaust and the destruction of the Jewish People, though perceptibly it is very much an account of it. This Book is the very detail of the Holocaust, in extraction! In all of its words and meanings, this Book embodies all that the Holocaust means to me and should, hopefully, mean to you. It is, however, not my Holocaust nor is it the property of other than those who suffered, endured and were silenced by the effects of a cold blooded attempt at complete annihilation!” Patrick Dempsey.

Dempsey, Patrick


“..Conquest no title ..if it exists over the body fails over the mind. It can exert no empire over men’s reason ..judgment ..affections.” Roger Casement.

To hurt a fellow human being; to have the capacity to inflict pain upon another person is a terrible indictment which we have inflicted upon mankind. To threaten to inflict pain on another person, and then to carry it out to its most horrendous, murderous and destructive conclusion, is an even more vicious and pernicious evil. In politics there is this belief that he who governs decides, and that is even more so in a totalitarian, rightist, Nazi or fascist state.” Patrick Dempsey.

Dempsey, Patrick


“..These are true and just words ..they contain a moral appreciation of ethical understanding ..and that ..Intolerance shown to ..Jews of ..Holocaust ..we have clearly shown an Indifference to ..struggle for mankind’s own relevance in a caring World?” Annals of the Holocaust.

I want my work to have validity, and I do not simply want to communicate the condemnation, of all that was done against the Jewish People, but I roundly condemn all those who perpetrated these crimes, without us learning from the process. Those who were supposedly Christian in nature, who failed significantly in their moral duty to that ‘christian’ ethos, and should have alleviated the Jewish suffering, have only their consciences to save them.” Patrick Dempsey.

Dempsey, Patrick


“..Przemysl. ..All ..deportations were to Belzec. From ..first deportation ..a few who had jumped from ..train returned and they warned people in ..second operation that ..same thing awaited them. People began to hide themselves. But many went to ..square in ..normal manner. ..they obeyed ..order.”  Dr. Josef Buzminsky.

Belzec was born out of Kozielsk Hill and Hitler’s desperation to rid Europe of its Jews. This place was to be Hitler’s Endlosung. The locals referred to the formative Death Camp established formerly as a Labour Camp situated just outside the Village of Belzec as the Camp on the Hill or Kozielsk Camp. But infamy had a judgement to make and History records that within a tight and confined space in a wooded clearing atop a hill, some 884,700 Jews of Poland, and many other Jews from a wider Europe were murdered, annihilated and totally destroyed here.” Patrick Dempsey.

Denenberg, Barry                           Dinur, Yehiel       Dobroszycki, Lucjan                        Doerry, Martin

Donat, Alexander

“..On where for 400 ghastly days ..blasphemy of Treblinka tormented human history there is now a monument. It shows in ..centre an enormous rock topped by a menorah to symbolise ..300,000 martyred Jews of Warsaw. ..rock is surrounded by huge slabs of concrete from which rises a forest of 1,000’s of granite pillars of varying shapes and sizes ..representing cities ..villages ..and shtetlach los in ..Holocaust. On 150 of them are carved ..names of ..localities from which ..murdered Jews came. ..massive pillars bear ..names of ..Country’s of ..victims origin.”  Alexander Donat.

Dwork, Deborah      Eber, Irene      Edelheit, Abraham J.      Ehrenburg, Ilya       Eisenstat, Bernice

Eisenstat, Stuart        Eliach, Yaffa         Elias, Ruth         Epstein, Eric          Epsztein, Tadeusz                                               Faber, David                                                    Feld, Yehuda

Fink, Ida

“..Did you ever see someone who was killed in ..war but who is still alive.” Ida Fink.

Fischel, Jack R.   Fischer, Klaus B.   Fisher, Julius S.  Fleming, Gerald   Fligelman, Daniel   Fogelman, Eva

Frank, Anne

“..Day and night ..dragged off. ..deprived ..of ..possessions. Families ..torn apart ..all ..separated. Children coming home ..find ..their parents have disappeared. Women return find their families gone.” Anne Frank.

Frankl, Viktor

“..You weigh on me whom I lost in death. You’ve given me ..silent charge to live for you ..for me erase ..debt of your extermination.”   Viktor E. Frankl.

Freeman, Joseph              Freid, Heidi         Friedlander, Albert H.           Friedlaender, Saul

Friedman, Philip

“..vast area of Europe seized ..held by ..Nazi’s and their accomplices during WWII contained approximately 8,300,000 Jews. ..estimated that 6,000,000 perished by Nazi lethal devices ..disease ..starvation. Considering that Hitler mobilised all of German’y resources for ..avowed purpose of annihilating ..Jews ..and that in this work he found helpers and collaborators among ..native population in almost all Nazi occupied countries is indeed a miracle that more than 2,000,000 remained alive.”  Dr. Philip Friedman.

Friedrich, Otto

“..The Holocaust still horrifies us not because some Jews were Murdered ..that happens almost every week in New York City ..but because ..incredibile total of 6,000,000 murders represents ..attempt to kill ALL Jews ..genocide. And Auschwitz represents The Holocaust ..because more People died here than anywhere else.” Otto Friedrich.

Fuswerk, Bluma                                             Georg, Willy                                                    Geve, Thomas

Gies, Miep

“..People should never think that you have to be a very special person to help those who need you.” Miep Gies.

Gigliotti, Simone   Gilbert, Gustave Mark       Gilbert, Martin         Gill, Anton       Ginsburg, Waldemar

Ginz, Peter

“..They tore us unjustly away from ..fertile ground of work ..culture. ..They do this for purpose destroy us ..spiritually ..morally. ..Deprived of our former sources of culture ..we shall create new ones. Separated from ..sources of our old happiness ..we shall create a new and joyfully radiant life.” Peter Ginz.

Giterman, Icchak      Glazer, Richard       Goldhagen, Daniel       Goldin,Leib              Goni, Uki         

Gorny, Jechiel ‘Chil’                                       Gottesfeld-Heller, Fanya

Graber, Dawid

“..What we were unable to scream out to ..World ..we have concealed under ..ground. One thing I am proud of ..namely in these disastrous and horrible days I had been chosen to help bury ..treasure order that you may know of ..tortures and murders of ..Nazi tyrants.” Dawid Graber.

Graebe, Hermann

“..On ..October 5th. 1942 ..I visited ..building office at Dubno foreman told me that in ..vicinity of Jews from Dubno ..had been shot in 3 large pits ..each about 30 metres long ..3 metres deep. About 1,500 persons ..killed daily. All be liquidated. As ..shootings had taken place in his presence he was still very upset. Moennikes and I went straight to .. pits. Nobody prevented us. I heard a quick succession of shots from behind one of ..mounds of earth. ..people off .. lorries ..women ..children ..all ages ..undress upon ..order of ..SS man ..who carried ..whip. They had to put their clothes on separate piles clothing ..underclothing.  I saw ..heap of shoes ..800 to 1,000 pairs ..great piles of clothes and undergarments. Without screaming or weeping these people undressed ..stood in family groups ..kissed each other ..said their farewells ..waited for a sign from another SS man ..who stood near ..pit ..also with ..whip in ..hand. During ..15 minutes that I stood near ..pit ..I did not hear anyone complain or beg for mercy. I watched a family of about 8 ..woman ..both about 50 ..with their children ..aged about 1 ..8 ..10 ..and 2 grown up daughters ..about 20 to 24. An old woman with snow white hair was holding ..1 year old child in her arms ..singing something to it ..tickling it. ..child was crowing with delight. and wife were looking on with tears in their eyes. ..father was holding ..hand of a boy about 10 ..speaking to him softly. ..boy was fighting back his tears. ..father pointed to ..stroked ..boy’s head and seemed to explain something to him. At that moment ..SS man at ..pit shouted something to his comrade ..who separated off about 20 persons and ordered them to go behind ..mound of earth. Among them .. family I have mentioned. I still clearly remember a dark haired ..slim girl who pointed to herself as she passed close to me and said ..’23’ I walked to ..other side of ..mound and found myself standing before an enormous grave. ..people lay so closely packed on top of ..other ..only their heads ..visible. Nearly all had blood running over their shoulders from their heads. Some ..still moving. Some lifted an arm and turned a head to show that they were still alive. ..pit was already two-thirds full. I estimated that it already contained about 1,000 people. I looked round for who had shot them. He was ..SS man ..sitting on ..edge of ..pit ..legs dangling into it. He had a sub machine gun ..smoking a cigarette. ..people ..completely naked ..went down ..steps ..cut in .. clay wall of ..pit ..climbed over ..heads of those already lying there indicated by ..SS man. They laid down in front of ..dead or injured people. Some of them caressed those who were still alive and spoke to them softly. Then I heard a series of shots. I looked into ..pit and saw ..bodies were twitching or ..heads lay motionless on top of ..bodies which lay before them. Blood was pouring from their necks. I was surprised I was not ordered away ..but saw there were also 2 or 3 uniformed policemen standing nearby. batch was already approaching. They climbed into ..pit lined up against ..previous victims and were shot. When I walked back round ..mound I noticed another lorry load of people ..had just arrived. included sick ..infirm people. A very thin old woman ..with terribly thin legs ..was undressed by others who were already naked ..while 2 people supported her. ..woman appeared to be paralysed. ..naked people carried ..woman around ..mound. I left with Moennikes ..drove back to Dubno. ..morning of day ..I visited ..saw about 30 naked people lying near ..pit ..about 30 to 50 metres ..from it. Some ..still alive ..looked straight in front of them with a fixed stare ..seemed not to notice ..chillness nor ..workers of my firm who stood around. A girl of about 20 spoke to me and asked me to give her clothes and help her escape. At that moment we heard a fast car approach and I noticed it was an SS detail. I moved away to my site. 10 minutes later we heard shots from ..vicinity of ..pit. Those Jews who were still alive had been ordered to throw ..corpses into ..pit then they themselves had to lie down in ..pit to be shot in ..neck.” Hermann Graebe.



Between July 6th. and July 15th. a Refugee Conference is called for by President Roosevelt and is convened at Evian-les-Bains, France. Of those invited only 29 of these 33 Nations turn up to meet and discuss the growing crisis for Jews under Hitler’s yoke! As if the Jews dont feel isolated enough, or abandoned completely, Hitler has captured the indifferent mood of the World to their predicament and this is reflected in a News Paper article the day before the Evian Conference ends.

Thursday July 14th.1938 “..Jews for Sale at a Bargain price. Who Wants Them? No One!” German Newspaper Reichswart.

As the Evian Conference ends none of those present could resolve the major issue, to admit large numbers of Jewish refugees who are facing an increasing weight of abuse, isolation and even death. After 10 days of deliberation, those Jewish People under direct threat from Hitler must now feel totally abandoned by a World of unconcern. Within the space of a few months the Jews would be torn into a sequence of events that recognised their position became so untenable and ever further from the lives they had sought to lead.

Friday July 15th.1938 “..delegates take ..floor to say ..We feel sorry for ..refugees and potential refugees but.” The Washington Post


Greif, Gideon             Gross, Jan T.            Grossman, Grubler, Kurt             Grunwald Spier, Agnes

Gryn, Hugo        

“..All sorts of things happened to my faith during The Holocaust ..although I could not have articulated it in this way thing I understood ..precisely ..what happened to us was not because of what God did ..but what people did after rejecting him.. I witnessed ..destruction that follows when men try to turn themselves into Gods.” Hugo Gryn.

Grynberg, Michal                                           Grzanska, B & M                             Grzywacz, Nachum

Gurfein, Yakov

“..middle of January 1943 ..they woke us up. We saw that we were surrounded by SS men who were stationed around ..Sanok ghetto. They ordered us to line up in ..courtyard ..allowed each one to take a blanket ..and led us on foot to ..Zaslaw camp. At Zaslaw they put everyone into one hall and kept us there for 3 days and 2 nights. They didn’t give us any food or drink. They didn’t allow us to go outside for our personal needs. We relieved ourselves inside this hall. Everything. In front of each other ..women ..children and men together. On Friday morning they put us into railway wagons. In ..morning we heard that a train was arriving and we saw that there were 10 railway wagons. At ..railway entrance SS men stood with dogs ..they commanded us to get into them crowd into these wagons. We didn’t resist and we boarded ..train. We no longer had any strength left. Very simply ..we wanted it to end quickly. After so many years we did not have ..strength to resist any more. We were 1,300 souls. And we were lucky. I counted ..people in our wagon ..there were 103 of us. This was a French freight wagon ..there was a notice on ..door 8 horses or 40 people. I read French. When they put us in all together into ..wagons ..there was no place to stand or sit. Some ..people sat on ..floor ..some stood ..then every hour we exchanged positions. We relieved ourselves in ..corner of this wagon. There were women and children and old people together. They closed ..door. were already shut ..and also secured with barbed wire. I was in that wagon from Friday morning until 2 o’clock morning. They gave us neither food nor drink. They didn’t even allow us to bring snow into ..wagon. We wanted to quench our thirst with snow ..even this they forbade ..and they shot into ..wagon ahead of us because someone had brought a little snow into it. Towards noon ..train moved. We could notice through ..aperture in that ..train was travelling in ..direction of Przemysl ..after that in ..direction of Jaroslaw. We knew that they were exterminating ..Jews of ..surroundings in ..Belzec. We decided that if ..train turned to ..right in ..direction of Rawa Ruska ..we would try to burst out of ..train. To ..right was in ..direction of Belzec ..and left in ..direction of Krakow. We still had only a spark of hope that perhaps they were transferring us to Plaszow ..a labour camp near Krakow. We knew it because they announced and night ..that they needed ..trains for their victory. We couldn’t understand that nevertheless they found ..time to transport ..Jews for extermination all the time and to use trains for them. On every train there was an inscription ..Wheels must roll for ..sake of victory. At that time I didn’t believe that ..programme was to destroy ..Jewish People ..despite ..fact that I had heard reports from Belzec. We received reports ..but ..spark of hope ..nevertheless ..still flickered in our hearts and we hoped that ..perhaps ..despite this ..some miracle would occur. They kept promising day and night that they were stopping ..deportations ..exterminations. For from ..moment that we saw that ..train was going in ..direction of Belzec turned in ..direction of Rawa Ruska ..some spark was ignited. We managed to force ..window open and several of ..people in ..train jumped out. We saw someone jumping and some spark was kindled within people who wanted to save themselves. Each time a person jumped out ..we heard shots. On each wagon there was an SS man with a machine gun. At approximately 2 o’clock in ..morning ..this was beyond Jaroslaw mother pushed me from ..wagon and told me to jump. I jumped from ..wagon. As I said ..we wanted to die more quickly. There nevertheless was an impulse. I wouldn’t have jumped ..if my mother hadn’t pushed me forcibly. I left behind mother brother. I hid in ..snow. They halted ..train and began to shoot in my direction. I crossed to ..other side of ..track and dug myself into ..snow ..I remained in ..snow for 2 hours until I heard ..train moving. I didn’t see my mother after this ..nor any members of my family.” Yakov Gurfein.

                                                            Gutkowski, Eliasz

Gutman, Yisrael

“..first Jews to reach Majdanek were ..from Slovakia ..Czechoslovakia. When I was there ..they told me that 10,000 of them had arrived ..and ..of these ..there remained ..100 ..perhaps ..200.” Yisrael Gutman.

Gutterman, Bella                                                 Hackett, David                                          Halter, Roman

Hart, Kitty

“..After all has been said that can be said future generations run their own lives will be up to them. At least we will have done our duty.”  Kitty Hart.

                                                            Hartman, Geoffrey

Hausner, Gideon

“..When I stand before you lead ..Prosecution of Adolf Eichmann ..I am not standing alone. With me are 6,000,000 accusers. ..they cannot rise ..and point an accusing finger. ..For their ashes are piled up on ..hills of Auschwitz and ..fields of Treblinka ..and are strewn in ..forests of Poland. Their graves are scattered throughout ..length and breadth of Europe. Their blood cries out ..but their voice is not heard. ..I will be their spokesman and in their name I will unfold ..awesome indictment.” Gideon Hausner.

               Heller, Celia                                                                    Hersh, Arek

Herzberg, Abel

“..No 6,000,000 Jews were murdered ..but only one Jew ..and this happened 6,000,000 times. If you really want to understand ..meaning of ..persecution of ..Jews would have to write 6,000,000 biographies of 6,000,000 individuals.” Abel Herzberg.

Hilberg, Raul

“..first and foremost perpetrator was Adolf Hitler. ..without him it would have been inconceivable.” Raul Hilberg.

Hillesum, Etty

“..If there were only one decent German ..then he should be cherished despite that whole barbaric gang ..and because of that one decent German it is wrong to pour hatred over an entire people.” Etty Hillesum.

Hillman, Hannelore                                       Hoffman, Eva                                   Huberband, Szymon

Isaacson, Judith Magyar

“..I revisited Auschwitz. ..Our transport was among ..last ones ..from Hungary July 8th. 1944 ..and due to ..unusual number of arrivals ..SS were forced to change their customary procedures. ..gas chambers ..crematoria could not accommodate everyone judged unfit for work 100’s were piled along ..railroad tracks to be immolated. ..due to ..heartless haste ..clothed in rags ..marked with ..painted red cross ..hardly any food or water ..also due to this haste ..escaped tattooing.”  Judith Magyar Isaacson.



On November 9th. as Ernst vom Rath dies a wave of terror sweeps across German lands and the Jewish People are thrown into utter chaos. This, the Night of Broken Glass, or ‘Kristallnacht’, is Hitler orchestrated throughout Germany, Austria and the Sudetenland nd where some 267 synagogues are ransacked and destroyed, 7,500 Jewish Shops are looted with over 50,000 Jews removed to Concentration Camps at Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen. Over 240 Jewish Men and Women are Murdered, commensurate with what must be considered in terms of The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, die Endlosung der Judenfrage, a month later.

Thursday November 10th. 1938. “..we know what happened yesterday. We do not know what tomorrow holds. However ..we have experienced what happened today. Outside ..synagogue burns. That is also a house of God.”   Father Bernhard Lichtenberg.


                                                                           Jacob, Lili                                                                                  Jarecka, Gustawa

“..a stone hurled under history’s wheel in order to stop it.” Gustawa Jarecka.

Kaczerginski, Shmerke

“..Quiet, quiet my son, let us speak softly,

Here grow the graves

Which they that hate planted.

Here are the paths.

The roads lead to Ponar,

There is no way back.

Father has gone, never to return,

And with him the light.

Quiet my son, my treasure.

Let us not cry in pain.

In any case, we have wept;

The enemy does not understand.

The sea has limits and a shore –

This, our suffering

Is limitless,

Is endless.” Shmerke Kaczerginski.

                                                            Kampelmacher, Bernard

Kaplan, Chaim Aron

“..anyone ..attempting to write ..on ..nature of Nazism ..will not be able to express ..truth ..Nazism’s cruelty and barbarism. writer among ..gentiles is qualified for this task. ..a Jewish writer who lives of his people ..who feels ..suffers their agony ..cannot find a true path here. Only one who feels ..taste of Nazi rule ..only one who ..bared his back to ..lashes ..only ..a writer ..if he is a man of sensitivity ..might be able to.” Chaim Aron Kaplan.

                                                            Kaplan, Josef

Karay, Felicja

“..Here I am incognito ..because that’s not important to me. Those aren’t memories ..they are research work.” Felicja Karay.

                                                            Karmel, Ilona

Karski, Jan

“..There is a difference between ..German orchestrated systems of terror against ..Poles and ..Jews. ..Germans want to ruin ..Polish state as a state. ..with regard to ..Jews ..they want to devastate ..biological substance of ..Jewish Nation. If ..Germans do not change their method of dealing with ..Jewish population ..if there is no effort at Allied intervention ..whether through reprisals or other action ..barring some unforeseen circumstance ..within 18 months of ..time I left ..Homeland ..Jewish People of Poland will cease to exist.” Jan Karski.

               Kassow, Samuel D.                                                       Katsh, Abraham J.

Katz, Tema

“..In Lukiszki they separated us. My husband and son were on’s side ..I and my daughters ..Feyge aged 17 and Mine aged 10 ..remained with ..women. .. two nights we lived outside. ..third day ..barely alive ..find out ..groups taken out ..led to Ponar. ..never dared to think that so many people were being taken to be shot. ..Thursday ..driven hastily to Ponar. ..Friday morning ..came to a hilly forest area ..lay among ..sand dunes ..tired ..scared. ..Not far from us burst salvos of rifle shots. ..12 noon ..a turning point. ..stood up ..quiet ..resigned protests pleas. after family walked their last steps. My oldest daughter hugged me by ..waist. ..younger one ..weeping ..lying ..on my knees. ..I decided to wait. ..Maybe a miracle? ..I didn’t know what maybe I was waiting for. ..about 5:30 ..our turn came. I set out with my daughters. ..They stood us in a front line ..I felt my older daughter’s hand slip out of mine. When I came to ..I felt packed in ..people walking over me ..I was wet ..covered with some acid. I grasped ..I was lying in a mass grave among corpses ..I was soaked with ..blood ..I was alive ..wounded. I didn’t see my two children anymore ..I didn’t even look for them. ..made bandages from our shirts to bind ..wounds ..At daybreak ..cleaned off ..blood and lime ..cautiously went toward ..nearby village of Nowosolsk. ..peasant’s house ..washed ..cleaned up ..ate ..and ..went Sorok-Tatary. ..I later came back to Vilna alone ..back to ..ghetto.” Tema Katz.

Katzenelson, Yitzhak

“..I am happy to die amidst fighting Halutzim. We will take with us into our graves ..awareness that ..Jewish People will endure eternally.”  Yitzhak Katzenelson.

                                                            Kaufman, Lola Rein

Kazimirski, Ann

“..a rush to get everything down in writing before ..generation of survivors dies away. There is also a search for knowledge and understanding by ..descendants of survivors ..leading ..young to rediscover their Jewish heritage. Jews are proudly calling themselves Jews once more. ..young people of today will be ..leaders of generation. They and people of all nations have an obligation to protect ..memory of The Holocaust.” Ann Kazimirski.

Kemperer, Victor     Kennealy, Thomas     Kessel, Sim     Kirby, James     Klarsfeld, Serge     Klein, Gerda

Klibanski, Bronia

“..real heroes of The Holocaust period are mostly those who did not Survive ..remained little known and had no myths built around them. One such person was Tema Sznajderman ..also known by her Aryan name of Wanda Majewska of ..first couriers and an especially brave one.” Bronia Klibanski.

Kluger, Ruth                                      Knopp, Guido                                   Kochan, Lionel

Kogon, Eugen

“..reader will have to rest content with ..mere inkling of ..character and extent of ..fate that engulfed ..Jews in ..Concentration Camps proper well as in ..Eastern Ghettos.” Eugen Kogon.

Kon, Menahem Mendel                       Koninski, Aaron                                        Kolinsky, Eva

Korczak, Januscz

“..There are 2 Billion People in ..World ..and I constitute a community many 1,000,000 times greater ..therefore I have ..right ..I have ..duty to look after my own trillions toward  which I have certain responsibilities. Januscz Korczak.

                                                            Kornreich, Rena

Kosinski, Jerzy

“..I did not perceive myself as a vendor of personal guilt and private reminiscences ..nor as a chronicler of ..disaster that befell my People and my generation ..but purely as a story teller.” Jerzy Kosinski.

Kovner, Abba

“..illusion that we all did not share ..same fate. That until ..last moment ..even if one knew that there was a Ponar ..they always gave us a spark ..this distorted hope ..that possibly you would be exempt. ..frightful illusion produced frightful results of people wanting to prolong of some at ..expense of others ..and depriving ..masses of any possibility of a different attitude. Only a minority that felt itself possibly less stricken ..less misled ..less under shock ..due to its past ..its education and its adherence to certain movements which trained people to give a personal example ..perhaps only they could cope with it. And it is not ..evidently ..a matter of chance from where ..people came in every Ghetto who formed ..fighting nucleus. Perhaps it arose from ..fact that they experienced less degradation ..that they were less panic ..stricken ..and they knew better how to live in ..Ghetto as free men in every respect.” Abba Kovner.

                                                            Krakowski, Shmuel

Kruk, Herman

“..Today ..Ghetto library which is supervised by ..culture department held a ceremony in ..Ghetto theatre marking of ..100,000th. book. Aside from ..celebrations ..Ghetto book shop presented a display. ..artistic display booth showed that despite all ..pain and ..troubles and despite ..difficult situation of ..Ghetto ..a heart of culture is pulsating within it.” Hermann Kruk.

                                                            Kulka, Erich

Kulka, Otto Dov

“..In my mind’s eye I see images image. These are actually seconds ..only seconds ..seconds of a hasty farewell after which my mother turned around and started to walk into ..distance toward those grey structures of She wore a thin dress that rippled in ..light breeze and I watched as she walked and receded into ..distance. I expected her to turn her head ..expected a sign of some kind. She did not turn her head. ..I could not understand. ..I thought about it afterwards ..and think about it to this day ..why did she not turn her head least once?”  Otto ‘Dov’ Kulka.

Kuper, Jack                  Kurtz, Glenn                           Kurz, Abraham                  Kurzman, Dan

Kuznetsov, Anatoli

“..Again I visit Kiev. Babi Yar is gone. ..ravine is covered ..through it passes a new road ..around it building remnants. ..up to this day ..while foundations are dug ..there are bones found. ..ashes were scattered a long time ago remained in ..depth of ..from ..victims remained only numbers ..memories. Each one ..a living human being ..a personality with ideas ..joys ..sorrows ..talents. Until recently ..there lived in ..cemetery house above ..ravine ..guard woman M. S. Lucenko ..aunt Masha ..of whom ..Germans forgot all about and didn’t suspect her ..while she crawled in ..bushes ..saw it all. I think that any social crime cannot be kept a secret. There will always be aunt Masha who sees ..or 14 who survive ..two ..who will testify. ..if there are no living people ..dead will testify. History cannot be cheated is impossible to hide anything from it.”  Anatoli Kuznettsov.



On September 1st. along with Hitler’s aggression, and his Invasion of the Sovereign state of Poland, the World was catapulted into a Second War of those in this World. For the people of Poland this was to be an assault upon all cultures but for Polish Jewry, this was to be the beginnings of a long road toward the very Final Solution which would deficit the World of 6,000,000 Jewish lives, 3,000,000 of whom were Polish Jews Murdered on their own soil. Almost immediately, the destruction began and by November some 5,000 of Poland’s Jews had been Murdered. Before a formidable Einsatzgruppe horde of more than 80,000 had laid to waste 1,500,000 Jews the length and breadth of their advance, a formative Einsatz force was bludgeoning and Murdering Polish Jews, at will.


Landau, Alexander                                         Landau, Elaine                  Landau, Ronnie S.

Langbein, Hermann

“..When 4,000,000 have died in Auschwitz ..I shall know how to die as well.”  Hermann Langbein.

                                                            Langer, Laurence L.

Lanzmann, Claude

“..Incredulous ..I read ..reread this naked ..bloodless text. A strange force seems to have filled it through and through resists lives its own life. It is ..writing of ..disaster ..for me ..another mystery.” Claude Lanzmann.

                                                            Laquer, Walter

Laska, Vera

“..A little Window ..nailed shut with ..boards. Laboriously I split away part of 1 with my fingers. I am with People I do not know. ..Woman next to me is dead. ..she takes up 2 spaces. I have to stretch over her toward ..slit in ..window.”  Vera Laska.

Lasker-Walfisch, Anita                   Lebovitz, Shirley                                             Le-Cheyne, Evelyn

Lengyel, Olga

“..when I think about our arrival of our train appear to me as so many coffins. ..a funeral train. ss ..gestapo ..our undertakers ..officers ..evaluated our riches were our greedy ..impatient heirs.”  Olga Lengyel.

Levi, Primo

“..If This Is a Man

You who live safe

In your warm houses,

You who find on returning in the evening,

Hot food and friendly faces:

Consider if this is a man

Who works in the mud

Who does not know peace

Who fights for a scrap of bread

Who dies because of a yes or a no.

Consider if this is a woman,

Without hair and without name

With no more strength to remember,

Her eyes empty and her womb cold

Like a frog in winter.

Meditate that this came about:

I commend these words to you.

Carve them in your hearts

At home, in the street,

Going to bed, rising;

Repeat them to your children,

Or may your house fall apart,

May illness impede you,

May your children turn their faces from you.” Primo Levi.

                                                            Levi, Trude

Levin, Nora

“..In spite of ..vast accumulating literature abyss still lies between those who endured ..unimagineable and those who did not. ..Survivors themselves remain pendant between ..and ..dead ..searching pierce ..realms of each.”  Nora Levin.

                                                            Levine, Karen

Levy-Hass, Hanna

“..This human mass is heterogeneous. It is piled together here force violence this small patch of dirty ..humid ground ..forced to live in ..most humiliating conditions and to endure ..most brutal deprivations ..that all human passions ..weaknesses have unleashed themselves ..taking on beastly forms.”  Hanna Levy-Hass.

                                                                           Lewin, Abraham                                                           

Lichtensztein, Israel

“..At present ..both of us ..ready to meet ..death. I wish my little daughter to be remembered. Margalith ..20 months ..I don’t lament my own life nor that of my wife. I pity only little ..nice ..talented girl. She deserves to be remembered.”   Israel Lichtensztein.

Ligocka, Roma

“..I want to tell ..story ..of .little girl ..crying deep ..inside me who is still afraid. ..Grandmother ..I’ll have to write about you. I’ll have to let you die ..again. ..forgive me.” Roma Ligocka.

Linder, Menachem       Lindsay, Hal       Lipstadt, Deborah E.       Loeb, Ladislas       Loftus, John   

Longerrich, Peter             Loridan-Ivens, Marceline              Lothe, Jakob                      Lower, Wendy

Lubetkin, Livia

“..After we had heard ..account from Vilna ..on hand ..and ..Chelmno on ..other ..we believed that this was being done systematically. I must say that in ..previous years ..even we could not picture to ourselves that a nation in ..20th. century would indeed execute a death sentence on an entire people. We asked ourselves more than once ..They are degrading us ..they are suppressing us ..are they truly thinking of destroying all of us? We did not believe it. ”  Zivia Lubetkin.

                                                            Lustig, Arnost



On a two day period, no other accomplishment in the mass destruction of the Jewish People was ever carried out as numerically devastating on a daily basis than what happened to the Jews of Kiev, here at Babi Yar. On just 2 days 29th. September and 30th. September in complince with Nazi instructions to be moved away for ‘resettlement’, a euphemism we know today for the calculated Slaughter they would encounter.

“..empty apartments ..put at ..disposal of ..population. ..available through liquidation ..36,000 Jews ..September 29 ..30 ..1941. ..Jews ..Kiev ..ordered to appear ..Monday ..September 29 by 6 o’clock. ..In co-operation ..HQ ..Einsatzgruppe C ..2 Kommandos ..police regiment South ..SK 4a executed 33,771 Jews ..September 29 ..30. ..Gold ..valuables ..linen ..secured. army ..approved ..measures taken.” Operational Situation Report No.106


Macadam, Heather Dune          Maier, Ruth           Maik, Michael           Marienka, Maria Hochberg   

Markell, Jan    Marks, Jane           Marrus, Michael R.                         Marshall, Robert

Marszalek, Josef

“..Majdanek ..bleeding wound of Polish society and other nations.”  Josef Marszalek.

                                                            Mayer, Arno J.

Michelsen, Max

“ Latvia ..persecution of ..Jews was approved ..accepted by ..majority of ..local population.”  Max Michelson.

Millu, Liana

“ Woman ..overcome with ..emotion stirred memories ..burst into tears. Wailing with grief ..she named all ..names of those who would not see ..sacred candles lit next year ..nor ..year after ..nor ever again ..for any holiday on Earth. One after another ..Women took up her cries ..and soon nearly everyone was sobbing in desolation.”  Liana Millu.

Minaj, Matel          Moorehead, Caroline               Morse, Arthur D.                   Mueller, Georg Leon     

Muller, Filip

“..whole complex had forty-six retorts ..each with ..capacity for three to five persons. ..burning in a retort lasted about half an hour. was theoretically possible to cremate about 12,000 corpses in twenty four hours ..4,380,000 a year. ..well-constructed crematoria fell far behind at a number of camps ..especially at Auschwitz in 1944. In August cremation reached a peak one day of 24,000 ..still a bottleneck occurred. Camp authorities needed an economic and fast method of corpse disposal ..dug six huge pits beside Krema V ..reopened old pits in ..wood. ..late 1944 ..pit burning became ..chief method of corpse disposal. ..pits had indentations at one end from which human fat drained off. To keep ..pits burning ..stokers poured oil ..alcohol ..large quantities of boiling human fat over ..bodies.” Filip Muller.

Naumann, Bernd

“..first shipment ..inmates arrived ..June 14th. 1940. 12 months later ..Hitler decided on ..Final Solution of ..Jewish Problem. Auschwitz ..chosen centre of ..planned mass extermination.”  Bernd Naumann.

Nicholas, Lynn H.             Nieuwsman, Milton J.    Nomberg-Prestyk, Sarah               Novick, Peter

Novitch, Miriam

“..I would like to hope ..testimonies will continue to serve as a manifesto ..which says will come when all discriminations will stop in this world ..hatred ..mass murders ..wars ..and peace ..dream of our prophets ..will dwell safely upon this earth.”  Miriam Novitch.

                                                            Nowogrodzki, Sonia

Nyiszli, Dr. Miklos

“..I was ..struck by ..enormous tongues of flame rising between ..lightning rods ..which were set at angles on ..square tops of ..chimney.”  Miklos Nyiszli.

Offen, Bernard                  Ofer, Dalia          Oliner, Samuel P.                            Opoczynski, Perec

Oppenheimer, Paul

“..We travelled by train in 3rd. class passenger coaches ..arrived early in ..morning at another camp ..Belsen. ..We had never heard this name before and had no idea what it was like. soon as we marched into ..we could see that it was even larger than Westerbork ..and much worse.  ..barbed wire ..guard towers ..electrified fences ..SS ..with bloodhounds ..machine guns ..searchlights. ..a real concentration camp.” Paul Oppenheimer.

Opdyke, Irene Gut     Ostrowska, Salomea        Pagis, Dan    Perl, Lila    Perle, Shie     Pettitt, Jayne

Pivnik, Sam

“..When I first came to London ..nobody wanted to know. They all had their own problems ..loss of their own loved ones ..part of me said ..forget it. Build a new life. Move on. ..But I couldn’t forget it. What you will read ..I live with that ..every night ..every day. Every Holocaust survivor does. This is not complaining. This is not poor me. It is a simple fact.”  Sam Pivnik.



Though most believe the War Crimes Trials against the Nazi’s who oversaw the worst ever crimes systematically conducted against humanity began once World War II ended, that is not the case. The first liberated Death Camp, at  Majdanek on July 23rd. 1944, brought to trial 6 of those personnel of the Extermination Camp who failed to escape the Russian advance. This initial trial ran from  November 27th. 1944 till December 2nd. 1944. This Death Camp, in the City limits of Lublin, Poland found all 6 guilty of these mass murderers, and they hanged all but one on December 3rd. 1944, as the other coward committed suicide prior to execution, does not in itself establish Justice for the 360,000 mostly Jewish People Murdered here, nor the 6,000,000 and more Jews soon to be exemplified in Crimes Against Humanity.

“..irrefutable proof of ..organized murder of between 600,000 and 1,000,000 helpless persons at ..Majdanek Camp ..Lublin. ..Prisoners too ill to walk into were dragged alive to ..furnaces and thrust in alongside ..dead.”  Illustrated London News.


Poliakov, Leon

“..only part of these reports (OSR’s) have been recovered. ..enabled ..Nuremberg to arrive at a definite total of over 1,000,000 victims ..Eichmann who ..had all ..pertinent data ..said 2,000,000.”  Leon Poliakov.

Porter, Anna         Press, Bernhard        Presser, Jacob         Pringle, Heather      Pullman, Symon   Rabinowicz, Szyja     Rabinowitz, Dorothy        Rajchman, Chill              Rapaport, Safira                                                    Rappaport, Doreen                                                                     Raynes, Menachem

Reder, Rudolf

“..August 17th. 1942 ..deported to ..Belzec ..extermination camp. ..unloaded ..had to strip naked. ..about 4,500 people on ..transport. ..women had ..heads shaved. ..driven into ..corridor. ..building was low ..long ..broad. ..built of grey concrete ..a flat roof made of roofing felt ..with a net over it ..covered with branches. Three steps ..led into ..building. ..front of ..building stood a large flowerpot with colorful flowers ..placard ..‘Bath and inhalation Rooms.’ ..steps led into a dark ..empty corridor which was very long ..only 1.5 m. wide. To ..left and right of it were ..doors to ..6 gas chambers. Each chamber could hold 750 people. ..building was ..concrete. Gassing took ..20 minutes. Gas ..fed through pipes from ..engine in ..small hut a 2 x 2 m. shed which housed ..gas machine.. ..operated machine which dug out of pits which served as graves for ..gassed. ..In ..opposite wall of every chamber was a removable door through which ..bodies of ..gassed were thrown out. ..I ..had to drag ..corpses out of ..gas chambers ..pits. ..30 graves ..100 metres long ..25 metres wide 15 metres deep. 100,000 corpses could be buried. ..corpses ..stacked up to ..50 centimetres above ..edge of ..pit ..because ..corpses later settled.”   Rudolf Reder.

Reichental, Tomi

“..German people could have tried to save those people ..but maybe they were afraid for themselves. I feel afraid when I hear people say The Holocaust never happened. I feel nothing but pity for ..ignorance of such people ..shame on them ..they should know better. ..1,500,000 ..Jewish Children were murdered by ..Nazis 1,000’s of other innocent children perished because they were considered not worthy of a life. Why would I hate these people? That would make me ..same as them and I will never be that.” Tomi Reichental.

Reitlinger, Gerald

“..Apart from ..gassings in Auschwitz and ..Polish death camps ..more than 1,000,000 Jews must have died by ..firing squads or during round ups in ..ghettoes.  Auschwitz spite of its immense symbolic significance ..probably contributed less that 1/5th. of ..victims.”  Gerald Reitlinger.

Ringelblum, Emanuel

“..Day in out hundreds of cities throughout Poland ..Russia 1,000’s upon 1,000’s  of Jews are ..systematically murdered according to a preconceived plan one .takes our part.”  Emanuel Ringelblum.



On January 27th. Auschwitz is liberated by Russian forces and any idea that the Jewish Survivor will be other than abused and treated with further contempt is met across Europe, particularly within Poland. With sickening regularity, and with some 1,500 Jewish Survivors Murdered in Poland alone for having returned, and this was achieved in the first months after their supposed liberation, Jewish presence in Poland is a danger to their Survival. There are estimates as high as 2,500,000 Jews having been murdered at Auschwitz and Birkenau.

“..highest number of gassings in one day was 10,000. ..most that could be carried out in a day with ..available facilities.”    Rudolf Hoess.


Rittner, Carol     Robertson, Jenny     Roseman, Mark   Ross, Henryk   Rossel, Seymour   Roth, John K.

               Rothkirchen, Livia                           Rousset, David                                Rubinstein, William D. 

Sachs, Nelly

“..We ..rescued ..From whose hollowed bones death hads begun to whittle his flutes ..And on whose sinews he had already stroked his bow ..Our bodies continue to lament ..With mutilated music.”  Nelly Sachs.

Sakerwicz, Kazimiercz

“..already know what was going on. ..3:00 pm ..large group of Jews ..taken ..300 people. ..hour later ..volleys began. Ten ..shot at a time.”    Kazimierz Sakerwicz.

Samberg, A.          Sansom, Naomi                             Scheller, Sandra                Schelvis, Jules

Scheyer, Moriz                                

“..We were already in a sort of No Man’s Land ..between life and death. ..on ..other side of ..Demarcation Line ..Germans awaited us. There would begin ..a realm of agony. Nor would we be given ..small comfort of being allowed to die together. They would tear us apart. Not a voice ..not a look ..would be allowed to reach us there. Nothing but ..mocking laughter of our executioners. That is why so many ..though still alive ..though still unscathed ..were already wearing their own death masks.” Moriz Scheyer.

                                                            Schiff, Hilda

Schiff, Rosalie Baum

“..Who will teach generation that social justice is their responsibility. Who will teach them it is their duty to protect all human beings from persecution and violence. One crazy insecure man tried to destroy my people. He almost got away with it ..thanks to 1,000,000’s of supporters who blamed other people for their own failures and unhappiness.”  Rosalie Baum Schiff.

                                                            Schiff, Vera

Schiff, William                                                                                                                    

“..Nobody thought they would murder everyone. Even after they put us through 3 years of hell ..made us live in ..ghetto it was still inconceivable. they took Rose’s family I saw soldiers shoving children onto ..transport train. One of them kicked a little girl so hard he could have broken her back. That gave me a real bad feeling. ..almost 3 years after ..invasion ..eyes finally started to open. ..too late to do anything then.”  William Schiff.

                                                            Schleunes, Karl A.

Schloss, Eva

“..Anne Frank wrote at ..end of her Diary ..she still believed people were good at heart ..I wonder what she would have thought if she had Survived ..Auschwitz and ..Belsen. ..people have a unique capacity for cruelty ..brutality ..indiffernce to human suffering. ..I have seen ..unedifying evidence of that at close hand has led me to a lifetime of wondering about ..human soul.”  Eva Schloss.

Schneider, Helga          Schupack, Joseph             Schwarz, Daniel R.            Seidl, Rochelle G.     

Gela Seksztayn-Lichtensztein

“..I have to die ..but I did my thing. I would like ..memory of my paintings to survive.” Gela Seksztajn-Lichtensztein.                                                             



On November 20th. 1945 The Nuremberg Trials of the Major War Criminals, with 23 Signatories who agree to go forward with an International Military Tribunal, convenes at Nuremberg. America,  Australia, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Haiti, Holland, Honduras, India, Luxemburg, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Poland, Russia, Uruguay, Venezuela and Yugoslavia.

The Allies agree to prohibit the use of the defence of superior orders, although they agree to allow its consideration in mitigation of sentence. Perhaps the underlying concern with Nuremberg will be the comparative relationship some wish to place before the Tribunal, world events with acts committed against Cities and its peoples. Hiroshima, Nagasaki and even Dresden were used as some sort of equation that would somehow tip the scale of justice? In truth, the murders of 6,000,000 Jews is not comparative on any scale, is a separate issue of Crimes Against Humanity, where Laws of Governments and International States are supplanted by immoral codes and acts of murderous contempt for that rule of Law. This is marked by the salutary indictment of merely 24 high level Nazi’s as the trial ran  till  October 1st. 1946.


Sheperd, Ben        Skalow, Moshe         Slapakowa-Slepak, Cecilya ‘Luba ‘           Snyder, Timothy        Sofsky, Wolfgang      Sonnino, Piera         Soros, Twidor       Soviet Embassy           Spector, Shmuel        Spiegel, Renia    Spielberg, Steven     Steinbacher, Sybille     Steinberg, Jonathon         Steinberg, Paul         Sutin, Jack & Roshelle                Svirsky, Hana       Symchowitz, Rosa        Szajnkinder, Szmuel

Szmaglewska, Seweryna

“..No bird ever flies low over Birkenau ..prisoners strain their eyes to search ..skies for them. ..Guided by smell or instinct ..birds avoid Birkenau does not exist officially ..its name never appears in an address. It is Oswiecim II. was not ..intended to hold people for any length of time. It is a ..precrematorium waiting room ..for 20,000 to 30,000 people.” Seweryna Szmaglewska.

               Szpilman, Wladyslaw                                                                  Szwarcbard, Mordechaj

Tec, Nechama

“..For many hidden children their parents were strangers ..often unwelcome strangers. When parents came to claim them created ambivalent feelings at best. Acceptance ..hostility ..resentment ..shame ..regret were only some of ..emotions we hidden children had. Some of us may still continue to have such feelings about our Jewishness ..our religion. ..we children could ..not easily give up that which helped us survive. If being Jewish meant danger ..disapproval ..something one could be killed for ..why would a child want to take it back?”  Nechama Tec.

Tedeschi, Giuliana

“..deprived of ..relaxation that night should bring ..stars seemed to belong to a different world ..where our infinite misery was unknown. ..abandon of ..sleeping camp you saw that misery more clearly and sharply than during ..gigantic struggle for existence that went on in ..light of day.”  Giuliana Tedeschi.

Temkin-Berman, Basia                                 Troller, Norbert                               Trubakov, Ziama

Trunk, Isaiah

“..all ..considered ..Jewish participation ..nonparticipation in ..deportations had no substantial influence ..on outcome of ..Holocaust in Eastern Europe.” Isaiah Trunk.

Unsdorfer, S. B.                Van Es, Bart        Velman, Edith                   Venetzia, Shlomo            

Verolme, Hetty

“..during ..German occupation of Holland ..Germans decided to concentrate ..Jewish population in Amsterdam East. I was 11 years old. ..We saw families dragged from their homes ..never to be heard of again. ..God only knew what was happening to them.”  Hetty Verolme.

                                                            Vishniac, Roman

Vrba, Rudolf

“..attempts by members ..German General Staff to whitewash their complicity in these atrocities ..or by German historians to exculpate ..regular German Army ..should not be allowed to cover up ..fact of ..vital ..significant economic ..stragegic advantages ..Nazi establishment together with ..German Army and its General Staff derived from this unprecedented ..unparalleled mass murder and robbery.”  Rudolf Vrba.

Wachsman, Nikolaus                                    Wardi, Dina                                      Wasser, Bluma  

Wasser, Hersz

“..Sunday December 15th. 1940. ..Today is ..first anniversary of my wedding I gave my Blimele my dream of peace and dreams of happiness for all people. For anniversary I would like to make her a gift of these fantasies come true.” Hersz Wasser. His Wife is Bluma Wasser.

Wasserstein, Bernard

Weinberg, Felix

“..we got our Wehrmacht escort to ..cattle trucks. ..a delay while ..soldiers went to collect one old couple who had not turned up. They never did turn up overdose ..night before. ..a sort of victory.”  Felix Weinberg.

                                                            Weiss, Ann

Weiss, Helga

“ all young people ..hope that they will keep ..past alive in their memories ..and that they will never experience ..what my generation has had to live through.”  Helga Weiss.

                                                            Wells, Leon Weliczer

Wetzler, Alfred

“..Americans ..British in these regions. ..Why did they not drop ..bombs on ..horrible tomb ..sixty kilometres from their Northern Frontier. They could have wrecked  SS barracks ..ramps ..crematoriums ..roads ..rail track. Why didn’t they.”  Alfred Wetzler.

               Wienberg, Jeshajahu                                                                                  Wiener, Alter

Wiesel, Elie

“.. Not all victims were Jewish in this place but all Jews were victims.” Elie Wiesel.

Wiesenthal, Simon

“..Murder of 6,000,000 Jews must never be reduced to a statistic.”  Simon Wiesenthal.

Willenberg, Samuel

“..I live two lives is here and now and ..other is what happened there. ..It never leaves me. It stays in my head. It goes with me always.” Samuel Willenberg.

Wilson, Cara Weiss          Winkler, Jerzy    Winnik, Izrael     Winstone, Martin             Winter, Szmuel

Wisniewska, Anna            Wistrich, Robert Solomon            Wolf, Jacqueline         Wyman, David S.

YadVashem                                       Yahil, Leni                                         Yizkor Books

Yosselevska, Rivka

“..We turned towards the grave and then he turned around and asked “Whom shall I shoot first?” We were already facing the grave. ..German asked “Whom do you want me to shoot first?” I did not answer. I felt him take the child from my arms. ..child cried out and was shot immediately. And then he aimed at me. First he held on to my hair and turned my head around ..I stayed standing; I heard a shot, but I continued to stand and then he turned my head again and he aimed the revolver at me and ordered me to watch and then turned my head around and shot at me. Then I fell to the ground into the pit amongst the bodies; but I felt nothing. The moment I did feel I felt a sort of heaviness and then I thought maybe I am not alive any more, but I feel something after I died. I thought I was dead, that this was the feeling which comes after death. Then I felt that I was choking; people falling over me. I tried to move and felt that I was alive and that I could rise. I was strangling. I heard the shots and I was praying for another bullet to put an end to my suffering, but I continued to move about. I felt that I was choking, strangling, but I tried to save myself, to find some air to breathe, and then I felt that I was climbing towards the top of the grave above the bodies. I rose, and I felt bodies pulling at me with their hands, biting at my legs, pulling me down, down. And yet with my last strength I came up on top of the grave, and when I did I did not know the place, so many bodies were lying all over, dead people; I wanted to see the end of this stretch of dead bodies but I could not. It was impossible. They were lying, all dying; suffering; not all of them dead, but in their last sufferings; naked; shot, but not dead. Children crying “Mother”, “Father”; I could not stand on my feet.’ Germans were gone. There was nobody there. No one standing up.”I was naked, covered with blood, dirty from the other bodies, with the excrement from other bodies which was poured on to me.When I was shot I was wounded in the head.”I have a scar to this day from the shot by the Germans; and yet, somehow I did come out of the grave. This was something I thought I would never live to recount. I was searching among the dead for my little girl, and I cried for her – Merkele was her name – Merkele! There were children crying “Mother!”, “Father!”- but they were all smeared with blood and one could not recognize the children. I cried for my daughter. From afar I saw two women standing. I went up to them. They did not know me, I did not know them, and then I said who I was, and then they said, “So you survived. ” And there was another woman crying “Pull me out from amongst the corpses, I am alive, help!” We were thinking how could we escape from the place. ..cries of ..woman, “Help, pull me out from the corpses!” We pulled her out. Her name was Mikla Rosenberg. ..removed ..corpses ..dying people who held on to her and continued to bite. She asked us to take her out, to free her ..did not have  ..strength.” Rivka Yosselevska.

Zagan, Shakne    Zapruder, Alexander                       Ziemian, Joseph                Znicz, Michal

Zsolt, Bela          

“..tortured a Jew rein to their envy ..greed ..first by ..laws deprive us of our money ..our civilised pleasures ..then ..only troubled by ..physical ..material inconveniences ..ill treatments ..could never ..hurt morally or emotionally.” Bela Zsolt.

Zuccotti, Susan                 Zullo, Alan                          Zusak, Marcus                   Zylberberg, Jakub

Zylberberg, Michael       

“..All ..people buried ..had been in ..ghetto ..seemed to come to life. ..cemetery wall had been destroyed break down ..division between ..two worlds of life and death. ..walked back through ..ruins of ..ghetto. My footprints ..snow ..they were ..only ones.”  Michael Zylberberg.

The pages have not been written which will best serve the memory of 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, so abruptly taken from us. But above are some of the names who have added to the memory we seek to recall of the devastated, the rejected and dejected, the forgotten to toon to be remembered and those who should still be alive, if we had intervened. I suggest the last words of this partiular page belong to Emanuel Ringelblum who recognised, in the need to occupy his fellow Jews, with a deed far greater than time will submit to, and which has gifted much of History a grounding in the needs to approach humanity with its best human aspects, deeds after words.

“..future historian will have to dedicate an appropriate page to ..Jewish woman. ..She will take up an important page in Jewish history for her courage and steadfastness. By her merit ..1,000’s of families have managed to surmount ..terror of ..times.” Emanuel Ringelblum.

There Was Once A Last Solitary Coach

Uncategorised Posted on Wed, October 28, 2020 19:57:09

Know That There Was Just One Last Solitary Coach.

“..I saw my Father drowning in surging days. His weak hand gave a last white flutter. ..And he was gone.” David Vogel.

For David Vogel, a Hebrew poet, a writer, a Yiddish speaker, who was born in Satanov, Satanov County of the Podolia District, Kamenets-Podolsk, Ukraine on May 15th. 1891 to an Orthodox Jewish Family, life was not easy and was never going to be. However, for David at least and from amongst the 6,000,000 of his fellow Jews, his words would outlive him as he is recognised today as a Hebrew scholar and a most learned in Yiddish literature. David’s Father died when he was a young boy and he was cared for by his Mother until from the age of 21, he lived in Lvov and Vienna while exploring the Jewish cultural centres of Eastern Europe.

“..last barriers have fallen ..we are planted deep within one another ..end. way or ..other ..we are only poor people.” David Vogel.

When World War I commenced in 1914 David was arrested while in Vienna and was imprisoned in Austrian detention camps as an enemy Russian national. David then settled in Paris during 1925 and though he immigrated to Palestine in 1929, he stayed there but a year and returned in 1930 after their Daughter Tamara was born. Though not quite settling, they travelled to Berlin, Vienna and Warsaw before finally returning to Paris in 1932 and establishing himself there. Ironically, when the Second World War broke out David, while living in Paris, was arrested on October 3rd. 1939 and again as an enemy Alien, the French perceiving him as an Austrian, he was again imprisoned.

“..A deep night ..has fallen silently ..on” David Vogel.

Here too he was further incarcerated, though into the French detention camp system and when, in 1939 Hitler invaded Poland, his home Town was soon to be shaken to its core. With the Jewish population of Satanov consisting of some 1,516 persons, these made up more than 48% of the towns total population, local suspicions cross frontiers and did nothing to promote the already disruptive relationship Ukrainians held for their Jewish Neighbours. There were worrying signs from within Poland, which not only premised a future concern for all Jews under Hitler’s direct rule here, but all of European Jewry was now fearing a similar concern.

“..We will manage ..despite everything. We must succeed. ..We will have our way yet. We will disappear within each other.” David Vogel.

David and his Daughter Tamara now decided to travel to the South Eastern corner of France where Ada was recuperating in a sanatorium. after the fall of France in 1940, David was eventually released, this was in 1941 when he then decided to live in Hauteville near Lyons, the Nazi’s were honing their skills in seeking out and abusing Jews with French collaboration. When Hitler further launched his campaign into Russia, Operation Barbarossa commenced on June 22nd. 1941, the Wehrmacht forces captured Satanov on July 6th. 1941. Later on, during that August of 1941, several Jews were mocked, attacked, brutalised and then ritually shot and murdered in the local Old Synagogue.

“ is very difficult. ..certainly there is so much beauty in But fate has doomed me always to see around me ..blackest misery in it ..a fate that cannot be reversed.” David Vogel.

History though is very unsure if David’s words were given over to what this fully meant for his former home Town, nor for the Jews of Lvov, Vienna, Berlin even or Paris and Lyon, but his words enlighten the route soon to be taken for more and more 1,000,000’s of Jews to be counted. The dark descent, in what would be recognised as a systematic approach to the eradication of any Jewish presence within Satanov, Lvov and every Village, Town and City Hitler’s forces reached, could not yet be believed nor as yet discounted. When, on May 15th. 1942 about 200 Jews of Satanov, Men, Women and included many of Their Children, were Murdered, this particular Rubicon had been crossed in this particular Town.

“..My hand will clasp your dreaming hand and ..lead you through ..nights. through pale mists of childhood.” David Vogel.

Of course the Elderly and infirm were included in this massacre and they were thrown into a cellar in the middle of the Town and left to die, both of Starvation and even suffocation. This was a der Einsatzgruppe sponsored killing effort and was led willingly by the local Ukrainian militia and a cohort of others whose efforts came from the constabulary. Now, and though the following set of his words are written well before he approached his doom, David affords us a resonance in those words for a Wife who would Survive him, and this is what captures a proxy of Our own despair for him amongst 6,000,000 Jews of Europe, so ritually Slaughtered.

“..I have not yet despaired of the hope of seeing you again, dear Ada. After all, we still have some things to say to each other.” David Vogel.

David was arrested by the Gestapo sometime in February 1944 and he was removed to Drancy where, on March 7th 1944, on Convoi 69 he was transported toward Auschwitz. Along with 1,500 fellow Jews, amongst them 175 Children, these Jews were headed toward oblivion. On March 10th. 1944, and not being of the 200 Jewish Men and Women to be saved for another day, but as one of the 1,301 Jewish Men, Women and Their Children, David Vogel was murdered in a gas chamber in Birkenau. While this 53 year old, whose end is the beginning of this page in The Holocaust of missing voices, we recognise a debt all too many will never admit to while others will further conceive of the ways necessary to add David Vogel’s words to the missing words of far too many.

“..Despite everything ..we love each other very ..very much ..both of us. is very good that we are so much in love and that we have everything together and can do everything together ..down to ..last thing.” David Vogel.

Despite everything though, David and Ada did Not Survive everything together and as Birkenau interrupted their lives, Ada was left to die, broken hearted after her loss. Though the words of David Vogel cannot take you past the gates of the alternative world that is The Death Camp, he can most certainly deliver us straight to that point of no return for 4,500,000 Jews of Europe. What we can know with some certainty, are those words which are meant to touch us and comfort us and give us hope, and we recognise there are no greater than the words, even from the depths of The Holocaust, of those of these Jews consigned to its inner circle of death and destruction, one of whom is David Vogel.

“..I received your letter ..from which I can again draw nourishment for a short time.” David Vogel.

Then, if we take in a journey that takes with it letters adding up to those words we seek, and we traverse some 1,100 miles through the period of The Holocaust, and we touch what is the tangible tragedy for Riga Jews at Rumbuli and Liepaja, we become today’s witnesses of yesterdays atrocities. Or perhaps we become the witnesses to what Vilna Jews suffered at Ponari in such numbers and then we examine where the full extent of Lodz Jews were assigned and liquidated at Chelmno, we can know that emotional pain was extracted with sadistic pleasure by perpetrator’s cheered on by a spiritually castrated on looker.

“..There is no more happiness in my heart ..and no more jubilation.” David Vogel.

If we then search through the profusion of atrocity and we subconsciously become entwined with the 100’s of 1,000’s of Warsaw’s Jews arriving at Treblinka, will we not know what the experience of these Jews confined in these spaces means to us, even in terms of a human catastrophe that was sought out only for them. If we also reach out to revisit Wlodawa’s Jews and know what Sobibor presents for so and many Jews and when we enter Lublin and see how visible Majdanek must have become to so many witnessing what happened to Polish Jews within its confines, our confusion over the refusal to acknowledge what was known mounts.

“..gray ..warped loneliness once more dwells within me.” David Vogel.

When we see from the outskirts of Tomaszow-Lubelski and hear from it’s Jews and know that Belzec was but a short step down the road which afforded them no escape, are we short of that much concern we look away. Or when we then become aware that Cracow’s Jews knew little of Auschwitz and the industrial killing facility at Birkenau until it was far too late, how can we understand the dilemma of such a sudden realisation. We are still traversing Countryside and Field and into each and every Ghetto of Poland and then alongside Killing Sites in between such stops of clear devastation, to recognise all that is lost to us.

“..With all its appendages. My frame of mind is at a low point.” David Vogel.

For those of Krychow’s Jews at Borki Woods and those Jews of Ivangorod immortalised when so depicted as we see the shooters take aim at them, Mother and Child not spared. Do we simply become a part of the procession of Cherkassy’s Jews mingled with Lubny Jews all  headed for a Slaughter that was extended toward them out of an inhuman hatred, both immoral and without ethics. When we even journey on to Kiev and recognise an atrocity way above all other’s in terms of the capacity to kill the Jews of Kiev, here at BabiYar, we exemplify a criteria established which Hitler demanded should be exceeded. How then do we comprehend these crimes against humanity conducted and perpetrated by human beings against other human beings they differed from in faith.

“..When I think of you love heart skips a beat because of my great longing. After all ..we have already merged with one another so intensely ..2 of us and our Daughter.” David Vogel.

So in reminding us of all of these spaces, where the eradication of the Jews was undertaken, we cannot come to terms with an understanding we will cannot understand. Then, once we reach where David Vogel disappears into the abyss of Birkenau, and from this last solitary coach, do we not recognise the fall of civilisation and the failure of humanity. No doubt this solitary coach is filled with others like David, perhaps as many as 120 Jewish People, be they Men, Women or Their Children, and we here are aware that none of them were ever meant to Survive. The fact is, we know David Vogel did Not Survive and yet we do not know who else was amongst this last Coach load, a consignment of Jews to be resettled.

“..I so much adore your beautiful ..noble personality ..end. ..That certainly should boost you in moments of diminished spirits.” David Vogel.

Of course posterity has handed us the names of the Children on this Convoi but in these imaginings, where there is a total of 6,000,000 Jewish People who could and were to be lined up, and in single file, in a rather dishevelled, battered, torn, brutalised and haphazard way, do we not recognise this cohort of innocent People as our own. This imaginary line, which would have stretched the entire distance first to last from destructive place to annihilation space and as we see that There is A Last, Solitary Coach and it is fast disappearing with its cargo of human beings, all of them soon to be consigned to oblivion and simply because they are Jews. do we not despair

“..I simply cannot bear the pain of your not being close to me, of not being able to kiss you everywhere and to caress you… Even so, maybe no one loved you so much.” David Vogel.

01) There is a last, solitary coach about to leave

and we know from History that 10’s of 1,000’s of train transports delivered more than 4,500,000 Jews to the gates of the Death Camps in Poland. For the vast majority of these Jews, they did not re-emerge, either Gassed, otherwise Murdered, starved to death or allowed to suffer the many debilitating illnesses which they succumbed to.

02) Let us get in and go

was the cry of so many who stood before extinction not fully aware of the destruction which awaited them. But! We have to imagine the relief that many of these Jews faced as they assumed their one terrifying ordeal was being ended only for them to then have the true terror of the Death Camps inflicted upon them as they reached their final destinations.

03) For it wont wait

for any of the Jews expected to reach the Camps and as one group left their native land, another group had been totally consumed. Such was the steady progress of annihilation, the leap from der Einsatzgruppe to the industrialised Slaughter of the Death Camps, the Death Camps were overwhelmed at times.

04) I have see young girls going softly

as the gently held to all that they had ever known. Firm favourites of the Father’s, warm adherents to their Mother’s lessons on life, all would soon vanish. The age of these young girls did not assist them as they progressed toward their annihilation. Their age hampered the ready progress, but the eventual outcome was meted out to them at the whim of a man who could not see the humanity they brought to us.

05) With sad faces

the procession of bewildered infants, youngster’s barely comprehending why their Parents might be concerned, all drifted toward eternity as one. Sadness had gripped them all finally and fully as they became aware of the truest meaning of what sadness could ever deliver to a People. Overwhelmed by the realisation that came all too suddenly to these Jews waiting in line for extinction, our grief replaces their sadness and our sadness becomes immense.

06) That looked ashamed and sorry

and sorry is not for those who were so abandoned by the World as we are the shamed who should be mortified and sorry above and beyond recollection.

07) Like purple sunsets,

never to be awakened in the lush glow of a bright dawn, ever again and we leave these Jews behind, vanquished, devoured and a mere echo of what once established them amongst us

08) And chubby, pink children

the offspring of a hoped for future totally extinguished from concern by those whose concern lay in feeding a hatred that had long festered amongst humanity. Children, both infants and Babies, lumped together to form a human chain of disinterest in what should have been our most fervent wish to nurture and save.

09) Who went simply

toward what they must have all assumed a human civilisation such as the Germans would deliver in terms of a work load that might yet prove a burden but should not be as genocidal as some had been warned. How could it be possible for human beings to imagine that other beings could be so disposed to their Slaughter, that they could not fully believe it.

10) Because they were called

and motioned forward, over many 1,000’s of miles they were fed on an illogical betrayal that so bemused them, these 6,000,000 Jews answered a call to save themselves which betrayed many of their own instincts.

11) And I’ve seen men

and even women amongst them who so gave way to the inner most hatreds to act with vicious brutality toward all who stood before them, no matter how young, old, infirm or vulnerable and all because Hitler said these are Jews.

12) Who stepped proud and straight through the world’s streets,

of their former existence and for which they owned so much of all they had surveyed, all to be stolen from them as their very existence was finally extracted also. The drudgery of this newer existence did not escape all and they fought for the very existence which had been a given right never redacted by those forced into destruction.

13) Whose large eyes went ranging

appealing as they sought the form of humanity they had extended to all those who had previously surrounded them in neighbourly commune, somewhat separated merely by attire and a worship that was distinguishable from others.

14) Far and wide,

the Hitler hordes ranged and everywhere they visited, Jews ceased to exist and fell where they perished or where equally shunted to rail sidings to board other’s of the last solitary coaches, effectively removing them bodily toward a removal that would never relinquish its hold over them.

15) They too got in calmly

as many have witnessed and so many more have declared as up to that point of departing they had no reason to believe they were headed for other than enforced labour. Not all who entered the coaches did so willingly and the stock yards were filled with the corpses of those Jews who understood the lies and the truth they sought to conceal.

16) And left

as their community looked upon such scenes of carnage that even fear could not assuage the suspicion that they were somehow duped by reasonable belief of the humanity of humankind.

17) And we are the last

perhaps to make this endless journey, not knowing is the World entire might be saved, whether any of their number would escape the attention of the demand for more and more victims to fill the graves of those already removed to make way for the newer incumbent.

18) Day is declining

and night is calling and darkness brings its own concerns and fears and when the false dawn approaches, these Jews can barely comprehend what such scenes as will be witnessed in Death Camps and before gorges, ravines and graveyards must mean for the very persistence of humanity, let alone the Jewish People.

19) The last, solitary coach is about to leave

so we are fearful we might be missing from an account that will settle us Jews into a newer existence where work is difficult but life remains intact for those Jews willing to bear the trudge toward existence. Oh how glibly the false promise of a future for these Jews is made and how hopeful the prospect a cultural and civilising coming of age must deliver to an accultured Jewish understanding.

20) Let us too get in quietly

and without the uses that some concerns must have brought to the minds of all too many who could not envisage the rationale of removing all Jews, ill, weak, infirm, Children and the Elderly to a place where work could never be for them all.

21) And go,

they did. In such numbers that 1,100 miles of distance that extends between what we were made aware of, what many locals knew too clearly and what some Jews suspected, so diffused the reason to rebel. Oh how glorious the rebellious bell must resound to those who cannot place themselves emotionally even into the jaws of the danger 6,000,000 Jews faced.

22) For it won’t wait

was sadly true for 1,000’s upon 1,000’s of these Coaches which criss crossed the very routed of our imaginings to follow a discourse of such words of disbelief that we record our disgust at a humanity that failed in its duty to protect all vestiges of humanity against the inhuman detail of The Holocaust we must now reside alongside.

There is A Last, Solitary Coach

There is a last, solitary coach about to leave

Let us get in and go,

For it wont wait.

I have see young girls going softly

With sad faces

That looked ashamed and sorry

Like purple sunsets,

And chubby, pink children

Who went simply

Because they were called.

And I’ve seen men

Who stepped proud and straight through the world’s streets,

Whose large eyes went ranging

Far and wide,

They too got in calmly

And left.

And we are the last.

Day is declining.

The last, solitary coach is about to leave.

Let us too get in quietly

And go,

For it won’t wait.” David Vogel.

Re-Approaching a Hero

Uncategorised Posted on Sun, September 27, 2020 19:57:52

The Reproaching Hero


                                                The Hatred.

“ which I was now playing in Auschwitz was dangerous. This sentence does not really convey ..reality fact ..I had gone far beyond what people in ..real world would consider dangerous.” Witold Pilecki.

Let us suppose that if 1% of non-Jewish Poles sought to save the lives of 1% of Poles of their fellow Nationals who were Jews, that would mean that just 1 non-Jewish Pole only needed to act to save 1 Polish Jew from extermination. If we bear that in mind, and as we observe from the depths of the devastation that is The Holocaust for the Jews, we have a position which reflects badly upon a Polish national consensus. If we then reflect back to when 3,000,000 Polish Jews were still alive and who would, could and should have been saved, we have a disinterred moral efficacy within Poland that both looked the other way en masse or colluded in a specific way.

“..It is more complicated than just blaming ..Poles for betraying their Jewish neighbors. On hand there were extraordinarily brave Poles who risked their lives to save Jews ..and on ..other hand there was no great love between Poles and Jews before World War II.” Jan Grabowski.

In this assertion we recognize the truth which Elie Wiesel has delivered for all of us and that while not all victims were Jews, All Jews Were Victims. That said, and while it must be added to for us to appreciate the fuller terms of the Slaughter, and we have then considered all that the Polish Jewish Survivor assesses, we converge on an appreciation that while not all non-Jewish Poles were guilty, we know all too well that not all non-Jewish poles were innocent. Of course, a part of that process of identification, which for some in Poland and other Country’s is a direction that seeks to lead us away from what many knew was wrong.

“..of ..1,300,000 deported to ..Camp ..they were from amongst 20 nationalities ..and these nations gave up their Jews also. Of that total ..some 400,000 were registered and kept as Slave Labour and 900,000 were immediately Gassed. While Jews constituted 85% of all those deported here ..they represented more than 90% of all those who were murdered. ..400,000 Slave Labourers were gradually degraded till they could persist no longer and added finally to number of those Jews and others Gassed or otherwise Murdered. That stated ..we assess that of ..1,100,000 who were Murdered from all 1,300,000 deported to ..Camp ..some 900,000 Jews were Gassed immediately or otherwise murdered in Of ..400,000 of those registered for Slave Labour ..200,000 died or were otherwise Murdered. These included some 100,000 Jews ..64,000 Poles ..21,000 Gypsies ..14,000 Russian POW’s and a further 10,000 other nationals.”  Auschwitz State Museum.

What remains immoral, and against all that a supposed religious conviction the non-Jewish Pole espoused, is seen here as an abandonment of any moral code. Of course, never has the lack of any Hitlerite diplomacy convinced the World that the Jewish People were in direct line of sight for an abuse beyond what has ever been witnessed in all of History. This was practicably confirmed here on February 3rd. 1933 when Hitler’s plan of expansion, his Lebensraum was revealed. Then on February 12th. 1933, and with the Berlin riots, this ‘Bloody Sunday’ would lead to attacks and even deaths, and from amongst the 100’s attacked, Jews are systematically targeted.

“..a Pole could somehow help himself ..but ..Jew was in a more horrible situation and could in no way help himself.”  Dr. Adam Estowski.

Here too, we must recognize from what History will see, and when even the Auschwitz State Museum differentiates between who are to be identified as Poles, Polish Jews are segregated out. However, for 3,650,000 Poles, those Jewish Nationals who are to be separated out from national identification, from a national belonging and then from life itself, it is because they are Jews of Poland. In that racist nationalism we must also recognize that this non-Jewish Polish outlook, which forms one of antipathy, apathy, intolerance and indifference toward 3,650,000 of Polish Jewry, was already been compounded by atrocity, even prior to Hitler’s intervention in 1939.

                                                The Abuse.

“..Polish Police ..has played a most lamentable role in ..Extermination of ..Jews of Poland. ..uniformed police has been an enthusiastic executor of all ..German directives regarding ..Jews.“ Emanuel Ringelblum.

When Emanuel Ringelblum will eventually become confronted with the burgeoning atrocity that is to be presented to the Jewish People, he will find the administrative arms of the Polish state complicit. On March 21st. 1933, as Special Courts are designated to deal with Hitler’s political enemies and then to become the established law, a threat is issued. It is not in the least ambiguous in that any assassination attempt upon Hitler will result in all the Jews of Germany being put up against the wall and then shot.

Saturday April 1st. 1933 “..concerned with questions about Catholic schools ..organizations and sterilization which are more important for ..Church in Germany than ..Jews ..Jews can help themselves ..why should ..Jews expect help from ..Church.”  Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber.

Here too, and it is important to maintain that I would never denigrate the usage of the term hero, for obvious reasons, nor at those whose nation calls them a hero, but in terms of what is emerging as a Final Solution, the threat to all Jews must be confronted by those who see its real threat. So on April 1st. 1933 there is a one Day Boycott of all Jewish shops and businesses in Germany ordered by Hitler as he also acts with more foolish abandon. The Jewish Lawyers, Doctor’s and Pharmacists are restricted within their practices, ‘Berufbeschrankung’, foolishly boycotted.

“..To contribute to an effective awareness of ..destructive forces of racism on nations is necessary to combat bigotry ..prejudice ..intolerance ..its basic ingredients.” Maja Abramowitch.

Even Jewish merchants too are boycotted and as World opinion is incensed, and the German public shows little desire to accommodate him, Hitler orders the boycott be restricted to this one day. But, and as if this was not enough for the errant fool, Hitler forbade Jewish students to attend their classes in Schools, Colleges and University’s. Typical slogans appear which are aimed at causing ever more distress to an already abused Jewish Community, Don’t Buy from Jews and The Jews Are Our Misfortune ring out from with German City’s, Town’s and Villages.

Wednesday April 26th. 1933 “..Berlin’s nationalist student body will begin making ceremonial holocausts of such literary works as do not measure up to their ideals of the German spirit.”  New York Times.

On May 10th. 1933 10’s of 1,000’s of Books are burned on the Unter den Linden, Berlin with more than 20,000 Books being burned opposite the University of Berlin. Books written by Jews, Books written by political dissidents, and Books written by so many others not approved by the state are Burned. The Holocaust term has now entered into the vernacular of Nazi aims to destroy a People, a Jewish People root and branch. The book burning was clearly aimed against mainly Jewish Writers amongst many, and we are now made mindful of what Heinrich Heine had already stated

“..Those who begin by burning Books end by burning People.”  Heinrich Heine.

On July 31st. 1933, approximately 30,000 Jews, opponents of Hitler and many other people are by now interned in Nazi concentration camps and on August 25th. 1933 Hitler has now sought a wider emigration policy for the Jews of Germany. The Ha’avara Agreement, a Transfer of Jews from Germany to Palestine would be formally agreed between the German Ministry of Economy, and the Zionist Federation of Germany (die Zionistische Vereinigung fuer Deutschland). On April 14th. 1934 a strong anti-Semitic group is formed in Poland called The Radical Nationalist Organization, the ‘Oboze Narodovo Radzykalny,’ or ONR.

“..Bundists did not wait for ..Messiah ..nor did they plan to leave for Palestine. They believed that Poland was their country and they fought for a just ..socialist Poland which each nationality would have its own cultural autonomy ..and in which minorities’ rights would be guaranteed.”  Marek Edelman.

On May 12th. 1935 many anti-Jewish measures now escalate within Poland as the government and most Polish political parties will call for discrimination, economic boycott, expulsion, and physical violence against Jews. Also, the Polish Catholic Church, most priests, the Catholic press, and schools will sanction discrimination and or violence against the Jews and on June 9th. 1935 these anti-Jewish riots occur in Grodno, Poland.

Friday August 16th. 1935  “..solution of ..Jewish question of ..Fuhrer ..not ..individuals.” Heinrich Himmler. 

On September 15th. 1935 with the Racist Nuremberg Laws passed, the Jews are defined biologically by ‘race’ with this being affirmed by their Grandparents religious persuasion. As the National Citizens Law strips away Citizenship from its Jews, the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor seeks to ensure that marriage and extra Marital relations between Jews and ‘aryans’ is to be forbidden. For those in History who will seek to deny the Jewish People, all 6,000,000 of them their presence within The Holocaust term, as an exclusive position, consider what was always promulgated and effected against the Jews in The Final Solution.

“..if we must have preferences ..I prefer Arabs to Jews.” Anthony Eden.

There was a prevailing anti-Jewish bias in Europe and the Jewish Question was Hitler’s final resolve for all Jews he could get his hands upon and they would be expunged without concern or consideration. On November 15th. 1935 with the German Churches eagerly supplying the Nazi’s with Baptismal details, this is nothing other than the Church’s collaborative effort to further identify the Jewish Community. On July 2nd. 1938 there are 40,000 Austrian Jews who are taken into ‘protective custody’ and the time to act in their interests is now. With the proposed Evian Conference, merely 4 days away, and the fate of European Jewry in the balance, it is no longer simply those Jews under direct and immediate threat who will be abandoned.

                                                The Failure.

Thursday July 14th.1938 “..Jews for Sale at a Bargain price. Who Wants Them? No One!” German Newspaper Reichswart.

On July 6th. 1938 as anti-Jewish limitations on their economic life is being promulgated, a Refugee Conference is called for by President Roosevelt and is convened at Evian-les-Bains, France. Only 29 of the 33 Nations who are invited turn up to meet and discuss the growing crisis for refugee Jews under Hitler’s yoke! As if the Jews don’t feel isolated enough, or abandoned completely, Hitler has captured the mood of the World to their predicament and this is reflected in a News Paper article the day before the Evian Conference ends. On July 14th. 1938 Pope Pius XI is ‘politically’ displeased and shares a hope that Mussolini would not be inadvertently influenced by Hitler.

“..if there is a totalitarian regime fact and by right is ..regime of ..because man belongs totally to” Pope Pius XI.

However, as an Italian Manifesto of the Racial Scientists is issued, barely 5 months after Mussolini declared he did not envisage a Jewish Problem, it would appear the grasp of man’s essential need to grow is being fought over by both state and church. On July 15th. the Evian Conference ends with none of those present able to resolve the major issue, how to admit large numbers of Jewish refugees who are facing an increasing weight of abuse, isolation and abandonment. After 10 days of World deliberation, the Jews under constant and direct threat from Hitler must now feel totally abandoned, mere pawns in a political gamble that does not consider them.

“..delegates take ..floor to say ..We feel sorry for ..refugees and potential refugees but.” The Washington Post

                                                The Murders.

On October 27th. 1938 there was a Polenaktion, an action against Polish Jews in Germany and Austria in which 17,000 Polish Jews were rounded up, arrested and detained. They were then marched to the Polish border, or for some of the Jewish People, they were loaded onto trains to be expelled the other side of the German Polish Border at Zbaszyn. On November 9th. Ernst vom Rath dies from the wounds inflicted upon him by the outraged Herschel Grynszpan, a Son whose family has just been deported to Zbaszyn amongst. Hitler now authorizes Goering to deal with all Jewish political issues.

“..After Kristallnacht not only hell breaks loose in Germany ..but ..panic among Jewish citizens in surrounding countries.” Erica van Beek.

The Night of Broken Glass, ‘Kristallnacht’, now ensues, it is an orchestrated rage and plunder of Jews and their property’s throughout Germany, Austria and the Sudetenland. Some 267 synagogues are ransacked and destroyed and some 7,500 Jewish Shops are looted, while some 50,000 Jewish Men in Germany were deported to a number of Concentration Camps, Buchenwald, Dachau, Flossenburg and Sachsenhausen amongst them. In parallel to this many more of these Jews were further deported back to their Country of origin, Poland especially.

“..I was living in Hamburg at ..time. ..a student at an advanced preparatory school next to our synagogue. I remember we could look out of and see ..synagogue. ..morning after Kristallnacht ..we could see just strands of glass where of ..synagogue had been destroyed. ..entire inside of ..synagogue had been burnt out. Our teacher got there in ..morning and then let us out early due to what had happened.” Hugo Eichelberg.

Heydrich here now provides Goering with the list of those interred under a protective custody order and of the many 1,000’s of German, Austrian and even Sudeten Synagogues, more than 1,400 of these were defiled, desecrated or otherwise damaged. A conservative estimate suggests that some 267 of these Synagogues were totally gutted, burned out and totally destroyed. Significantly, with over 240 Jews who are killed, we see an escalation in anti-Jewish treatment from hateful words to murderous deeds. Hitler now endorses Madagascar Plan.

November 10th. 1938. “..we know what happened yesterday. We do not know what tomorrow holds. However ..we have experienced what happened today. Outside ..synagogue burns. That is also a house of God.”   Father Bernhard Lichtenberg.

                                                The Murders Escalate.

As Hitler approached the abyss of his intention, the Destruction of World Jewry was forefront in his Weltanschauung and the World will simply look on, albeit with incredulity. In the meantime, on September 1st. 1939 the direct threat to the 3,650,000 of Polish Jewry is imminent as Hitler’s hordes surge across the Polish border. All over Europe too, Jews are looking for refuge and with over 9,000 Jews having already fled to Poland, they moved themselves directly into the fury of Hitler’s hatred. With over 2,000 of these Jews reaching Palestine, safety was an escape route barely enough for those who could raise the money to pay the nazi extortion.

“..Auschwitz’s largest cemetery ..without a single grave. I held tight to 3 dreams. ..first living through ..nightmare ..surviving ..second was to tell ..even though it ..cannot be explained. There was no reason whatsoever for what was done. ..I knew I had to tell as many people as possible. ..third was that ..if I managed to accomplish ..first two ..I would do anything and everything to bring about ..establishment of State of Israel. ..I realized all three dreams.”  Noah Klieger.

While some 400,000 Jews had left Poland in their droves for Israel, we are still assessing that 3,250,000 Polish Jews are in harms way, and not just these of whom were still recorded as Polish Citizenry. As the escalation toward The Holocaust increases it is essential to recognize, as Jews in Poland were being Slaughtered, they too were engaged and wed into continuing their persistence in their own homeland. In the forthcoming 68 months, the rate of Jewish Population growth, even in the teeth of the most monstrous outrage to confront all of humanity, would grow out of a love and affection untouched by the surrounding devastating and sheer hatred.

“..A dictator put an end to my freedom ..injected hate ..fear by his terrible tactics ..into ..majority of ..population and I became an outcast.” Halina Lustig.

Of the 11,293,300 Jews still to be recognized for the Slaughter at The Wannsee Conference in 1942, we must assess that some 300,000 Jewish Babies are born in each of years between 1939 and 1944. This would raise such consensus by a further 1,800,000 additional Jewish lives, and if not quite brought to the Slaughter, they would be sought out for it. In the meantime, no Jew in 1939 was prepared for what any Jew would face in the years 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944 and on into War’s end in 1945.  However, on the same level of awareness as those Jews who are being awakened, already born into the crucible of horror, and from all of European Jewry, all Jews would now face final extinction.

“..attitude of ..non–Jewish population ..almost all Poles ..was hateful. They rejoiced at our misfortune ..enriched themselves with Jewish property.” Betzalel Papial.

The entire apparatus of this intended annihilation process, established by Hitler within Poland purposefully and in places of such infamy we know their like in names such as Auschwitz and Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, not one single Jew was meant to Survive. When, on September 2nd. 1939, and with some 30 Jews of Piotrkow taken from their homes and clearly Murdered on demand, a program of Jewish destruction emerges which is unprecedented. Prior to what many would seek to establish as the jump off point for The Holocaust, Poland in 1939 cannot be abrogated from its sought after position with regards to its Jews.

“..German people could have tried to save those people ..but maybe they were afraid for themselves. I feel afraid when I hear people say The Holocaust never happened. I feel nothing but pity for ..ignorance of such people ..shame on them ..they should know better. ..1,500,000 ..Jewish Children were murdered by ..Nazis 1,000’s of other innocent Children perished because they were considered not worthy of a life. Why would I hate these people. That would make me ..same as them and I will never be that.” Tomi Reichental.

Clearly the correlation is clear, the rhetoric giving way to the outpourings of a savage and brutal atrocity against the Jews, must be seen that without Hitler the security for the Jews of Europe would have been more settled and secure. When on September 3rd. 1939 180 Czestochowa Jews are murdered and 17 of Wieruszow’s Jews, along with 4 of Lelow’s Jews and 3 Jews of Zdunska-Wola, it is obviously clear that the Jews in Poland are to be murdered, wherever they are found. On September 4th. 1939 90 of Zarki’s Jews are murdered as are 80 of Zloczew’s Jews, over 20 Jews murdered in Kruszyna and in Konskie, 20 Jews are murdered and in Sosnowiec, 13 local Jews are ordered to dig their own graves and are Murdered into them.

“..Leni Riefenstahl has ..right idea ..she scours ..villages in search of ..peasant types she requires.”    Adolf Hitler.

On September 5th. 1939 24 Jews of Ozorkow are murdered and as the German Wehrmacht enters Pietrkow-Trybunalski and immediately sets about Murdering more than 40 of its Jews. On September 6th. 1939 there are an estimated 150 Czestochowa Jews murdered and on September 7th. 1939 60 of Aleksandrow’s Jews are murdered as are 7 Zgierz Jews. On September 8th. 1939 37 of  Trzebinia’s Jews are murdered as are 30 of Ostrow’s Jews. On September 9th. 1939, and again with the arrival of the Wehrmacht in Sanok Jews are Murdered and 3 Synagogues are Burned down. Also, the Jews of Bydgoszcz are accosted, abused and Murdered.

“..Leni Riefenstahl ..rushed into of Major General Langhauser ..chief intelligence officer. She had seen 22 Jews shot and could not continue work.” Gerald Reitlinger.

On September 10th. 1939, and with the massacre of 23 Rawa-Mazowiecka Jews, we have yet to reach the rubicon of destruction but with a massacre that was witnessed by Leni Riefenstahl, and who fainted at such a scene. Here though, and we have to assume from this that Hitler was fully aware of an atrocity being confirmed by a Major General of intelligence services and that Leni Riefenstahl was engaged in filming all details of an invasion, occupation and destructive nazi force. Can it be that she was a witness to the

Rawa-Mazowiecka murders and this foremost, World renowned film maker did not Film what she must have reported to Hitler.

“..if they are not recorded in history of ..past vanish into memorylessness ..irretrievably lost to ..present and ..future.” Lucy S. Dawidowicz.

It is the duty of us all to record and leave an imprint of what we know and here, what cannot be denied Riefenstahl’s access to her Fuhrer, a man totally engaged in every detail of what he had now set in motion. Also, can a General of intelligence be so remiss as to fail in the very detail of what Hitler had charged him with, gaining in a search for Lebensraum, War and a world dominion that was to prove catastrophic for the Jews of all Europe. On September 11th. 1939 560 more Ostrow Jews are murdered as are 65 of Wyzkow’s Jews and

12 Jews of Karwodrza.

“..I shall never forget this scene. ..this was no march to ..carriages ..but rather a mute protest ..against this murderous regime. ..a procession human eye has ever witnessed. ..They were going to their death with eyes full of contempt for ..murderers. Seeing Korczak. ..Germans asked ..who is this man. ..I could no longer contain myself. I tried to hide of tears running from my eyes.”  Nachum Remba.

On September 12th. 1939 3 of Czermno’s Jews are murdered as Hitler is aboard his Command Train near Ilnau, marshalling his forces for whatever presents itself. On September 13th. 1939 53 Warsaw Jews are murdered as are 35 of Mielec’s Jews and on September 14th. 1939 there are 14 Pultusk Jews murdered and 7 Jews of Nowe-Miasto are also murdered. On September 15th. 1939 14 Mielec Jews are murdered as are 4 of Strzyzow’s Jews and yet again on September 16th. 1939 16 of Aleksandrow’s Jews are accosted, brutalized and then murdered.

“..Apart from ..gassings in Auschwitz and ..Polish Death Camps ..more than 1,000,000 Jews must have died by ..firing squads or during round ups in ..ghettoes.  Auschwitz spite of its immense symbolic significance ..probably contributed less that 1/5th. of ..victims.”  Gerald Reitlinger.

On September 17th. 1939 20 of Laskarzew’s Jews are murdered and the list of atrocities goes on and on until we reach a zenith of killing frenzy at BabiYar near Kiev, September 29th. 1941 till September 30th. 1941 with 33,771 Jews Slaughtered in just 2 days. Of course, the industrialized process of Murdered was scaled up in December 1941 at Chelmno and the spread of mechanized Slaughter of 6,000,000 Jews across the entire of The Holocaust was extended to all 5 other Death Camps in Poland. Not content with the Slaughter on such a massive scale, Hitler laid tribute to the Murder’s of Jews at many other killing sites, Ghetto, Camps of every other description and wherever a Jews was confronted by an inhuman hatred.

“..end ..November 1940 ..8,000 ..were at ..Oswiecim camps. ..political prisoners ..criminals ..Jews. This last group ..persecuted most of all. Scarcely any of them came out alive. ..death notices. ..received. ..December 20,260 ..were sent. ..200 bodies ..being burned in ..crematorium each week.”    Polish Fortnightly Review.

So what now does the World need to know of the direct threat, assault and mass Murder of Polish Jews that anyone can bring to the World of that knowledge which is clearly understood. It is hard to imagine that even in 1940 that the World was not fully aware of every conceivable crime derived of and for and in relation to the mistreatment of the Jews by Hitler and those who acquiesced to these Crimes Against Humanity. As such then, and it is the case that the rewriting of History, and not just from within Poland has been given over to the name of Witold Pilecki in the depths of The Holocaust.

“..There were many Women and Children in ..vans. Sometimes ..Children in cradles. Here all of them were to end their lives collectively. They were carried like a herd of animals to be slaughtered.” Witold Pilecki.

Clearly, and it was accepted that Pilecki, whose mission within Auschwitz is to gather information so as to garner a more collective confronting with German occupation, is now appraised with an exaggerated role in regards to the destruction, even of Polish Jews. For that matter, any other Jew arriving in Poland, and while this does not deal directly with the fundamental issue of the Slaughter of more than 3,000,000 Polish Jews, it confronts Poland, Europe and the rest of the World with what emerges within Poland as some 4,500,000  Jews are Slaughtered there.

“..Polish Jews ..were done away mainly in Treblinka and Majdanek. Here Oswiecim ..Jews were collected from nearly ..whole Europe.” Witold Pilecki.

Some, with a vested interest in now distorting further The Holocaust truth, have heightened the presence of Pilecki’s position to obscure the clear lack of Polish concerns for its own Jews. This position is relevant as we survey the landscape of Poland’s presence within The Holocaust, let alone its position for any Jew arriving from all over Europe and destined for complete obliteration on an already blood soaked Polish soil. Here though these who seek to are manipulating a variance of the truth, centering instead upon the machinations of a resistance not considerate of Polish Jewry at all.

“..a trick for of Jews in ..World. ..some ..Jews were placed for a short time for work ..they wrote letters and sent them to families ..that they were doing well in” Witold Pilecki.

Even at the industrialized machine that was Auschwitz and soon to become Birkenau we can no longer use the ruse that nothing could be known of all that was evident from amongst the local population, Western intelligence agency’s and eventually, all of Jewry itself. For the Jews, under constant threat, how could they know the end of civilization approached them as they are so literally led astray by letter’s, subterfuge and disinformation. So what is the factual integrity of the truth that we aim to document and for its part, where that very History cannot be allowed to be altered by preference.

“..When our Jews in had well fulfilled ..task of writing reassuring letters to Jews in various countries ..and thus they became an unnecessary burden to ..then they were done away as quickly as possible sending them to some hard labor in Brezinka ..or often directly to. everywhere ..people were done away.” Witold Pilecki.

We, the historian, and the presenter of words, must uphold rigidly the science that is applied to what such a strict discipline demands of it. Distortion will only feed back toward a twisted truth that cannot ever hold on to the integrity we seek but will always withhold the very truth of its bearer. For its part Yad Vashem has recognized many in the World as Righteous in their conduct toward the Jews of Europe, a position which placed them under duress and directly threatened them of all existence particularly within Poland. But, and with regard to The Holocaust and its place within Poland, we need to temper the fuller meaning of Righteousness to which we employ its very deliberate usage.

“..I bade farewell to everything I had hitherto known on this earth and entered something seemingly no longer of it.” Witold Pilecki.

With regard to the dismissal of Polish Jewry from a non-Jewish Polish narrative, it is essential to draw a line of comparison between overall heroism and its constituent part. What Pilecki proposes here in 1942 was an operation which extended from Chelmno through to Belzec, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, even prior to the installation of Birkenau as the quintessential Factory of Death for the Jews of Europe. But we see nothing which relates the Jewish experience as distinctly different from all others who entered into the realm of these industrial facility’s of mass murder.

“..they have started clearing ..traces ..and wherever there were a lot of ashes ..they have ordered them to be ground fine ..taken to ..Vistula ..released with ..current. We have dug up a lot of graves ..but there are still two open graves on ..grounds of 2nd. 3rd. Crematoria. Several graves are still full of ash. ..A vast amount of ash from 100’s of 1,000’s of Jews ..Russians ..Poles ..scattered ..plowed into ..grounds of ..crematoria…” Zalman Gradowski.

For me, and there is a critical point at which referral of the term hero must only be made when we are discussing a relevant term such as The Holocaust. 

“..flames could be seen from 15 or 20  kilometers ..people knew ..human beings were being burned there.”  Adolf Bartelmes.

and that is within the context of what was happening, where it was happening and to whom it was happening to. The counter actions which were directed toward and against the Jews varied in intensity but were always deliberately aimed at exhuming them from all existence. As far as present day instruction goes into the searching to learn, there is this massive concern for History, particularly for The Holocaust in that History, that will not be written in Poland. In place of acknowledging that there was shown an utter contempt for all that transpired to take away 3,000,000 Polish Jews, we have a comparison made which does not qualify the certain of Hitler for the Jewish People.

“..There is a difference between ..German orchestrated systems of terror against ..Poles and ..Jews. ..Germans want to ruin ..Polish state as a state. ..with regard to ..Jews ..they want to devastate ..biological substance of ..Jewish Nation. If ..Germans do not change their method of dealing with ..Jewish population ..if there is no effort at Allied intervention ..whether through reprisals or other action ..barring some unforeseen circumstance ..within 18 months of ..time I left ..Homeland ..Jewish People of Poland will cease to exist.” Jan Karski.

For 6,000,000 Jewish People, Citizens of all Country’s within Europe, who were indeed plundered from all existence, Poland today seeks to distort that truth. Even when people like Jan Karski acknowledges the great disparity of treatment for Polish Jews and Polish non-Jews, great effort is made to ensure the Polish Jewish losses are somehow subordinate to other Polish losses. History clearly recognizes and identifies with the very tenets of what Hitler finally conceived of for the Jews and this would be The Final Solution of the Jewish Question.

“..most important mitzvah ..or commandment ..of ..Holocaust era should be ‘hakarat hatov’ ..recognition of goodness.”  Rabbi Harold Schulweis.

In that assessment, and while it is true that we cannot assess the germ of that very idea of Hitler’s was to concentrate the very enactment of the gravest atrocity ever conceived of, and it was to be written in the blood of perhaps some 4,5000,000 Jews and within Poland, we are aware that is the position we have arrived at. Also, and what we do know is that the greatest reservoir of Polish Jewish persistence in all of Europe was firmly concentrated within Poland. The step from conception of an idea to the performance of the most horrific atrocity ever perpetrated against Humanity, is merely a staging process.

“..It is ..duty of righteous men to make war on all undeserved privilege ..but one must not forget that this is a war without end.”  Primo Levi.

It was a foregone conclusion that Poland would ideally fit Hitler’s remit for the presence of the Death Camps on Polish soil and from there the complicity of many of the Jews former neighbors and acquaintances within Poland is assured. However, and from amongst this premise, there are some 6,992 Righteous from the Polish Nation who stood tallest and are indeed considered Righteous. Of course, and unless I choose to Forget how many Polish People assisted me in getting to all of the Death Camps, Belzec especially and Sobibor in particular, then I will fail to convince many that while there is badness in every society, there is immense good in the so much of Polish Society.

“..Jews ..from Bohemia ..France ..Netherlands ..other countries of Europe. ..went alone ..unescorted ..about 10 to 20 kilometers from Oswiecim ..vans were guarded ..and ..they were delivered to a side track Brzezinka.” Witold Pilecki.

It must be clearly stated, and while I was at the mercy of an ignorance of the Polish language, Polish people came to my rescue so that I could fulfill a pledge I had already made. If I ever doubt my own experience as to why I am more aware of Community’s such as Wlodawa, Tomaszow-Lubelski or Tomaszow-Mazowiecki, then it must be stated that the strongly held views of those Jewish Generations who Survived those who perished are powerful guides to what we need to know. As these Jewish Survivors are the very People who know the Truth of their own Jewish heritage, and its literal waste in the Death Camps, Ghetto and other places where they face extinction.

“..In Majdanek and everywhere in Poland. They gave what is in humanity. I have it all my soul ..letters written to me by many. Everything is possible spite of other manifestations. I ..myself have never experienced any animosity toward me and what I represent. There is always ..goodwill and hope.”  Halina Birenbaum.

Also, and I am constantly aware too that these Extermination Centers were wholly established by Hitler in the German Occupied parts of Poland, but this does not alter the geographical significance given over to Hitler’s identifying with Poland as the resource for such a despicable horror to be inflicted upon Polish Jewry and European Jewry as a whole. In acknowledging all these basic truths, all those who wish to engage in The Holocaust, they must accept they cannot blame ALL Poles for what some Polish people did in assisting Hitler’s efforts.

“..All of Poland was rife with anti-Semitism.”  Rubin Offenbach.

That said, I am still looking for what is essentially a Polish take on what is crucially Polish collusion with Hitler’s aims toward Polish Jewry. It is imperative in truth that the Polish non-Jewish People in particular see that any Polish collaboration during The Holocaust period is an accusation against those who colluded and not those who resisted the temptation to act against conscience and against their Jewish Citizenry. As the World recognizes that while not all victims were Jews, can we be so resistant to the fact that not all non-Jewish Poles were innocent in their treatment of the Polish Jews.

“..I had an opportunity to talk to Jews of France several times and one time with a transport from Poland ..rare to be met here. It was a transport of Jews from Bialystok and Grodno. ..they were arriving due to official announcements ..only those Jews would live on ..who would in ..Third Reich.” Witold Pilecki.

01) True! Witold Pilecki was captured in Warsaw, Poland on September 19th. 1940, and arrived at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp, Oswiecim, Poland amongst a contingent of 1,705 SD prisoners on September 22nd. 1940. He arrived here though as prisoner Tomasz Serafinski, Prisoner Number 4859, given a pseudonym designed to protect his very identity. At this time Witold Pilecki was the Chief of Staff of the Secret Polish Army, the Tajna Armia Polska or TAP.

02) True!  Witold Pilecki remained within Auschwitz till his escape in the early morning of April 27th. 1943, along with his confederates Edward Ciesielski and Jan Redzej.

03) True! Witold Pilecki was well  placed in Auschwitz to organize a resistance movement but his lowly rank brought him into contention with more high ranking officers of the Polish korps.

04) True! And also to be clear, Witold Pilecki sought to establish a movement which informed on the internal structure of Polish forces in in the Camp so that Poland was availed of what was happening inside and immediately outside their own confinement through locally established liaisons.

05) True! When charged with obtaining food and clothing for those immediately within his sphere of concern, Witold Pilecki was the logistics officer responsible and did his job.

06) True! Witold Pilecki set about forming a resistance movement within the Camp that would openly liaise with resistance groups outside the camp.

07) True! Witold Pilecki’s duties ensured he had the maneuverability necessary so as to manage and deliver information to the outside World. This too assisted in keeping the Polish Government in exile, and the local Polish resistance informed of what was deemed necessary to inform.

08) True! Gypsies were indeed sterilized in experiments in Auschwitz.

So! How do we break down the necessary qualification of information that would prove appropriately relevant to what Auschwitz commenced, and as to what Birkenau became established for. As I have imparted all the way through the narrative effort of this passage into the past, the World was acquainted with what was happening to the Jews within Poland. Outside the very gates on each of the 6 Death Camps there, local knowledge would have provided a grapevine of knowledge that would extend across the entire Country, across border’s and on into the wider World, both religious and political.

“..encouraged by letters written by Jews from Oswiecim and perhaps from other camps ..that they worked in good conditions and did well. ..had ..right to take a hand luggage ..what they were able to carry by themselves. ..some ..took 2 suitcases ..all their property ..having sold their immovables and movables and ..purchased ..valuable things ..dollars.” Witold Pilecki.

01a) So let us examine what was going on in the realm of abuse toward so many, especially the Jews of Poland, Europe and all watched over by and at Hitler’s behest.

Under the Law for the Prevention of Genetically Defective Progeny, July 14th. 1933, which legalized the involuntary sterilization of persons with diseases claimed to be hereditary, weak-mindedness, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, insanity, blindness, deafness, and physical deformities. By 1938 300,000 People had been sterilized. On July 25th 1939 and with Gerhard Kretschmar, who is killed by lethal injection, he was a mere 5 months old, the genesis of the T4 operation is borne.

Sunday July 30th. 1939 “..No doubt Jews are not ..lovable people not care about them myself. ..not sufficient to explain ..pogrom.” Neville Chamberlain.

On August 18th. 1939 the Reich Interior Ministry circulates its ‘Euthanasia’ paper and on January 25th. 1940, and though in its containment operation since 1939, Oswiecim, Auschwitz, is chosen as site of new Concentration Camp.

“..Thursday March 28th. 1940 ..Polish youth ..armed with clubs ..sticks ..make pogroms against ..Jews. ..Jews ..beaten and wounded. ..Jewish quarter ..abandoned to toughs and killers.”  Chaim Aron Kaplan.

On April 27th. 1940 the Himmler directive which establishes Auschwitz Concentration Camp and then on May 20th. 1940 Auschwitz is now functioning with the arrival of Prisoners previously held in Sachsenhausen. Then on June 14th. 1940 the first transports arrive at Auschwitz from Tarnow. We know too that from about March 1941 to about January 1945 the sterilization experiments continued and the hippocratic oath was laid to waste by many medics who served Hitler’s demands. It strikes me so often that while there are still many who wonder why a former catholic has chosen to write on an ostensibly Jewish Catastrophe, the mistake is in assuming other than a Human concern for a Human Catastrophe.

“..Everyone knows ..what happened in Warsaw ..Slonim is already time to count ..cities where ..catastrophies did not occur. ..understand ..better to be sent to Wolkowsk than ..Treblinka.” Ephraim Barash.

For me, how can it be that human concern must remain exclusively within focused groups, either religious or based on other definitions of ethnicity or political persuasion. With compassion somehow left outside our human endeavor, we cannot be the advocates of concern we are imbued with. Just as Christianity is to be acknowledged as the catalyst to all that antisemitism is, Hitler’s lessons from it has ensured he fully becomes the supreme arbiter of all that is The Holocaust. Of course, the history of the Jews written in contemporary christian terms, and when the Jews remained committed to their faith, it was here that the bias and even envy was blended into the most radical form of antisemitism, nazism.

“ a human being ..a Christian ..a priest ..a German ..demand of you ..Chief Physician of ..Reich ..that you answer for ..crimes that have been perpetrated at your bidding ..and with your consent ..and which will call forth ..vengeance of ..Lord on ..heads of ..German people.” Bishop Bernhard Lichtenberg.

This should have been a church’s response a universal declaration of what compassion must mean, but with a series of repulsive atrocity’s, that catapulted christianity away from any moral foundation, assaults upon Jewish existence exasperates us to this day. For any compassionate understanding, no religious fervor was undertaken on behalf of the Jews of Europe being transported toward a not already confirmed extinction. Then, with the position altered to exclude the Jewish Community from close proximity to an unchristian grounding, the Diaspora of 2,000 years of Jewish wandering that had come into being was ending.

“..Several years later it is already difficult for us to understand how ..German beast was able to deliver 1,000’s and 1,000’s of people to their deaths several times a day ..with human settlements nearby.”  Rudolf Reder.

Since Biblical Egypt, the detention of the Jewish People signifies a disturbing affront to what is human understanding both morally and ethically. Of course, there are many theories as to when Jews, or even the Faith of Judaism belongs in the history of us all, but it is appropriate to acknowledge that theirs is a religious foundation we heavily stole from. This is of course superfluous to the very tenets of belief and indeed, what belief is when, as is witnessed outside the gates of Belzec, 884,700 Jews were Slaughtered in sight of all of those that wished to see, hear, smell and know.

“..That there has been and is being considered in Hitler’s headquarters a plan to exterminate all Jews from Germany and German controlled areas in Europe after they have been concentrated in ..East. ..numbers involved is said to be between 3,500,000 and 4,000,000 and ..object to permanently settle ..Jewish Question in Europe.” Dr. Gerhart Riegner.

Faith is simply that and it cannot be enforced and must not be impeded by those who see some form of hierarchy over others that simply does not exist. This is what the wrongful enforcement in conversion has sought and for the Jewish People they were not threatened by other belief systems enough to stray from their core belief. In all of history for those whose belief differs, whether conversion to and from christianity or Islam, Faith is not corruptible by force. This then is where Hitler emerges onto a World stage to add a final excess in the treatment of the Jewish People for being Jews, their elimination.

“..only by fear ..torture ..starvation ..death ..Nazi’s eliminated at home ..opponents of ..regime ..and it was in this way that ..organisations of oppression gained ..experience ..later put into practice abroad with such thoroughness and brutality ..that made them nightmare ..scourge of Occupied Europe.”  Lord Russell of Liverpool.

As I see things, and I know all too well so many are in total disagreement with this point of view, The Holocaust uniquely belongs to the memory of an extinguished 6,000,000 Jews pushed too far toward oblivion. For that very reason, all they have is the memory we keep for them and The Holocaust term that has been their abiding space ever since it recognised this fact. We began immediately to add weight to what we recognised all that we indeed knew was happening to these Jews of Europe. What is also true is that none of this knowledge was anything to do with Witold Pilecki or the prevention of the forthcoming Slaughter of Polish and European Jewry in Birkenau.

“..A Polish Woman knows that she may die here ..but also that she may escape death. ..Jewish Women ..on ..other hand ..know that they must die.” Seweryna Szmaglewska.

No one doubts that the interests of the full cadre of Polish officers held in Auschwitz was maintained and this should not be allowed to conflate any contention which exists with the necessity of saving any of the 1,100,000 Jews Slaughtered here. That many were indeed Polish Jewry taken from within their own homeland so soak further their State with even more Jewish Blood is recognised. So the interests of saving the coming untold 1,000,000’s of Polish and other European Jews, and those set to approach all 6 Death Camps in Poland, and particularly here on the ramparts at Birkenau, are not in the least served.

“..I know. ..never in ..history of mankind ..never anywhere in ..realm of human relations did anything occur to compare with what was inflicted on ..Jewish population of Poland.”    Jan Karski.

All this withstanding, when none of the distraction or distortion is allowed, we become focused upon the heroism of a man who acted bravely. But we must not allow this fact to detract from the truth when in the furtherance of those needs of his fellow officers Polish and European Jewry was not a consideration. It is maintained that from March 1941 Witold’s reports made their way to London and were forming a knowledge that was well documented within allied intelligence circles already. Not even the fuller escalation of der Einsaztgruppe aktionen was limited to the desks of those who Murdered Jews in the field nor to the desks of Hitler’s offices.

” ..How is one to explain ..Hitler nor Himmler was ever excommunicated. ..Pius XII never thought condemn Auschwitz ..Treblinka. ..among the SS a large portion ..remained faithful to their Christian ties. ..killers who went to confession.” Elie Wiesel.

On March 1st. 1941 when Himmler visits Auschwitz and plans the expansion of the Auschwitz sub-Camps, the construction of Birkenau, Auschwitz II. Thus begins what the World will come to recognize as Hitler’s intention is toward the mechanized Destruction of The Jewish People, and others, on a enormously industrialized scale. Rudolf Hoess as kommandant is immediately notified of Hitler’s plans to annihilate the entire Jewish Population of Europe. Then on May 9th. 1941 total control of Auschwitz is handed over by the Wehrmacht to Himmler and his SS legion and on September 3rd. 1941 when Zyklon ‘B’ was first used in Auschwitz against 250 Jewish Infirm and 600 Russian POW’s, Hitler had crossed a rubicon of his sought after plan for the Jewish People.

“..During ..tenure of office of defendant Wilhelm Frick as Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia ..from August ..1943 ..until ..liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1945 ..many thousands of Czechoslovak Jews were transported from ..Terezin Ghetto ..Czechoslovakia to ..Camp at Oswiecziem ..Auschwitz Poland and were there killed in ..gas chambers.” Dr. Robert Max Wasilii Kempner.

On September 23rd. 1941 more gassing tests continue at Auschwitz as Rudolf Hoess, the Auschwitz Kommandant, found the use of Zyklon ‘B’, a Hydrocyanic Gas, formerly used as a pesticide, to be even more effective in the destruction of the Jewish People. The ratio of 8-10 grams per Cubic Metre would result in total asphyxiation within a 15 minute period. Zyklon ‘B’ was easy to pack, easy to transport and no problem to store in their sealed cans and the kill rate was everything that Hitler could have demanded. After Witold’s escape from Auschwitz April 27th. 1943, any report to be made would have been subsequent to all that was already known of all 6 Death Camps, including Auschwitz and Birkenau. 

August 13th. 1943 “..In view of the tragic existence of the Jews, where the life of the individual depends on chance, and the life of the community as a whole has long been on the brink of cessation, one must, more than ever, see the situation comprehensively. An individual point of view – everyone will surely understand that now – is of no significance today. As individuals, we are all lost. The likelihood of staying alive is minute. Broken and alone there is not much we can expect of life. Dying together with Polish Jewry we must clearly visualize for ourselves the historic character of this time and tell ourselves with courage that our death does not spell the end of the world. The record of humanity and of the Jewish people will continue at its own speed in the future, even after we are safely under the ground. The numerical balance-sheet of the Jews will be sad when peace finally comes to the world after the historical blood-bath. This is indeed not the first defeat of a defenseless people scattered over the face of the earth. Slaughter, murders, confiscation of property, and the burning alive of people all these have been known to us for generations as the essential elements of our martyrology. But there has never been such wholesale extermination. Never did a situation develop like this, where there is no way out. Never before did great numbers of people armed with the most modern technology move against the Jews. Of 16 million Jews in the world, we shall scarcely reach 9 million after the war. And, most important of all, the Jews of Europe will no longer be there, those who up to now made up the healthiest part of the nation. Nobody held out a helping hand to the Jews who were being destroyed, nobody made any effort to help them to the extent that they could escape from the danger of extermination. They looked on our destruction as on the death of maggots, and not as the loss of a nation with high cultural values. When the question of the Jews came up even the hatred towards the Germans lessened. There was a solidarity with the enemy in the joy over the fall of the Jews. Only a few retained any degree of humanity, and even they did not dare to give this public expression. The truth of aloneness was again confirmed. We shall carry the heavy burden of this isolation until the end of our days, and it points to the fact that the only proper approach is that of self-liberation: We have nobody on whom to depend except ourselves. All other political concepts will lead us astray. We have paid the highest possible price because we were lulled asleep by the prosperity of Europe, or guided by false hopes of rescue that would come from outside. We lost our sense of reality and instead of planning our independence we scattered invaluable forces in alien fields. Who knows what would have been the future of the Jewish people if there were no Yishuv (Community) of half a million in Palestine, that built its foundations before the war broke out and which has now reached a million souls? Only this nucleus of a Jewish State now offers assurance for the survival of the people. It makes us believe that an independent Jewish nation will rise again, a wellspring of profound spiritual values, as always. It is easier to die, therefore, in the knowledge that a genuine Jewish life still throbs there, that in that one small corner of the wide world we were not undesirables, lonely victims. There would be no sense in our death but for the feeling that, after we have gone, they will be the only ones who will think about us with genuine emotion. Therefore, despite certain death, we join them in their struggle for the future. Every one of our deeds paved the way for freedom, and furthers the building of an independent homeland. Our revolt is a protest against the evil that is engulfing the world. To counter the terror that has crushed our people, we shall stand prepared for the struggle for justice and freedom that should light up the life of humanity as a whole. We are willing to die in order that the shame of death in slavery shall not burden the future of the Jews, and that these Jews shall not have to recall the Jews of Europe with shame because they allowed themselves to be led unresisting to slaughter, and they had not the spirit and courage to defend themselves against destruction. As we had not been allowed to make our contribution to the creative work of building, we shall at least fulfill our historic duty here: it is we who must raise up the name of the lost people, to wipe away the mark of shame of slavery, and to place it among the ranks of people free in spirit.” Cracow Fighting Pioneer Underground Newspaper.

“..I didn’t want to go back to Poland. Poles were killing a lot of Jews who returned to claim property ..other possessions. My Parents were dead. There was nothing to go back to.”  Bianca Lerner.

What is left of Jewish Boryslaw.

Uncategorised Posted on Mon, August 31, 2020 20:02:35

In Memory of Mark and Arlene Krochmal.

The life of the Survivor of The Holocaust has been impossible to contemplate, yet we are well aware that it has not been an easy one and not just with the ghosts of memory. There is the sense of loss that the term Survivoral Guilt brings to the fore and there is that constant and nagging knowledge of the very betrayal they encountered. Given also that the realisation that there was the clear cut abandonment of the Jewish whim, and to the whim of Hitler, this leaves the Survivor with far too much to despair over. To have Survived at all, when there was a clear Hitler directive that No Jew should ever Survive, is such an immense achievement for any Jew to have managed. I know all too well, there are many a Survivor who call their Survival a matter of luck, as if we can find luck in anything that was brutally meted out to them.

“..A new era has arrived. A different world came to Western Ukraine ..political parties were banned without exception and their leaders exiled to Siberia. People were afraid to talk to each other freely of drilling projects quickly changed. ” Abraham Hauptman.

True, for the chances that the Survivor has taken to eventually emerge, it is with their sheer determination not to submit to the callousness and outrage of the overall atrocity, but to persevere so as to remember, that they have ensured that not all Jews were annihilated. For the Jewish Survivor’s Mark and Arlene Krochmal, who emerged from the desecration of Jewish Boryslaw, they are amongst the many who ensure there is a continued Jewish presence in the World today. For the Polish City of Boryslaw, which was residing at the foot hills of the Carpathian Mountains, what drew the Jewish People toward it is now steeped in a Jewish tradition that is all but lost.

“..1877. ..At this time ..part of Poland called East Galicia was part of Austro-Hungarian Empire ..ruled then by ..Emperor Franz Josef ..whose policies towards ..Jews were tolerant.” Marcus Markel.

Of course, the area was rich in Oil and this allowed the forward thinking and frontier mentality of those Jews who migrated there, a boon Town that grew into a City of Jewish content that was above and beyond 30% of the population. Later, with outer influences, the Town and City was also known as Boryslav, and even Borislav, after it was ceded to the Ukraine by Russian intervention in Poland. The War Russia would engage in and alongside Hitler in 1939, for this oil rich place, as much owned by Jews as the Jews who worked in its fields and refinery’s, it had grown rapidly and prospered. However, and tragically for the Jews of this City, German intervention, and a seething animosity from both non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians, the tolerance toward Jewish Citizenry dissipated.

“..A forest council ..committee was established. It was headed by Mundek Schwartz from Boryslaw. ..council’s task was to find a hiding place for any Jew. ..council members assigned people to ..various hiding places and established new hideouts for those that had lost theirs.” Frieda Koch.

For Boryslaw is now a desolate place, devoid of its Jewish influence, for it was here, amongst the many such Shtetl’s, Villages, Towns and Cities of Poland which had harboured its Jewish Community, the Jewish People were to be targeted. Since Hitler realised that Jewish blood could be extinguished at will and wherever he wished, Poland with 3,650,000 Jews within its boundary, proved to be the other catalyst to Weltanschauung, his pervasive World view. Also, and throughout the 1930’s, antisemitism scaled newer heights within Poland and the locally induced pogroms, readily conducted against Jewish merchants plying their trade in the surrounding areas, convinced Hitler he would have little opposition to The Final Solution.

“..1930 ..Matilda ..married a farmer from ..Olszanik ..near Sambor. ..They had 3 Sons ..3 Daughters. Their firstborn Son’s name was Wowa. From ..time I was 5 Parents used to send me to their home for ..holidays ..often for an entire month. I liked being there for I could ride horses and drink milk right from ..cow. ..fresh farmer’s produce ..vegetables ..potatoes ..carrots ..cucumbers ..also fruit ..apples ..pears ..plums. ..produce was brought in horse drawn wagons to our town of Boryslaw ..where it was sold to merchants. Father ..a shopkeeper ..used to buy it for his grocery. ..Aunt Matilda ..her Husband ..Children ..were sent to Belzec.” Marcus Markel.

As the scale of atrocity grew in intensity, the Jews in Poland were as yet unaware that what Hitler would afford them would be more directed, brutal and lasting. However, with such assaults and abuses by locals even in the City of Boryslaw, all directed against their own Jewish neighbours, robbery and killings were also rife. More and more Jews from the rural areas sought a better sense of security from within Town and even City limits. This did not go without Hitler noticing. The overall reaction to this growing assault upon the Jewish integrity with Poland was the formation of Jewish Fighting Units, who organized themselves in the fight back. While Boryslaw is a space, which sought out refuge from its own surroundings, it is undistinguished from so many other places within Poland.

“..there are good and bad people in every race every country. It is to humanity’s credit that ..good generally succeed ..though never easily and never quickly.” Sabina Wolanski.

However, it is so clearly distinguished from those same or similar places of Europe that did not as yet have to contend with Hitler’s plan for the Final Solution of the Jewish People. In all of history, and due to the vicious nature of what happened to the Jewish People here in Boryslaw, and for that matter in every Town that occupied Jewish minds for Century’s, the perversity of The Holocaust haunts the existence of Europe to this day. With the bond broken between the Boryslaw Jew and its Boryslaw lands, The Holocaust is written in the Jewish Blood of 19,500 of the some 20,500 of Boryslaw’s Jews no longer alive. While this surely recognises both the inhumanity in humankind and the genuine successes most humans make to prevent most of the atrocity that occurs, The Holocaust has written more than a chapter of degeneracy toward a People for being Jews.

“..They could have gone to China as a Russian Jewish soldier could take them. My Father’s Father Raisel Krochmal said what could they do to us. They had no idea what was coming.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

Of course, we cannot even be truly accurate with the assessment of this census of a detail written in numbers, as many Jews who gravitated toward the larger metropolis from more exposed outlying areas, many of these failed to acknowledge their habitable status with Boryslaw. Politically too, there was a diversity of outlooks, some harbouring a view that leaving for Palestine was a safer course while all too many others leaned toward the more socially concerned, even communist front their homes would afford them. Among the Communist activists in Boryslaw was Marek Rattner, who had been a medical student in Prague, and who received a six-year sentence from Polish Courts for his Communist held views.

“..Jews from Schodnica were transferred by trucks to ..train in Boryslaw and from there to Belzec and ..Janowska camp in Lvov. Many from Urycz and Pereprostyna were killed in July and August 1941 ..during ..Ukrainian pogroms and other pogroms afterwards. ..In ..Hebrew month of Elul 1941 they gathered ..Jews from Urycz and Pereprostyna ..and killed them by machine-gun” Joseph Kitai.

However, freed by the Russians, and after they took up their bi-lateral agreement to partition Poland in September 1939, Marek Rattner became the Deputy Mayor of Boryslaw from 1939 until 1941. Also, and it is clear that whatever idea’s any Jews had of the approaching intention of Hitler’s Nazi’s, and we know this can only ever be speculated upon and surmised, the certain belief that Jewish Poland would be a wasteland for more than just Jews, is certain. In the wake of Hitler’s Weltanschauung, a World View without Jews was wholly envisaged with not a single Jew in it. Enough here however is known, and from the Survivor, that the tally of the destruction which was met in Boryslaw, and similarly throughout Europe, was what the Jewish People were forcefully met with, and that had been a well ordered and orchestrated plan of annihilation.

“..It is appropriate to make known ..story of ..young Jews from Boryslaw ..brave heroes ..who saved about 300 Jews from It seems to me that this was ..only case that such a significant number of Jews were saved by ..actions of young people who took it upon themselves to build hiding places in ..surrounding forests.” Bezalel Linhard.

At this time of direst deadly consequences for these Jews, and I bring to mind that there were more than 1,500 of the Jews of Boryslaw who were merely Children, whose maturity of age was from Infancy to the late teen. Given the fact that they were indeed Children, this did not negate the attention Hitler paid to them and these all added to what became of the at least 18,000 other Jews destroyed. The very Jewish soul of Boryslaw had been ripped from its core foundations and extinguished. The inherent needs of the Jews in Boryslaw were plenty and there were various charitable groups Bes Lekhem, Bikur Kholim, Hashgakha and Moadon Khevruti who delivered assistance where needed. The operators of these institutions were principally the Jewish Women of the Community who raised funds, collected and distributed clothing, opened kitchens and supplied medical care. ]

“..We needed equipment and construction materials and weapons. I can attest that in camp ..there was almost nothing you could not get for money.” Arnold Distler.

But! As the struggle to ensure the safety of Jewish Boryslaw was an on going effort, and not to put too fine a distinction upon this, there was a murderous tally of hatred that undid every bit of life saving communal effort. I am certain too, given that I have overseen the pages of this particular research, with a scrutiny that lapped itself many times over, that there could be far more than even that 19,500 number of the Murdered Jews of Boryslaw. I make that assumption, and if ever we get round to fairly calculating the loss to us all, I am sure it can be verified. Of course, the eventual blood lust which Hitler inflicted upon 3,000,000 or so Polish Jews, is only to be measured alongside what we estimate as 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jewish People who are The Holocaust.

“..I did not perceive myself as a vendor of personal guilt and private reminiscences ..nor as a chronicler of ..disaster that befell my People and my generation ..but purely as a story teller.” Jerzy Kosinski.

While History balks at the possibility that many more than 6,000,000 Jews of Europe were Destroyed, as Europe was blinded by indifference toward them, we struggle still further to come to terms with any understanding at all fully compounded by the scale of inaccuracy we are failing to deal with. Uncertainty, and even wilful deceit so as to conceal the true nature of the atrocity, will burden the fate of Humanity for far more years than we have thus far sought to minimise it. It is true of that calculation that has been made, and that not even here at Boryslaw, can we ever be certain of that assessment. Given the evidence of that so many have made throughout the era of The Holocaust itself, we have doubted the very clear testimony afforded us. For far more than the 19,500 Jews assessed her within Boryslaw’s reach, far too many more have probably lost their lives to the will of Hitler’s plan.

“..My Grandmother ..Berta Seeman ..had 2 Sisters and 2 Brothers. One Brother ..Itzik Seeman ..lived with his family in of Skole south of Stryj. There is not a trace of their family. All of them were killed in ..Extermination Camp Sobibor. ..other Brother Hano Seeman ..who lived in Lvov ..was exterminated with his family.” Marcus Markel.

Of course, nothing of this Jewish Blood will be stilled by the lack of justice shown for their extermination, and from a one story teller to another, we gather enough pieces together to mark a piece in a giant jigsaw puzzle. Me personally, I choose to chronicle, in as much detail as I possibly can, the lost vain hopes of those 6,000,000 Jews, and though not as a personal reminiscence, it is with a sense of shame that such guilt for this perpetration was not more severely punished. Also, the Worlds indifference toward the vast majority of these Jews, which accuses civilisations sheer lack of compassion in this crime against humanity, is not to be written out of their History. Of course, while Boryslaw is not unique in the excruciating detail of The Holocaust, the room for much brutality was always unique to Hitler’s horde’s.

“..We want to save ..memories of ..Jewish streets of Boryslaw ..even if only very few of us are still around. There are 1,000 or 2,000 ..perhaps ..scattered around” Leopold Held.

Along with local collaborator’s, who sought to exact their own brand of vengeance, and they too go very much unpunished by any law we would consider just. The spoils of such inhumanity, the sins of which the Children of the parents have inherited, is now being vindicated by their own governments of today. Here though, with more than 19,500 former Jewish residents of Boryslaw, those alive and those forever extinguished, there are words, let alone my words, which can never come close to understanding or comprehending this devastating loss. For one third of the Town’s population, who were Jews, it is perhaps not all that exceptional an ending for Polish Jews resident within Poland. As the horror is equally witnessed and compared from within all the other Jewish communities of Poland, and throughout Europe, so many Jewish Community’s have been singularly extinguished.

“..Life was bearable. Those who worked could live in dignity. ..Jews had somewhat of a reprieve. ..officially they could not be harassed ..cursed. ..Life under ..Russian regime was pretty good ..especially for ..youth.” Mordechai Marakel.

With this assault upon the integrity of a Jewish Community within Boryslaw, it has to be remembered, and not is isolation, that as a collective effort by Hitler’s demands so as to satiate his own level of hatred for the Jews, other’s picked up the reins of this hatred. What went beyond the bounds of humanity as the Jewish People are being hounded to extinction is the inhumanity which commands that humanity ceased to exist for all civilising purposes. Here too within Boryslaw, and in perhaps as many as a dozen aktionen in and around the City, and along with resettlement exercises completing the decimation of this Jewish Community, there was much for many to profit from, from the very essence of a former Jewish presence no longer of Boryslaw. For these Jews who were extinguished here, and from all former existence, their worth to many was a calculated one in assets stripped from the backs of a slaughtered Jewish People.

“.. My Moms Parents Malka Chill and Mordechai Chill were shot in their own backyard in 1939. Her sister Tema Chill was captured ..a Nazi killed her 5 year old Son in front of her. She said kill me too and he did.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

While Boryslaw had a very successful athletics team, and there was even a Football Team known as Kadimah, there were amongst the athletics such regulars as Duvko Gartenhaus, Ciulo and Motl Ginsburg, Bronek Jaeger, Max Krochmal, Shlomo Wagman and Izio Wegner. On the football side, which also had some mutual members from the athletics team, these were Chaim Berger, Duvko Gartenhaus, Ciulo Ginsberg, Motl Ginsberg, Mechel Grabow, Bronek Jaeger, Max Kreisberg, Max Krochmal, Shamo Okerman, Izio Parnes, Manes Pfeferbaum, Shimek Rand, Shlomo Wagman, Hesio Wechselberg and Izio Wegner. These we must seek, Always to Remember, and in order that we should choose, Never to Forget them.

“..I was 18 at ..time and kept thinking how and where could we build some type of bunker or hiding place in or around where we lived so that when ..time came ..we could get there quickly and hide” Mordechai Marakel.

On August 23rd. 1939 and in preparation for Hitler’s assault upon the integrity of Poland, and Poland is to be partitioned in connivance with and in accordance with the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact that was signed by the then German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and his Russian counterpart Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Firstly though, with the arrival of a Division of the Wehrmacht on September 12th. 1939, many Jews of Boryslaw were considering a future in hiding as many were being rounded up. The occupying German Army now seized many local Jewish towns people for their slave labour battalions and work details. Of course, looting went hand in glove with all such occupying force and was a regular occurrence.

“..1940 ..when ..Miriam married Leon Shorr in Boryslaw ..I was 16. Her husband was a senior worker in ..oil refinery where he earned a good salary. ..1941 ..they had their firstborn Daughter ..just when ..between ..U.S.S.R. and Germany started. I liked Miriam and her family very much. They lived on our street ..Lukasiewicza Street ..Boryslaw ..just in front of ..police headquarters.” Marcus Markel.

For all manner of Jewish property, goods, valuables and foodstuffs to be stolen, was an act of aggression aimed directly at the Jewish People. Of course, this not only incentivised the local non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainian nationalists to follow suit, and with German approval, emboldened them to both rob and brutalise their Jewish Neighbours. On September 17th. 1939, with the Russians march into Galicia, they occupy Lvov, and the rest of Galicia east of the San River, a slight reprieve for the Jewish People here. However, there is no let up in the brutal treatment of the Jews to the West of the River as such attacks on the Jewish People that had been evident here in Boryslaw, and in 100’s of other Jewish Shtetl was unrelenting.

“..My parents were hidden by a Polish woman and her daughter under ..floor where there was a root cellar with his sister and her husband. They were ok for a while as my Father owned an oil well.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

All Villages, Towns and City’s of Poland ensured all hope would be extinguished and for the sporting Jews of Boryslaw, the continuation of such physical and sporting activity was thwarted. As for the rest of the Jews of Poland, who were immediately threatened by the Germans and even their former neighbours, life was becoming an unbearable drudgery. Unspeakable horrors confronted the Jews on their doorstep and a daily basis and as elsewhere, many Jews of Boryslaw were killed. With the arrival of the Russians forces though, who according to the pact with Hitler took Eastern Poland under its control, they arrived on September 24th. and this brought a temporary halt to these anti-Jewish hostilities.

“..Grandmother’s Sister Regina, a pharmacist, lived with her family in Warsaw. She died with all her family in Treblinka.” Marcus Markel.

However, not all went well for those Boryslaw Jews who had once owned or even worked in the Oil industry, which Russia now sought to nationalize. On November 1st. 1939 with the Russian occupation of Galicia dominant, this now becomes part of the Ukrainian SSR, a satellite of Stalin’s sphere of influence. In the Summer of 1940, there is an influx of Polish Jews from Western Poland into Boryslaw but these are sent to the interior of Russia, and throughout the period of 1940, and with Russian influence, the shift of power moved away from both Jews, and their non-Jewish Polish neighbours. With a more focused drive to endorse a more Ukrainian based influence in the area, Jews and non-Jewish Poles alike are under Ukrainian influence.

“..There were human issues in our first and second bunker. ..many bunkers fell apart because of friction and personal issues among ..occupants. Many people lived together within a very small space and under a lot of pressure. Discipline was one of ..main issues.” Arnold Distler,

With Hitler’s sudden move and his lightning attack on Russia with Operation Barbarossa June 22nd. 1941, Jewish existence within Boryslaw, as with all of Poland, was thrown into an even greater scale of confusion. The escalation of fear and then atrocity grew with such intensity, the belief amongst most of these Jews of Boryslaw was swayed away from civilisation’s lessons. No longer would culture be seen as their saviour as it was forfeited to an abandonment of all that had civilised much of such society. Humanity was totally abandoned by the Nazi’s and the most flagrant excesses of bestiality was brought to bear on an innocent Jewish Community fully fixed upon the idea of human beings acting humanely.

“..My father’s Parents were Raisel Krochmal and Moshe Krochmal. Claire Krochmal and Kivi Krochmal were his siblings. My parents were hidden underground in a vegetable cellar and my Mom was pregnant and lost a son. She used to send things but I do not know ..names of ..Mother and Daughter who hid them since I never could talk about it. My Parents said they would never set foot there again. My Dad owned an oil well and his Father worked in a bank. My Mom’s dad had a confectionary shop on a bridge. When they emerged ..Poles were very cruel.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

Much of Jewish Youth from Boryslaw, at least those that could do so, either sought to join the Russian forces, and against Hitler, or were simply persuaded to flee East toward inner Russia. The warning signs were compounding much of what Jewish existence had been attempting to come to terms with. With the almost immediate arrival of der Einsatzgruppe a week later into the City, these Hitlerite special murder squads, who would deal more methodically with the Jewish People, saw to the escalation of fear as it grew toward its more rampant and terrifying atrocity. The Germans had arrived back into Boryslaw June 30th. 1941 and at 8:00 pm, and on the morning of July 1st. 1941, the renewal of Hitler’s Final Solution for all the Jews here and for the rest of Europe, was fully engaged and put back into operation.

“..My father started thinking and planning for a hiding place immediately after ..move to ..ghetto. Based on my Father’s plan ..we dug a huge hole in ..yard and covered it with logs. We worked day and night until ..hole was covered and ..interior was also ready. ..Germans knew that almost every house had a hiding place.” Bezalel Linhard.

With the Russians retreating hurriedly, the NKVD blew up the power station in Boryslaw and even set alight to some of the oil wells, all of this in terms of what Stalin demanded would be a scorched Earth policy. Also, with the retreating Russian intelligence agents destroying any evidence of their former presence, they murdered 20 of the arrested local Ukrainian nationalist militia, These, who they had previously arrested and imprisoned led to a counter reaction which fell heavily upon the Jews once the Russians had departed. As the Jews were collectively blamed for this particular atrocity, the renewed excesses reminded Boryslaw’s Jews, they were given any due consideration. This led, on July 2nd. 1941 to 300 of Boryslaw’s Jews being murdered in the centre of City, and just behind the Butcher Shop in the businesses own Slaughterhouse.

“..Frida married a farmer whose name was Jagel. They were not as prosperous. They worked very hard on their farm where they had horses ..poultry ..and dogs. They had 2 Sons ..enlisted in ..Soviet Army in 1938. One of my Aunt Frida’s Sons fought with ..Soviet armies during ..war and therefore survived. My Aunt ..Frida ..her Husband ..and their other Son died in Belzec near ..end of 1942.” Marcus Markel.

Although this Slaughter was with German encouragement, it was not quite the connivance needed by the local populace to act with their intense and already heightened hatred toward their own Jewish Neighbours. The motive of profit was always at the heart of such an abiding hatred and sure enough, all over Poland, and not just here in Boryslaw, so called christian belief was torn asunder in order to steal, abuse and Murder the Jews of Poland. There were groups of non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians, and all the while the Germans looked on, as the actions of the NKVD saw the Jewish People of Boryslaw to clear out the murdered bodies of the 20 Ukrainian nationalists from the prison and along Panska Street, they are forced to wash them before burial. The Jews had to prepare these Ukrainian nationalists for their burial, and all the time they were being brutally beaten and even killed.

                            The Statue.

“..The earth almost shivers with loving engines

every living nerve of the earth breathes of oil

no, not breathes

listen clearly how it thunders

with lungs full of Carpathian air

eagerly-widening in pink

loudly pulsates rhythmic labor

through the sleepless rattling apparatus

cuts the day with a bell

in oil bathed marble

chisels your luminous statue.” Juliusz Wit.

Attempts by many Jews to build such hiding places that would secure, for some of these hugely intimidated Jews, a sanctuary, a bolt hole that might even save them, were already under construction. Not only were these hiding places secured in the local forest but also in the Ghetto, yet to become established, and in the middle of the City itself. As we read through those impassioned words, we recognise the name Juliusz Wit, a poet who will be well known to those of Boryslaw, and who was later murdered for being a Jew. The passage depicts the soul of Jewish Boryslaw before it was terminally removed and deposited in so many spaces unknown even to those who seek them out.

“..This camp was under ..jurisdiction of ..Drohobycz Gestapo and Hilderbrant came for inspections local police conducted inspections of ..primarily by officer Nemetz ..who also commanded ..Ukrainian police. In spite of lavished on them ..they always found irregularities and would punish and kill those parasites who could not work because of weakness and disease. We were led to and from work under guard and it was forbidden to leave We worked ..received no wages. On ..contrary ..there were those who paid private employers out of pocket to get work permits. We lived 5 to a room in crowded conditions ..but .. place was relatively clean and warm. ..letter R was attached to our chest that was supposed to protect us from being caught on ..streets and gave us a false sense of security. ..R was clearly designated for professionals ..but was often obtained through bribes.” Mates Heilig.

On July 5th. 1941, and satisfied with the excesses enacted upon the Jews by the locals, the Germans themselves drove through the streets of Boryslaw shooting wildly at Jews wounding and killing many of them. It must become obvious to those who choose to read of these excesses to know, Jews in Boryslaw were not as easily identifiable as might be suggested and reliance upon local knowledge from both non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians would point out who their Jewish neighbours were. Of course, the dead Jews are left where they fall are either mortally wounded or later buried in the Jewish Cemetery after being shot there. A week later, on July 12th. 43 Jews of the Intelligentsia are rounded up by the Ukrainian police and are tortured. 23 of these are then removed to the Bronica Forest, forced to dig their own graves and are shot into them.

“..It was decided to leave for ..surrounding forests. ..we sneaked from at night ..especially on ..night between Saturday and Sunday build ..bunker. ..Construction took about a month. When ..bunker was dug ..covered ..hidden ..camouflaged ..sleeping bunks ..stove ..pots ..heating materials ..water were installed. On an especially dark night we sneaked out of ..We led ..women to a bunker in ..woods where they were left alone under ..ground ..alone until April 1944. ..We had advance knowledge of ..future liquidation of ..A few days before ..we smuggled 9 more people to ..bunker ..among them a 13 year old orphan boy. And so 13 people began their lives underground a residence ..5 meters by 2.5 meters. supply came from thefts at night and goods purchased at inflated prices from a bribed Ukrainian peasant. ..A month before liberation our bunker was discovered. By Germans and Ukrainians with dogs.” Gustek Halpern.

The reprieve for the remaining captive Jews lasts until July 22nd. when the remaining 20 Jews are also Murdered in the Bronica Forest. On Friday July 25th., the Boryslaw Judenrate is created with Michael Herz as the Judenrate Chairman and Heinrich Engelberg and Herz Goldmann on the Committee. There are plans for a Ghetto, and these are to be sought from the most rundown parts of the City. Under Michael Herz, the Boryslaw Judenrate will be tasked with the matter of establishing the space for then Ghetto, provisioning for it and ensuring, from the headquarters he established in the former Hebrew school, compliance from a Nazi directive that would not allow any deviation. The Judenrate, given no choice but to confirm they had no choice, will seek to alleviate as much of or even any part of the Jewish suffering they can.

“..In ..long corridors of ..second floor people sold cakes that ..women had baked and couples were intimate ..even openly. People gambled for money.” Bezalel Linhard.

Eduard Goldmann is the liaison between the Judenrate and the German Security Police and the task has many of those same risks apportioned to the Judenrate itself. When Herz went into hiding September 1942, he was replaced by Heinrich Kahane. Gradually, all Jews are subjected to more and more restrictions, properties confiscated, businesses aryanised and plundered for all their worth. Those homes and premises, previously owned by Jews who had been Murdered already, were often left derelict. As Jews are forbidden to attend Cinema’s or Theatre and refused entry to all public buildings, the separation of Jews out of society is increased. Jews can no longer own Cars nor travel on Public Transport.

“..It was obvious ..Germans would kill all ..Jews. It was clear that first they would eliminate ..Women ..Children ..Older People ..then ..Young People’s and workers’ turn would come. There was no longer any doubt. So even though we did not know for sure where they took ..2 transports of Jews from ..2nd. and 3rd. Aktions ..Gentiles rumoured that ..Jews were deported for extermination. Having no choice ..we got used to such rumours and accepted ..fact that those who were gone would never return”. Mordechai Marakel.

The further confiscation of Jewish goods, furs, jewellery, radios and telephones, can no longer be owned by Jews as next in the Nazi sights are Jewish legal rights which are to be denied to them. Also, rationing was intensified for all Jews as non-Jewish locals moved quickly to capitalise on this with plundering what extra worth they could gain for a slice of bread. On August 1st. 1941 a local Jew by the name of Jonas is tasked with Heading the Jewish Order Police and on November 22nd. 1941 Michael Herz is ordered to inform the Judenrate that Boryslaw must round up 1,000 of its unemployed Jews. With these selected must be their Rebbe and other religious, others of their intelligentsia and those who are considered unfit for the Labour gangs.

“..What did our palace look like. ..entrance was an opening of about half square meter. Inside it was dark and ..smoke from ..stove stung our eyes. We were given 2 wet wooden bunks. It was wet and mouldy everywhere ..mud was ankle deep ..Children were crying. We would go out for a little while after dark.” Tamar Sokol-Diamont.

Word however, had reached Michael Herz of a reprisal action that had been conducted in Drohobycz, and the opinion of the Judenrate collectively is to not comply. This brings the might and terror of the Nazi officials onto Boryslaw’s streets and they immediately set about rounding up any Jew they see until they have gained their tally of those 1,000 Jews to be found. With their search, both relentless and ruthless, the shock of the assault makes future considerations of engaging in the Nazi list, a more tempered effort. The essential need to Survive was met by many who sought differing ways to do so, and as Boryslaw’s Youth grouped themselves and planned to cross the Romanian and Hungarian borders, while those Jews choosing to remain within the confines of Boryslaw, sought their own ways to remain somehow inconspicuous.

“..After 5 or 6 weeks in ..bunker we heard ..sound of a forester approaching. He wanted clothing. I told him I would get him new clothing. I brought him pants from ..bunker. He leaned his rifle on a tree. His legs became caught in ..pants as he was trying to pull them up. I jumped on him and started choking him of ..People from ..bunker finished ..job.” Arnold Distler.

Tragically, all too many of the Jews who sought routes out of the City and who sought the assistance of local smuggler’s, these Mountain tour guides, were either intercepted enroute and delivered back to the Nazi’s or were betrayed by their paid helpers. Many though, who sought out their own journey’s, ever fraught with danger, many were caught by local farmers, foresters or travelling sales people. They too were handed over to the Nazi’s and murdered. Many hid out in the Forests in flimsy dug outs, where they sought to secure some form of sanctuary for themselves and the Women and Children that had come along with them. Of course, food and water, the 2 most essentials to life and living were difficult if not impossible to come by and many conceded their way back to the seeming secure area of the City.

“..100 People were pushed into each freight car. Women ..Children ..crying ..SS were herding them in while screaming their commands. Those who were not fast enough were beaten with clubs and rifle butts. They were using dogs and many Jews were bitten. ..Ukrainian police especially excelled in this. was crowded. There was no place to sit on ..floor. Only 2 openings at of ..wrapped in barbed wire ..only source of clean air and ..only contact with ..outside world. We relieved ourselves through 2 holes in ..floor of Those that could not reach them relieved themselves where they were. Between ..Ukrainian police were keeping guard and would shoot towards us from time to time for no apparent reason ..perhaps to dissuade us from any thoughts of escape. They wounded numerous people. During ..nightly stops they passed by and gesturing to their throats they demonstrated our fate. They demanded watches and other valuables saying that we no longer had use for them.” Mates Heilig.

The very descriptive assault upon the Jews of Boryslaw as we revisit it here, sees a compelled Judenrate unwilling to comply, forced to reconsider its strategy as the excesses of the Nazi horde takes its revenge. With the taking of both the young, the able, the strong and the capable, a fait accompli strikes at the heart of each and every Judenrate, and its members throughout Poland. Does it give up its weakest, it most vulnerable in order to save the body of the Jewish People. Here, and while I am certain The Final Solution of the Jewish Question was unknown to any Jew, in all of its systematic demands of total destruction, the deliberate lack of choice was an intentioned one. The choice then to choose those who might yet survive the strictures of all that Hitler had thus thrown at the Jews, was a heavy consideration for far too many to have to bear.

“..Yehezkel Bartel second uncle ..married Hudla Zumer in 1940. When I was 16 ..I was present at their wedding. They did not have children. In October 1942 they too were sent from Boryslaw their deaths in Belzec. ” Marcus Markel.

The eventual destruction of these 1,000 and more of Boryslaw’s Jews, ferociously removed and transported to the Tustanowicea Forest, included Jews who might otherwise have been considered for Labour details and hence, a more possible opportunity for Survival. Mine is not the reason why but to understand that the calamity that struck deep at the Jewish People, within the tenets of The Final Solution was the choices they were not free to make but were allowed to make had no possibility of altering what was already predicated upon their death warrant already issued. Those choices the Jews did not have for Surviving Hitler’s intention for them all was till an unknown commodity, even as late as the Winter of 1942. From November 27th. till 29th. 1942 more and more Jews from Boryslaw were being Murdered in nearby forests.

“..Dozens of Jews were in ..forests. ..bunkers were dug by different groups. Individuals from ..bunkers would go to ..villages to buy food. Overall was very difficult and dangerous. Occasionally they were caught by ..Germans or ..local Gentiles would catch them and give them up. ..Germans would torture a captured Jew to force him to disclose’s hiding place and sometimes ..after severe torture ..person had to lead ..Germans to ..bunker.” Mordechai Marakel.

This period, under the careful watch of Schutzpolizei Gustav Wuepper, who was in charge of the 3 day aktionen, along with the systematic liquidation of 1,500 of Boryslaw’s Jews, mostly the elderly, the infirm and the ill were taken to the local forests. These had been ripped from the arms of all they had come to know and were Murdered by an Einsatz detachment or transported further afield to the Mraznica and Tustanowice Forests, near Truskavets, and are then Murdered in their previously dug graves. For those Jews who were still left behind in the City, and were meanwhile detained without adequate food or water, these Jews of Boryslaw also greatly suffered while awaiting the same or similar atrocity.

“..ripped from Mother’s arms we never saw each other again. ..Mother was murdered in a camp.” Sabina Haberman.

Here, and we only have to imagine what Sabina Haberman felt at the time, and then on throughout the life of her Survival, and though her Mother might have been one of these on this particular transport, or other transports that alighted within Belzec, and from where none of them Survived, Sabina doesn’t know which atrocity condemns her Mother. As these food and water shortages proved, with the consequences both ravaging and thus killing all too many of what was the disappearing reservoir of Jewish Boryslaw, there was nowhere else for the surviving Jews to go. During the severe Winter of 1941 and early part of 1942, and with a typhus epidemic threatening, with food shortages impacting heavily upon all Jewish existence, nothing would alleviate Jewish suffering despite Judenrate herculean efforts.

“..Near ..end of 1942 ..Miriam was sent with her Husband and their baby Daughter from Boryslaw to Belzec.” Marcus Markel.

Also, it is clear that this struggle for the Survival of the Jews of Boryslaw, precluded the early establishment of a Ghetto here and delayed its future containment purpose. However, with all too many Jews forced to live in overcrowded and worsening sanitary conditions, it was inevitable typhus would ravage many of the Jews incarcerated here and would see the Germans moving more swiftly to contain further the Jews of Boryslaw. By March, there are plans for the Nazi’s to complete the sweep of the area of Galicia and with that, the destruction of all of the Jewish community’s there, including Boryslaw would be resolved. By July 1942 there were more than 3,000 Jews who were engaged in Judenrate workshops and German Labour Bureau, the Arbeitsamte, within Boryslaw.

“..We were pretty deep in ..forest ..there was a hiding place ..another bunker that my Father started digging ..but construction was not yet completed. was still open at That was not long after we had escaped from ..first to ..second bunker where a farmer ..from whom my Father used to buy food ..betrayed us and other Jews who were hiding nearby. He came to our hiding place with ..Germans and ..local Ukrainian police with dogs.” Wanda Wincygster.

However, on August 6th. 1942 a newer aktionen is underway and in the early morning, as some 300 of Jews from the Wolanka section of the Ghetto are rounded up and removed to the Grazyna Cinema, they are held there. Many choose, having been warned of what had happened in Drohobycz that March, to head for the Forests or other near by hiding places. Also, and throughout the period of Nazi occupation, there were continuous raids on the Hospital and the Orphanage, all conducted with utter contempt for Patient or Child and the sheer brutality for the many shot Jews is echoing throughout history. Other’s, removed still in their hospital attire, or the Children still in their bed clothes were then removed to the Cinema to await resettlement transports.

“..One of my Aunt Frida’s sons fought with the Soviet armies during the war and therefore survived. My aunt, Frida, her husband, and their other son died in Belzec near the end of 1942.” Marcus Markel.

Later on that day, there were more raids and these were begun all over the City and many more Jews are captured and detained and also shot and killed as they stood or fled. Meanwhile, the Cinema is bulging at the seams and becomes far too small a structure to contain those Jews already confined there. As a temporary measure, other attached and many local buildings are used as detention centres for Boryslaw’s Jews and their long wait begins again for the transports still to come. For the ill, the infirm, those elderly considered unable to live, and even some the Jewish Children, these were systematically were Murdered. Those selected for this ‘Special Treatment’, were dispatched and Murdered behind the Butcher shop, again in its own Slaughterhouse.

“..We simply let them spend a few nights in tents at ..mountain. I’m sure that way ..little kids will be frozen to death. And we’ll use ..old ones as work animals.” SS Obersturmfuhrer Robert Gschwendtner.

This latest aktionen was led by SS Obersturmbannfuhrer Robert Gschwendtner, who was the representative of the Higher SS Leader in Galicia, SS Brigadefuhrer Fritz Katzmann’s, and was ably assisted in the Slaughter of innocent Jews by both SS Sturmbannfuhrer Richard Rokita and SS Second Lieutenant Gustav Willhaus. As they died in ever larger numbers here, their loss was keenly felt by all Jews whose Parents or Children that had been the selected few. Many of these though, calculated to have been surplus to Nazi transportation needs, these were not as clerically accounted for by their German administrator’s. However, that cannot be said for the transports despatched by Eichmann and on the morning of August 7th. 1942. the resettlement transport of the Boryslaw’s Jews begins.

“..Germans designated certain neighbourhoods to comprise a Ghetto. It included part of Lukaszwice Street and ..main bridge area ..entire Dobry neighbourhood. All Boryslaw Jews had to leave their homes and move to ..Ghetto. Ghetto was not enclosed by a wall or barbed wire fence. ..entire area was completely open on all sides ..with free entrance and exit. However ..Jews were not allowed to live outside ..Ghetto boundaries. So those Jews who were still alive after ..second Aktion began to flock to ..Ghetto try to claim an apartment. 2 or 3 families lived in one apartment entire family lived in a single room. Almost every night ..Germans would enter ..Ghetto to rob ..if there was still anything left to take. They would beat people to death ..shoot and kill them. ..situation was unbearable. Hard work during ..without reasonable work conditions ..without enough food ..during cold Winter weather ..and on top of this hope for survival.” Mordechai Marakel.

With 6,000 local Jews, 4,000 of them from Boryslaw, the other 2,000 from the environs and surrounding Shtetl and Villages of the City, they were destined toward Belzec. Two Ghetto are established within the City limits of Boryslaw, an unfenced area redefined but not in a restricted sense. These worst areas of Boryslaw, delineated around the areas of Dobry-Wysypy, Lukaszwice Street, Miskiewicza, Potok-Gorny and the Jewish quarter of Wolanka will see the comings and goings of not Jews Boryslaw’s Jews. Again, very little food is allowed into the Ghetto and severe water shortages are apparent as ever more Jews are allowed to starve till death. By this time Walek Eisenstein has taken charge of policing the area and is now Heading the Jewish Order Police.

“..After this Aktion we came to realize what was happening. After ..previous pogrom which some 800 people ..including my Mother ..were taken from their homes ..we still deluded ourselves that they were taken to a labor camp somewhere. It was hard to imagine ..murder of innocent people for no reason ..just because they were Jews. We wanted to believe they were alive. After ..Aktion in August ..we had no more illusions. It was hard to imagine that small children and ..elderly were taken away for work. News about ..existence of Death Camps started to reach us. ..victims of August were transported to Belzec.” Mates Heilig.

For an increasingly desperate few, escape to Hungary along with the building of newer bunkers would save less than 19% of Boryslaw’s Jews. There is a call for a further 1,900 Jews of Boryslaw to be transported to forced labour camps at Janowska and there was a killing aktionen with some 800 of their Jewish community being Murdered in the nearby Forest. We marvel today at the tales of the Forest hideaways, but we can never know the utter despair that filled empty spaces with concern amidst damp, cold, isolated caverns that had shunted out all former homely existence behind. We know too that while nearby aktionen was taking place, as many Jews were within earshot, and even saw these destructive efforts and it is to these that we acknowledge an ever abiding History’s debt for a great deal of what we now know.

“..And what you do is in ..past So strange how these things can be debatable. I think since you helped me identify Belzec I could then listen to my father’s testimony and then look into tree which has shown me that there was life and humanity before ..terrible black hole in my past.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

For the engineer M. Mergenholtz, who led a 20 strong resistance group, and Lonek Hofman was amongst them, the tools of that resistance were barely the hand tools and wooden clubs they owned. On October 13th. 1942, while there is an assessment that barely 5,000 Jews are still living in Boryslaw, all of them are either working in or are restricted to the confines of the Ghetto, life for these Jews is an unremitting horror. Yet again, on October 24th. 1942 a further 1,500 Jews of Boryslaw were transported to Belzec alongside 2,000 Jews brought in from Drohobycz and outlying districts and these also are resettled at Belzec. For this particular resettlement transport, which was stage managed and under the control of Helmut Braunlich.

“..After ..third Aktion ..ghetto’s area was reduced and ..population density became even greater. ..remaining people were mostly young Men and Women who had lost their families. ..war of survival started again.” Mordechai Marakel.

Both Ghettos were now closed leaving 1,750 Jewish workers redistributed to various Camps at Janowska and the Linowska Camp in Lvov and factory workshops and more than 1,750 Boryslaw Jews awaiting their fate. and then further on into November, with some of the remnants of Boryslaw’s Jews, these too were also removed to Belzec. Don’t ever doubt there is a clear absence of humanity about, and that Belzec sits astride a pyramid of such hatred, such was this sinister place, all humanity evaporated toward the so many Jewish People who entered there.

Here, and filled with the atrocity which saw 884,700 Jews of Poland and other Country’s within Europe, Murdered as a consequence of their birth right, few places hold such an air of abject horror. I was asked many times along the route toward Belzec, a small space of such significance, we cannot truly measure the immensity of the crimes here. Of course, the entire discourse of the work involved in that 4th. Book, as to what was I going to name it gave me concerns and after visiting Belzec, I knew Belzec has to add to the consequences of railing against The Holocaust atrocity. Listening to the many non-Jewish Poles of today, signalling their discomfort with the fact of the truth of its existence, I then knew its meaning and subsequent title. The very fact that all 6 Death Camps were placed in Poland, for The Final Solution of The Jewish Question, is a clearly obvious fact as Poland was the largest Jewish Community anywhere in Europe. These facts could not suggest another title so when asked why I chose to name it Hitler’s Belzec, it was simple for me to answer, it was a Hitler construct called Belzec.

“..Germans rounded up Jews in ..Coliseum movie theatre for 3 days and then trucked ..victims to the slaughterhouse. There they were shot and buried in pits that had been pre-readied. It was ..first time the Germans killed Jews without moving them to another location. They no longer bothered hiding their true intentions” Abraham Hauptman.

On Oct 23rd. 1942 a further 1,500 of Boryslaw’s Jews are resettled to Belzec and on November 6th. 1942 2,000 more of Boryslaw’s Jews follow them there. Some Jews of Boryslaw are sent to Janowska for forced labour and from amongst those workers still left, who are being detained in the Coliseum Cinema, their Wives and Children are being rounded up. On November 29th. 1942 100’s of Boryslaw’s Jews, having spent the last 3 to 4 weeks in the Coliseum Cinema, with conditions deteriorating by the minute, conditions that are considered so bad, even the German Commissioner for the City demands their resettlement. During the coming month 300 of these Jews of Boryslaw are Murdered in the Butcher’s own Slaughterhouse.`

“..In ..Spring ..1943 ..tides of ..war on ..Eastern Front turned against ..Germans. In spite of ..relative calm was decided after many discussions that we could no longer sit back. ..Germans would not allow us to meet ..approaching Russians. They would liquidate and its inhabitants at any time they saw fit or we would be sent westward. We needed to start thinking of ways to escape. People considered hiding with ..Gentiles ..fleeing ..using false Aryan papers ..or building shelters ..bunkers ..surrounding forests. We rejected ..option of hiding among Gentiles due to both lack of confidence and lack of money. We knew of cases where Gentiles took money and property from Jews in exchange for shelter and then handed them over to ..Nazis. ..truth is that hiding Jews was extremely risky and punishable by death. Travel to western Poland with forged documents was dangerous too. So ..option of building a shelter in ..woods was that many of us chose ..even though it involved a great risk ..given ..hostility of ..locals. Most foresters were Ukrainians. They would kill those they encountered and steal their remaining property ..or give them up to ..Germans.” Mates Heilig.

At the beginning of 1943 there were barely 1,200 Jews of Boryslaw left in the City and between February 16th. and 17th. 1943 a further 600 Jews are taken away, this time from the Ceramic Works. Along with some 400 other Boryslaw Jews also rounded up, they are murdered in the Slaughterhouse at the back of the Butchers Shop. Elsewhere, the Death Camp system of 6 factories, solely built for the annihilation of the Jewish People, and Belzec is one of those included, this was the very genesis, though not the deadly model of the mechanised slaughter of the Jewish People in The Final Solution of the Jewish Question. These Death Camps, which had fully emerged prior to 1942, are the all encompassing death toll for some 4,000,000 Jews, and of course other.

“..Rosa was saved by hiding in where she worked. Later she was in a Concentration Camp and in April ..1944 was sent with ..other camp residents to Auschwitz. ..she was not sent straight to ..incinerators. She worked as a clerk because of her considerable knowledge of German and English ..became ill with tuberculosis and was put into a temporary hospital where she waited to be sent to ..incinerators. Fortunately ..Auschwitz was liberated by ..Russian Army ..January ..1945 ..her life ..saved.” Marcus Markel.

As the systematic nature of The Holocaust is being deciphered, it is essential that we recognise that these Death Camps all belonged to Hitler, erected as a consequence of his demands for the destruction of the Jews and, within Poland, as a consequence of there being 3,650,000 Polish Jews in Poland. By deed of word, and by enactment of those carefully framed words of Hitler’s all consuming hatred for the Jewish People, Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, along with Hitler, all clung together in so as to amass the greatest industrial killing of humanity in all of World History. In view of his vile hatred and the Death Camp’s location, annihilation was a certainty for all Jews sent there, as none were meant to Survive.

“..Dozens of Jews were in ..forests. ..bunkers ..dug by different groups. Individuals from ..bunkers would go to ..villages to buy food. Overall was very difficult and dangerous. Occasionally they were caught by ..Germans or ..local Gentiles would catch them and give them up. ..Germans would torture a captured Jew to force him to disclose’s hiding place and sometimes ..after severe torture ..person had to lead ..Germans to ..bunker.” Mordechai Marakel.

Of course, the fact that 3,650,000 Jews were residents of Poland might help to dislodge the myth that Hitler had not considered their establishment here or even that he himself had no hand in The Holocaust. When we consider this logically, carefully and objectively, we recognise of course his every fingerprint was written upon the very pages of this insult to our own humanity. The very dislodgement of humanity from civilisations very foundation is a deep despair and consequence of the abandonment of the Jews of Europe. Indeed, the act of defilement that is encompassed in the title of The Holocaust alone is an insight into the very intrinsic detail of Hitler’s profanity and lust for revenge and a vengeance toward all of Humanity.

“..poor ..who had nothing to barter ..suffered ..most and were dying of starvation. They wandered ..City streets hungry and no one came to their aid. Many died in ..streets. ..Judenrate cart collected ..bodies and buried them in Jewish cemetery in unmarked graves.” Daniel Hochman.

All of this hatred which Hitler spewed forth all too often and in multiple outpourings on platforms afforded him, saw in his overriding hatred that was clearly directed, specifically augmented and legislated for and against the Jewish People. The very acts of terror enacted by those who acted upon these words and gestures matched the bile of rhetoric Hitler proposed should be the horror which Hitler so proudly and loudly expressed. Of course, and in keeping with Hitler’s non-stop drive for Jewish extinction, we see that on November 29th. 1942 some 3,500 more of Boryslaw’s Jews are transported to Belzec and are murdered there. All such Death Camps were now fully operational and the grinding and relentless destruction of European Jews pounded Jewish existence into dust.

“..Due to lack of food ..filth and contaminated water ..a typhoid epidemic broke out and claimed many Jewish lives. Every day many people died of starvation in ..streets. Because of lack of food ..their faces and feet swelled and they dragged themselves until they would fall dead on ..pavement. Those were horrible sights. People screamed ..cried ..and sometimes erupted in a ghoulish laugh. At those days each person could think only about how to survive.” Mordechai Marakel.

Now, and for the remaining Jews of Boryslaw, all became crystal clear to any of those Jews who still believed in the goodness in mankind and who now sought to see. Perhaps, what they could not fathom nor believe, but what had opened itself up to their fuller recognition, and that this was a deliberate plan of annihilation of all Jews. All throughout February 1943 with those Jews of the City who were Murdered, there was a recognition that all party’s were invited to the atrocity. This was Murder of those 1,000 Jews of Boryslaw and districts was in an aktionen conducted by German Police, SD units and a contingent of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. Little more evidence was necessary of any crimes, their identity as Jews was a genocidal warrant.

“..Jews in ..Coliseum Cinema were later marched to ..Drohobycz forests and killed there. This was ..end of ..Ghetto. 800 Men and 200 Women remained in camp.” Marcus Markel.

The full remit of Hitler’s Final Solution had landed at the doors of all of the Jews of Europe, and here too in Boryslaw it was meted out in particularly brutal fashion. There were further major roundups of those remaining Jews who could be found and between May 25th. and June 2nd. 1943, those still remaining within City limits were shot, their bodies displayed across the Streets. Other’s were removed to the Forest and Murdered there. Those still remaining, the more skilled workers were reprieved temporarily and these 1,000 Jews were detained in the City’s work camp. This signals the coming dissolution of Boryslaw as a Ghetto and its Jewry, is further ransacked from life, the facts of which are that those Murdered in situ were some 700 Sick and Elderly Jews.

“..Since August 1943 about 20 people hid near ..Village of Smilna in a hut dug in ..Carpathian forests. They were people of all ages ..but no children ..both women and men from various backgrounds. They managed to organize in a way allowing a basic ..minimal existence in terms of food supply and distribution of practical social functions ..hoping to reach ..moment of liberation by ..Red Army. ..critical problem was getting food. Travel by foot was hard for people carrying 30-35 kilograms of supplies through ..mountains ..hills ..forests ..fields ..dark ..rain and sometimes in deep snow. Sudden blizzards occurred in ..Carpathians and there were cases where people lost their way and froze to death.” Abraham Hauptman.

Though some of the younger ones were also selected for destruction, including some 170 Women and Children, all of these are shot in the Bronica Forest. This aktionen took place on June 12th. 1943. With the final liquidation of the Boryslaw Ghetto, which began on June 24th. 1943, and was accomplished by July 1943, more than 18,000 Jews of Boryslaw had been Murdered. Yet, and for those still remaining, these Jews of Boryslaw were transported to the camps of Auschwitz, Majdanek, Mauthausen and Plaszow. As September 1943 drew in, the special status worker badge, ‘R’ does not safeguard Boryslaw’s Jews for ever and 800 are still Murdered in the Bronica Forest.

“..My grandmother’s second Sister Zila lived in Przemysl with her Husband and their 5 children. They all were killed in Sobibor. My grandmother Berta was driven in November 1943 to Bronica Forest where she was shot with other Jews.” Marcus Markel.

From those few remaining worker Jews, some attempt to escape and are caught by waiting non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians who savagely beat them and collect their reward. Then, on March 24th. 1944 the local labour camp in Boryslaw is being liquidated and newer Resistance plays its hand from amongst these Jews. Lonek Hofman attempts to group together a forestry detail and after shooting a Ukrainian forester, a local militia is formed and along with the Nazi’s, they comb the forests and capture many of the Jews who sought to flee, amongst them, Lenek Hofman. All are shot. However, for the last remaining Jews of Boryslaw, 522 of these were taken to Plaszow Camp where some of them found their way to Birkenau for destruction.

“..2 homeless orphans ..without a Mother or Father ..wandering inside ..ghetto that was no more. We hid at ..sight of anything or anybody ..scared by our own shadow. What if some ..identifies us and points saying ..Here are some dirty Jews. We would be doomed.” Tamar Sokol-Diamont.

Any Jews of Boryslaw, along with many other Polish Jews still remaining in Plaszow, will be steadily moved westward to avoid the Russian capture of Hitler’s evident bestial truth. Meanwhile, The Final Solution of the Jewish Question in Boryslaw, and its environs, was being brought to its Judenfrei climax and is fully in evidence from April 1944. On May 23rd. 1944 any fit Jews from Boryslaw, still able to work, these are taken to the Railway Station for transport to the Death Camp at Majdanek. Those unable to work are locked in the Coliseum Cinema, a transit camp between death in the Butcher’s own Slaughterhouse or the Forests were they were murdered. The Jewish Order Police are ordered to then bury their Community’s bodies in the Forest and they too are shot into the graves.

“..I continued to work at ..warehouse. On one of his periodic visits patron ..Siegismund ..took me aside for a long talk. He told me that he and his family were being transferred to Lvov. He suggested that I join his family in order to stay alive and told me that ..Jews of Boryslaw had no hope of survival. I was shocked to hear these words. I was 18. I told him that I had Parents and felt responsible for them.” Marcus Markel.

On July 21st. 1944, assisted by many local groups, including the nationalist Banderists, further sweeps of the areas around the City are made in a search for any Jews who had thus far escaped the roundups. Weeks away from liberation, many of these captured Jews were Murdered and by sheer luck, with an approaching Russian liberation force, some of Boryslaw’s Jews Survived. The Russians arrived on August 7th. 1944, and with some 200 Jews of Boryslaw emerging from bunkers within the City and forests and a further 200 or so returning from mostly Russia and even some Jews returning from Hitler’s Concentration Camps, some still saw hope in establishing their former lives. In all respects though, the Jewish community of Boryslaw had ceased to exist. Here, were as many as 1,000 Jews who Survived, though all too many were forced out of their former homes and businesses by non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians.

“..Germans moved ..remaining few Jews into a forced labor camp in Mraznica. In ..past ..Koszary was a place of tenements and stables owned by ..Silvaplana oil company.” Mates Heilig.

Of these Survivors, it should be remembered, and in more than 2 periods of threat against the Jews in the area, the industrialist Berthold Beitz saved more than 250 Jews. These were from the August 1942 roundup for Belzec and 150 from the October 1942 transport to Belzec. He also managed to save Mother’s and Their Children from the killing operation in the City in August 1942. Both he and his Wife Else are recognised as Righteous Amongst the Nations. For those whose remembrance is abruptly challenged to memory, for the descendants of Mark Krochmal and Arlene Krochmal whose entire Families were murdered, we make a choice to add to their memory, so that they are never forgotten and are always remembered in some way.

“..In 3 things a man is known ..his true nature ..revealed 1 his cups or when drunk 2 anger or ..loses his temper 3 his spends ..or donates money.” Talmud.

For all too many of these Jews, murdered within reach of their own homes or who were forcibly transported out and then perished in the system of Camps designed to hold them, we choose to Remember them. For those worked to death, or indeed those in the Death Camp’s like Belzec, many of their names are unknown and may never be resurrected in forgotten memories. Their memory has always been important to me, so as to ensure that in stating what I consider is my search, I do not omit one single name that might become presented to us. Tragically, there are far too many of those Jews who otherwise might be lost to us, their names never to be mentioned in the history they too belong to.

“..When ..war ended my Parents and Family members emerged. People had taken everything and wouldn’t give anything back. They joined an underground.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

In my recent Book: Hitler’s Belzec, Boryslaw featured heavily and knowing that I only found the traces of 14,500 Jews from Boryslaw who were annihilated within Belzec, is a sadness. In the grand scheme of The Holocaust, it is just as important to know, from these 14,500 Jews of Boryslaw’s 20,500 Jews, that I have recorded the names of but 6 of them within the pages of Hitler’s Belzec. We know that these 6, who did Not manage to Survive Hitler’s full intention for them, are here at Belzec, while so many more are lost even in knowing they are in one of his other Death Camps.

I) Mindl Abel, Boryslaw,

II) Sheva Avraham, Boryslaw,

III) Roza Glazer, Boryslaw,

IV) Milka Szor, Boryslaw,

V) Ecia Weissbaer, Boryslaw and

VI) Ryfka Weissbaer, Boryslaw.

Amongst these also, are those Jews of Boryslaw who are known to have been Murdered, amidst a combination of Einsatz Aktionen and pogrom’s conducted by non-Jewish Poles and Ukrainians. For those Jews, who had shone a light on Boryslaw, its diversity, it Educational Standard and Athleticism and Culture, we recognise what they have been deprived of. For us, and in order to ensure the future gains that are to be made from the knowledge they have afforded us, we stretch whatever memory we can gain to bring them forward. For a far greater number of Boryslaw’s Jews, and who died as a consequence of the brutality inflicted upon them, there are as many as 19,500 and more of Boryslaw’s Jews that did Not Survive.

“..I don’t know if you would be interested in listening to my Dad’s Testimony. My Son posted it on Facebook a few months ago and it was ..first time I could look at it. I drove my parents to do it but I couldn’t listen. Way too painful. Now with some of my own healing I was able to. He died in 1996. Sounds crazy right that I couldn’t look. I was their only Child born to them when they were 37 and never thought it could possibly happen. They lost a Son not fully born in hiding.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

Tied into this figure is an uncertainty as to whether some Jews are from outside the area, who are included and there are those not included that should be. Also, and with the emerging figures for the births to those Jews who are lost to us during the period, this too is a catastrophe which further obscures the true assessment necessary to be honouring the totality of those Jews Murdered. In effect, Boryslaw has an open vista as to what happened to practically all its Jewish Citizens, and though all too many of the names are hidden from view, there is no secret here as to what was clearly accomplished and by all of those who sought out these Jews for Murder, Annihilation, Destruction, a forgotten mass of individual Jewish People Slaughtered.

“..In ..meanwhile people died everyday of starvation and disease.” Joseph Kitai. Both in massive killing operations, along with starvation and disease in the Ghetto, these Jews of Boryslaw were left to expire or forced to die in open air pits and in Death Camps or Concentration and slave labour Camps. Many were led away by transportation to both Belzec and Birkenau for their immediate annihilation or toward Auschwitz, Mauthausen and Plaszow for debilitating death by slave labour. It is true that many of these Jews chose to die in place of safety, responsible to Child or to Parent, an obligation borne out of Love, Respect and Human Decency. We are made aware, and by those who know and knew their story that both Fanka Bleiberg and Ruchka Gartenhaus were Sister’s, both were Murdered behind the Butcher’s shop and that Malka Chill and her Husband Mordechai Chill were Murdered in their own home.

“..When I watched my Father’s testimony I was so amazed at how he could talk without breaking down each moment. It was very important to him that ..World learns from remembering that it should never happen again..” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

Tema Chill, who was Malka Chill’s Sister was also Murdered along with her 5 year old Son. Dr. Michal Friedlaender, Marek Rattner, Bruno Schulz were Murdered in 1942. Baruch Wahl was Murdered in an Einsatz Aktionen and Juliusz Wit was Murdered by the Ukrainians acting for the German. Josek Wolanski and his Father were Murdered around the July 1944 purges and his Mother was Gassed in Belzec. Maciek Zwilich too was to add to the shame of loss ordained and commissioned by Hitler and carried out by legions of human beings who left all of their humanity behind them. Individually, these Jews of Boryslaw, who represent but a tiny microcosm of all that The Holocaust means for 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews of Europe, is none the less pivotal to understanding the entire horror as we approach it.

“..My mother Lea Markel managed to survive Auschwitz. She died in Haifa in 1992 at .age of 90. She had Grandchildren and Great- Grandchildren and lived her last years in a good way..” Marcus Markel.

There is the case of Dinka Rapp, who for reasons of her own respect for herself and for what her life had meaning to afford, and while she attracted the intention of the supposed german elite, she too could have saved herself momentarily. Such was the attention that surrounded Dinka, for such was her beauty, that if she had agreed to sleep with a German officer, she might have been saved for the while. But such is the perversity of the images thrown up in The Holocaust that these glimpses are both transitory and elusive and almost illusionary to those of us searching through the debris of their existence. Mindful too that the attention which so many like Dinak attracted, was against the aryan principle called Rassenschande, in which they disgraced the corrupted ideal of racial purity.

“..Thank you. ..I know how hard you have worked to document ..lives of those murdered. My childhood was not really a childhood and I grew up with so much pain and love. Now I can see ..dark hole filled with names and a life that existed before. My Parents were so badly scarred. Even those who Survived were hurt beyond belief.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

For Dinka, as she spat in face of the would be defiler who then Murdered her, there must have arose within her a satisfaction that all resistance belongs to those who do not comply. For Hertz Schaller and Betka Held, both having already Survived, it is a further tragedy that for Betka, who had escaped to Kazakhstan, and who chose to return, she was Murdered in Boryslaw, on December 3rd. 1945. Here, and this is but a few pages I deliver on the torment for the Jews of Boryslaw, and for those still left behind to try and accumulate as much evidence of those who remain hidden beneath the deadly detail that is The Holocaust, there will be no final settlement with that bloodied past. There are in fact 9,275 Names of those Jews of Boryslaw who were Murdered in The Holocaust and while these represent 42% of those former Jewish lives extinguished, those that are recorded at:

offer those who Survived, a glimpse of what we choose to share and to know and to come to terms with. But such is the extensive search to know essentially, who is lost to us, far too many names are gone, missing, forever failed by an inadequate memory that will not give up its hidden detail to any of us.

“..Growing up I tried to avoid talking about it since it was so all encompassing and thought with ..death of my Parents I could finally put it to rest. It still stayed with me and ..pain as a giant black hole like a wound remained. There was no past beside it. Finally now I can face ..brutality and acknowledge that this did happen to my family.” Marilyn Krochmal Gelfand.

None of these Jews are left in Jewish Boryslaw.

Balka Abraham, Shewa Abraham, Klara Ajzensztajn, Leon Ajzensztajn and Tina Ajzensztejn.

Berta Berger, Bianca Berger, Chaim Berger, Czarna Berger, Gusta Berger, Joachim Berger, Hilde Berger, Hinda Berger, Laura Berger, Lea Berger, Lola Berger, Margalit Berger, Ozjasz Berger, Pinkas Berger, Zeev Berger, Lota Bergstein, Klara Birman, Abe Bleiberg,Artur Bleiberg, Ida Bleiberg, Eitel Bleiberg, Ester Bleiberg, Fania Bleiberg, Fanka Bleiberg, Golda Bleiberg, Jacob Bleiberg, Janek Bleiberg, Jeshozua Bleiberg, Joachim Bleiberg, Lea Bleiberg, Leo Arie Bleiberg, Minna Bleiberg, Moshe Bleiberg, Rachel Bleiberg, Rosa Bleiberg, Sender Bleiberg, Zvi Bleiberg, Dawid Bokser, Isaac Bokser, Izak Bokser, Isio Bokser, Josef Bokser, Lea Bokser, Leon Bokser, Moshe Bokser, Selig Bokser, Tema Bokser, Temi Bokser and Chana Brodfeld.

Amalja Malka Chill, Avraham Chill, Baruch Chill, Kivi Chill, Kiwno Chill, Mordechai Chill, Saul Chill, Tema Chill and Her Son.

Arnold Distler, Chana Distler, Clara Distler, Izhak Distler, Jacob Distler, Joseph Distler and Rosa Dornfeld.

Dawid Egid, Herman Egid, Max Egid, Yona Egid, Antonina Egit, Ducek Egit, Ignatz Egit, Leon Egit, Matatyahu Egit, Mordekhai Egit, Moshe Egit, Sheindl Egit, Tzila Egit, Cipe Eisenberg, Hela Eisenberg, Helena Eisenberg, Hinda Eisenberg, Sheina Egit, Toni Eisenberg, Yehoshua Eisenberg, Adolf Eisenstein, Aron Eisenstein, Baruch Eisenstein, Berko Eisenstein, Bernhard Eisenstein, Bubek Eisenstein, Cesia Eisenstein, Chaim Eisenstein, Chaja Eisenstein, Chana Eisenstein, Estera Eisenstein, Frederyk Eisenstein, Hersh Eisenstein, Hinda Eisenstein, Imek Eisenstein, Izrael Eisenstein, Jakub Eisenstein, Joachim Eisenstein, Leon Eisenstein, Leontyna Eisenstein, Maurycy Eisenstein, Mina Eisenstein, Miriam Eisenstein, Mordekhai Eisenstein, Moritz Eisenstein, Moshe Eisenstein, Nachum Eisenstein, Ozjas Eisenstein, Pepka Eisenstein, Rosa Eisenstein, Salomon Eisenstein, Shmariahu Eisenstein, Tonia Eisenstein, Tonka Eisenstein, Umek Eisenstein, Walek Eisenstein, Froim Eizenberg, Emilie Engelberg, Heinrich Engelberg, Henryk Engelberg, Maria Engelberg, Roman Engelberg and Romek Engelberg.

Henrik Feferbaum, Losia Feferbaum, Samuel Fridlaender, Elimilekh Fridlender, Joseph Fridlender, Khana Fridlender, Moshe Fridlender, Rakhel Fridlender, Rut Fridlender, Sarah Fridlender, Shmuel Fridlender, Tzila Fridlender, Yekhezkel Fridlender, Ada Gingold-Friedlender, Adela Friedlander, Arie Friedlander, Chana Friedlander, Cifka Friedlander, Ciwia Friedlander, Emanuel Friedlander, Freida Friedlander, Henka Friedlander, Hesia Friedlander, Khala Friedlander, Leo Friedlander, Marjem Rachel Friedlander, Matilde Friedlander, Dr. Michal Friedlander, Moritz Friedlander, Moses Friedlander, Rachel Friedlander, Rozia Friedlander, Sabina Friedlander, Salka Friedlander, Shmuel Friedlander, Smilek Friedlander, Tilda Friedlander, Tonia Friedlander and Tzirel Friedlander.

Salamer Galpern, Berta Garber, Chune Garber, Lwewer Garber, Malka Garber, Mania Garber, Sabina Garber, Bernard Gartenhaus, Dora Gartenhaus, Duvko Gartenhaus, Rachela Gartenhaus, Ruschka Gartenhaus, Sarah Gartenhaus, Shoshana Gartenhaus, Yakob Gartenhaus, Hersh Gintzburg, Yeta Gintzburg, Chaim Ginzburg, Ema Ginzburg, Genia Ginzburg, Gitel Ginzburg, Herman Ginzburg, Klara Ginzburg, Mates Ginzburg, Miriam Ginzburg, Mordekhai Ginzburg, Mundzo Ginzburg, Natan Ginzburg, Rut Ginzburg, Sara Ginzburg, Schifra Ginzburg, Adela Goldman, Avraham Goldman, Berta Goldman, Blanka Goldman, Edward Goldman, Ignatz Goldman, Lipa Goldman, Mair Goldman, Mande Goldman, Menache Goldman, Mordechai Goldman, Mosze Goldman, Seder Goldman, Serca Goldman, Szlomo Goldman, Szmuel Goldman, Tuncia Goldman, Wolf Goldman, Yakow Goldman, Antonina Goldmann, Edouard Goldmann, Herz Goldmann, Chaim Graber, Dawid Graber, Ema Graber, Ester Graber, Minia Graber, Mechel Grabow, Bernard Greber, Cadok Greber, Chaim Greber, David Greber, Ejdel Greber, Golda Greber, Hendryk Greber, Herman Greber, Kivi Chill Greber, Leon Greber, Marie Greber, Mina Greber, Moses Greber, Regina Greber, Rosa Greber, Wolf Greber and Yoel Greber.

Fischel Haberman, Frida Haberman, Gitel Haberman, Henrik Haberman, Hirtzel Haberman, Jesek Haberman, Joseph Haberman, Jurek Haberman, Leon Haberman, Osias Haberman, Sala Haberman, Yehoshua Haberman, Yosef Haberman, Abraham Halpern, Adela Halpern, Berisch Halpern, Chana Halpern, Estela Halpern, Faivel Halbern, Faiwell Halpern, Feiga Halpern, Herzel Halpern, Isser Halpern, Jakob Halpern, Jakow Halpern, Joseph Halpern, Leon Halpern, Markus Halpern, Mina Halpern, Moshe Halpern, Nechemje Halpern, Pepa Halpern, Ratzi Halpern, Regina Halpern, Salka Halpern, Sarah Halpern, Sheindel Halpern, Shlomo Halpern, Wilhelm Halpern, Yosef Halpern, Zosia Halpern, Pnina Hauptman, Ana Heilig, Eliahu Heilig, Hana Heilig, Heinrich Heilig, Lea Heilig, Lola Heilig, Mates Heilig, Matilda Heilig, Rebeka Heilig, Arieh Held, Betka Held, Mosze Held, Natan Held, Rebeka Held, Regina Held, Rivka Held, Michael Herz, Alter Hircz, Mala Hircz, Sonia Hircz, Julius Hirsch, Avraham Hochman, Daniel Hochman, Icchak Hochman, Genia Lanz-Hochman, Ester Hochman, Hana Hochman, Herman Hochman, Sara Hochman, Hela Hofman, Leon Hofman, Leonid Hofman, Lonek Hofman, Luna Hofman, Pesza Hofman, Berl Hokhman, Dov Hokhman, Khala Hokhman, Rela Horowic, Khana Chana Horowitz and Simon Horowitz.

Arnol Jaeger, Bronek Jaeger, Hana Jaeger, Manes Jaeger, Marie Jaeger, Michael Jaeger, Mozesz Jaeger and Rosza Jaeger.

Heinrich Kahane, Abraham Koch, Antonina Koch, Dawid Koch, Jchak Koch, Leon Koch, Pepa Koch, Salomon Koch, Dawid Kreisberg, Ilona Kreisberg, Leiser Kreisberg, Max Kreisberg, Sara Kreisberg, Szymon Kreisberg, Volf Kreisberg, Bronia Krochmal, Bubah Krochmal, Bubek Baruch Krochmal, Clara Kiara Khaia Krochmal, Felicjan Krochmal, Fridrich Krochmal, Gizela Krochmal, Henka Krochmal, Jakub Krochmal, Jetti Doncia Krochmal, Josef Krochmal, Juda Krochmal, Kalmen Krochmal, Kivi Krochmal, Kuba Krochmal, Lorka Krochmal, Marcus Mordekhai Krochmal, Max Krochmal, Mendel Krochmal, Moshe Moses Krochmal, Rachela Krochmal, Raisel Reizele Krochmal, Rut Krochmal, Ruth Krochmal, Roza Krochmal, Saly Krochmal, Szoszana Krochmal, Tzvi Krochmal, Yehuda Krochmal and Yehudit Krochmal.

Chewka Lerner, Adela Linhard, Basia Linhard, Busia Linhard, Emanuel Kinhard, Gitl Linhard, Henia Linhard, Herman Linhard, Ignacy Linhard, Jacob Linhard, Khana Linhard, Lea Linhard, Lusia Linhard, Maurycy Linhard, Roitzl Linhard, Tuvia Linhard, Udel Linhard, Yitzkhak Linhard, Jechiel Linhart, Chana Linherd, Michel Linherd, Motl Linherd and Szlomo Linherd.

Jehezkel Markel, Shamal Markel, Zalman Markel, Fania Markiel, Moses Markiel, Szanka Markiel, Golda Maryl, Rachel Mendelsohn and Klara Montag.

Shamo Okerman.

Hela Parnes, Ignacy Parnes, Izak Parnes, Izio Parnes, Raphael Parnes, Yaakov Parnes, Manes Pferferbaum and Golda Polak.

Aron Rand, Bernhardt Rand, Israel Rand, Melekh Rand, Mendel Rand, Shaul Rand, Shimek Rand, Yaakov Rand, Dina Rapp, Dinka Rapp, Elazar Rapp, Jacob Rapp, Mathild Rapp, Reizl Rapp, Gitel Ratner, Marek Ratner, Mikhael Ratner, Abraham Rattner, Chaim Rattner, Gitla Rattner, Rywa Rattner, Tzila Rosenbaum, Regina Rosenman and Pinia Rothstein.

Aleksander Schaller, Antonina Schaller, Chewe Schaller, Golda Schaller, Hertz Schaller, Leon Schaller, Lusia Schaller, Marcus Schaller, Mordechai Schaller, Sara Schaller, Taube Schaller, Zdzislaw Schaller, Zishe Schaller, Lea Sheindl, Leib Scheler, Bruno Schulz, Miriam Schwarz, Leon Shorr, Miriam Shorr and Daughter, Dora Slowik, Cyla Spindler, Adassa Sterbach, Regina Steuerman and Chaja Szwimer.

Shlomo Wagman, Baruch Wahl, Hesio Wechselberg, Izio Wegner, Josek Wolanski and Mother and Father.

Hudla Zumer, Aleksander Zwilich, Celina Zwilich, Hanka Zwilich, Maciek Zwilich and Rosalie Greber, Regina Greber, Rosa Greber, Wolf Greber and Yoel Greber.

Why Does Poland not accept any Responsibility in The Holocaust

Uncategorised Posted on Tue, July 07, 2020 21:09:15

{#February 29th. 1936 cardinal Hlond, primate of Poland issues a pastoral letter calling for discriminatory measures against the Jewish People. This incites a series of coordinated assaults on Jews in Poland.}

My responses to those numbered by jeffrey will be annotated {#01 – #15} and captions I present will be {#between}

There are 6,992 non-Jewish Poles who are Righteous Amongst the Nations so it is difficult dealing with those who deal in obfuscation. For my part. Nowhere have I ever stated that all non-Jewish Poles are guilty. What I have said, in line with the factual truth, and there is a deficit in moral probity, which you are lacking, and it is that not all non-Jewish poles are innocent. I undertook my visits to centres which seek to promote such education, as many Polish Survivor Jews were adamant they could never return to Poland as they were betrayed. I have found Poland willing to tackle what Poland needs to, which is the forms of distortion you are presenting over my words. I, as an Historian am willing to qualify all I have said, and have every proof I have ever uttered to back it up. You, on the other hand. Can never suggest you have been other than slanted in your view and absent in its presentation. I have sought the Truth for myself. If there is any untruths in any of the words of any one of my Books, I have not done my research.

The whole point to my effort, 6,000,000 Slaughtered Jews of Europe, 3,000,000 of whom are Polish Jews. That fact alone should compel Poland to correct the grave wrong in legislating against History. The distortion of any part of that truth will corrupt every part of Polish History. I have no bias here, merely a sought after truth, the facts of which contain the veracity I deliver. That truth ensures that while not all victims in WWII were Jews, All Jews in The Holocaust are the 6,000,000. I also hold with the fact that not all non-Jewish Poles are guilty, but neither are All non-Jewish Poles innocent. [#March 3rd. 1937. Polish government seeks to revoke Citizenship of Polish Jews in Germany.} Herein lies the lack of truth that is being presented on a site called Polish – Jewish Dialogue Committee and I detail the communication I have been engaged in with one Jeffrey Cymbler.

{#June 16th. 1937 “..No place for Jews in Poland.” General Lucjan Zieligowski.}

Patrick Dempsey wrote the following comment:

“..3,000,000 Polish Jews were Murdered. What did Poland do to stop this!”

I tried to respond to Patrick but my response was too long to post. So I am posting it now here. Delighted to have anyone comment upon or add items to this list:

Patrick, as an historian, I am certain that you know that “Poland” ceased to exist when in September, 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union invaded and conquered Poland. The Polish government was exiled. The government-in-exile was based in France during 1939 and 1940, first in Paris and then in Angers. From 1940, following the Fall of France, the government moved to London, and remained in the United Kingdom until its dissolution in 1990.

{YES. I know all of that!}

{#In 1938 alone, 40% of all Property in Warsaw was Jewish owned with 40% of all non-Jewish poles employed in Jewish owned industrial concerns. 80% of skilled workforce in Poland were Jews.

1. From its headquarters in London, the Polish Government in Exile commanded the underground Polish Home Army. The Polish Home Army sent detailed intelligence communications back to London about the Holocaust. Lack of international effort to aid Jews resulted in political uproar on the part of the Polish government in exile residing in Great Britain. The government often publicly expressed outrage at German mass murders of Jews. The Polish Government in Exile then compiled and published and disseminated in 1942 at the beginning of the implementation of the Final Solution the book “The Extermination of the Jews in Nazi Occupied Poland”. The world, including your beloved Churchill, ignored this information.

{#01From September 1st. 1939 the formative Einsatz was engaged in the obliteration of a Jewish presence within Poland. As we all know, the Polish Home Army, the AK (Armia Krajowa) was formed in February 1942. Polish Jewry was being decimated for almost 30 months. As for the ‘booklet’, issued December 10th. 1942 arrives much after what was happening to Polish Jewry to continue.}

2. In December 1942, the Polish government in exile pleaded with the Allies to halt the execution of the remaining 2/3 of the Polish Jewish population. That plea made it to only PAGE EIGHT of the Jewish New York Times.

{#02 Here we have Poland pleading to save what was left of 3,650,000 Polish Jews. 1,000,000 had already been annihilated}

{#03 “..never in ..history of mankind ..never anywhere in ..realm of human relations did anything occur to compare with what was inflicted on ..Jewish population of Poland.” Jan Karski.}

3. In 1942 Jan Karski was selected by Cyryl Ratajski, the Polish Government Delegate’s Office at Home, to perform a secret mission to prime minister Wladyslaw Sikorski in London. Karski was to contact Sikorski as well as various other Polish politicians and inform them about Nazi atrocities in occupied Poland. In order to gather evidence, Karski met Bund activist Leon Feiner and was twice smuggled by Jewish underground leaders into the Warsaw Ghetto for the purpose of directly observing what was happening to Polish Jews.

{#03 As we know Jan Karski met with representatives of Polish Jewry to gain first hand proof of what was well known about The Final Solution of The Jewish Question. We know too that Jan met with Menachem Kirszenbaum and Leon Fajner and undertook trips to both the Warsaw Ghetto and the Camp at Izbica, and not Belzec as has been said.}

4. Jan Karski met with Polish politicians in exile including the Prime Minister, as well as members of political parties such as the Socialist Party, National Party, Labor Party, People’s Party, Jewish Bund and Poalei Zion. He also spoke to the British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, giving a detailed statement on what he had seen in Warsaw and Belzec. In 1943 in London he met journalist Arthur Koestler, author of Darkness at Noon.

{#04 As I have stated, I clearly doubt Jan visited Belzec, though the Camp at Izbica was close by?} {#On a monthly basis during 1941, and in the Warsaw Ghetto alone, and excluding those Jews being ritually Murdered in the Ghetto, the totality of Jewish Death through Starvation and Disease is: January 900,

February 1,023,

March 1,668,

April 2,655,

May 5,821,

June 4,290,

July 5,550,

August 5,560,

September 7,545,

October 4,614,

November 4,841, and

December 4,966.}

5. Karski then traveled to the United States, and on July 28, 1943 Karski personally met with Roosevelt in the Oval Office, telling him about the situation in Poland and becoming the first eyewitness to tell him about the Jewish Holocaust. During their meeting, Roosevelt asked about the condition of horses in Poland. Roosevelt did not ask one question about the Jews and did not give a shit about the Jews.

{#05 There is nothing Jan can have told FDR that the OSR’s had not already informed him of hitler’s clear intention}

{#”..Poland ..home of ..largest Jewish population in Europe ..chosen by Hitler as ..central slaughter house for all Jews driven there from other countries and as ..greatest concentration camp for Jews. In Poland Hitler established ..arena where ..doomed Jews were subjected to ..most cruel manifestations of his antisemitic ..racial theories and where ..sadistic instincts ..were let loose without restraint. ..facts show ..Poland ..selected as where promise of ..extinction of European Jewry should be fulfilled.” Jacob Apenszlak.}

6. Karski went on to meet with many other government and civic leaders in the United States, including Jewish Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, Cordell Hull, William Joseph Donovan, and Rabbi Stephen Wise. Frankfurter, skeptical of Karski’s report, said later “I did not say that he was lying, I said that I could not believe him. There is a difference.” You want to blame a government? Blame the USA!

{#06 “..In November and December 1941 began ..slaughter of Jews in ..Warthgau. ..slaughter means of gas. ..a special gas chamber car ..used ..90 people ..loaded at one time. ..victims buried ..Lubartow Forest. ..1,000 ..gassed daily. In Chelmno ..November 1941 to March 1942 all .Jews from Kolo ..Dab ..Bugaj ..Izbica 5,000 in all ..with 35,000 from Lodz Ghetto and a number of Gypsies ..gassed.” Szmul Zygielbojm.}

7. Karski presented his report to media, bishops of various denominations (including Cardinal Samuel Stritch), members of the Jewish Hollywood film industry and artists, but without much result.

{#07December 1941 “..Jews receive half which ..poles receive. ..poles receive grams of bread daily ..Jews receive 100 grams ..every other day.” Dr. Witold Majewski.}

{#“..There is a difference between ..German orchestrated systems of terror against ..Poles and ..Jews. ..Germans want to ruin ..Polish state as a state. ..with regard to ..Jews ..they want to devastate ..biological substance of ..Jewish Nation. If ..Germans do not change their method of dealing with ..Jewish population ..if there is no effort at Allied intervention ..whether through reprisals or other action ..barring some unforeseen circumstance ..within 18 months of ..time I left ..Homeland ..Jewish People of Poland will cease to exist.” Jan Karski.}

8. The Provisional Committee to Aid Jews (Polish: Tymczasowy Komitet Pomocy Zydom) was founded on September 27, 1942, by Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz. The founding body consisted of Polish democratic Catholic activists associated with the Front Odrodzenia Polski, Polska Organizacja Demokratyczna, Zwiazek Syndykalistów Polskich and PPS-WRN. The Provisional Committee was financed partly by the Department of Social Services (Departament Opieki Spolecznej) and the Department of Internal Affairs (Departament Spraw Wewnetrznych) of the Polish Government in Exile. The Provisional Committee may have been the first formal institution in modern Polish history to be operated in an atmosphere of mutual trust by Polish and Jewish organizations of a broad political and socioeconomic spectrum. One of its vice-presidents was a member of Bund, Leon Feiner. Its secretary was Adolf Berman, who represented Zionist organizations. The Provisional Committee comprised Polish underground organizations that recognized the authority of the Government in Exile. Therefore, it did not include the communist Polish Workers’ Party (PPR), which provided similar aid to Jews. {#08 It was necessary to create ‘an atmosphere of mutual trust by Polish and Jewish’ organisations even though there seems to be some insistence that Polish Jews were not treated as a separated out entity.}

9. On September 27, 1942 Zegota – full codename: the “Konrad Zegota Committee” was the Polish Council to Aid Jews with the Government Delegation for Poland (Polish: Rada Pomocy Zydom przy Delegaturze Rzadu RP na Kraj) was founded. It was an underground Polish resistance organization and part of the Polish Underground State. It is estimated that up to 60,000 Jews were saved by Zegota. Operatives of Zegota worked in extreme circumstances – under threat of death by the Nazi forces, and sometimes in the midst of a hostile population. Their work required exceptional bravery, and many were recognized as Righteous Among the Nations after the war. Zegota was the brainchild of Henryk Wolinski of the Home Army (AK). In 1963 Zegota was memorialised in Israel with the planting of a tree in the Avenue of the Righteous at Yad Vashem. Zegota was supported by the Home Army, which provided facilities for forging German identification papers. Zegota also forged about 50,000 other documents such as marriage certificates, baptismal records, death certificates and employment cards to help Jews pass off as Christians. Zegota’s children’s section in Warsaw, headed by social worker Irena Sendler, cared for 2,500 of the 9,000 Jewish children smuggled out of the Warsaw Ghetto. Many were placed with foster families, in public orphanages, church orphanages, and convents. Zegota repeatedly asked the Polish Government-in-Exile and the Government Delegation for Poland to appeal to the Polish people to help the persecuted Jews. The Government in Exile gradually increased its funding for Zegota throughout the war.

{#09 September 27th. 1942 The Council for Aid to Polish Jews, known as ‘Zegota’ was founded by both Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz.}

{#”..beginning of October 1942. In two and a half months one district ..Nazis had committed 300,000 murders.” Jan Karski.}

10. Witold Pilecki was a Polish cavalry officer, intelligence agent, and resistance leader. Pilecki was a co-founder of the Secret Polish Army resistance group and later a member of the Home Army (Armia Krajowa). He was the author of Witold’s Report, the first comprehensive intelligence report on the atrocities committed at the Auschwitz concentration camp. Pilecki volunteered for a Polish resistance operation that invo Awwww lved being imprisoned in the Auschwitz concentration camp in order to gather intelligence. At Auschwitz, he organized a resistance movement within the camp which eventually numbered in the hundreds, and secretly sent messages to the Western Allies detailing Nazi atrocities at the camp. Poland’s Chief Rabbi Michael Schudrich writes in The Auschwitz Volunteer: Beyond Bravery: “When God created the human being, God had in mind that we should all be like Captain Witold Pilecki, of blessed memory.”

{#10 Septemeber 1940 Witold Pilecki (aka Tomasz Serafinski) enters Auschwitz. On March 18th. 1941 Pilecki reports to Polish Government in Exile, London, on Auschwitz Camp Conditions. Information which had previously been dispatched to Zwiazek Organizacji Wojskowej, ZOW and onto Warsaw through October 1940.}

11. Aleksander Lados was a Polish diplomat, who 1940–45 headed the Legation of Poland to Switzerland. Lados was a member and de facto leader of the Lados Group, also known as Bernese Group, a secret action by the Polish diplomats and Jewish organizations who helped save several hundred Jews from the Holocaust by providing them with illegal Latin American, mostly Paraguayan passports. During his de facto ambassadorial post in Bern, Lados headed secret operation “Passport Issues” aimed to provide Jews in German-occupied Poland with Latin American passports strictly co-operating with representatives of the Jewish organizations in Switzerland. The blank passports were bought between Dec. 1941 and Autumn 1943 from the honorary consul of Paraguay Rudolf Hüggli and filled out by Lados’ sub-ordinates, consul Konstanty Rokicki and sometimes also by a Polish-Jewish diplomat Juliusz Kühl. Lados himself intervened directly with the Swiss Federal Counselor Marcel Pilet-Golaz to turn a blind eye to the illegal procedure. Other people included in the clandestine Lados Group included Lados’ deputy counsellor Stefan J. Ryniewicz and Jews Chaim Eiss and Abraham Silberschein, members of Jewish organizations whose main task was to smuggle lists of beneficiaries and copies of illegally-obtained passports between Berne and German-occupied Poland.

{#11 No one doubts the very brave interventions of individuals in saving Jews. Aleksander Lados, a member of the Bern Group is amongst The Righteous Amongst Nations which clearly acknowledges this and why 6,992 individual non-Jewish Poles are recognised.}

12. Polish Delegate of the Government in Exile residing in Hungary, diplomat Henryk Slawik known as the Polish Wallenberg, helped rescue over 30,000 refugees including 5,000 Polish Jews in Budapest, by giving them false Polish passports as Christians. He founded an orphanage for Jewish children officially named School for Children of Polish Officers in Vác.

{#12 Again! No one doubts the very brave interventions of individuals in saving Jews. Henryk Slawik is amongst The Righteous Amongst Nations which clearly acknowledges this and why 6,992 individual non-Jewish Poles are recognised.}

13. in 1943 a Jewish affairs section of the Polish Underground State was set up by the Government Delegation for Poland; it was headed by Witold Bienkowski and Wladyslaw Bartoszewski. Its purpose was to organize efforts concerning the Polish Jewish population, to coordinate with Zegota, and to prepare documentation about the fate of the Jews for the government in London.

{#13 The vast majority of the 3,000,000 Slaughtered Polish Jews had been eviscerated in the x6 Death Camps placed in Poland, Auschwitz/Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka.}

14. The Polish government and its underground representatives at home issued declarations that people acting against the Jews (blackmailers and others) would be punished by death.

{#14 July 22nd. 1943 In a Radio Broadcast Zegota reported that few Jews remained in Poland.}

15. General Wladyslaw Sikorski, the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces, signed a decree calling upon the Polish population to extend aid to the persecuted Jews; including the following stern warning. “Any direct and indirect complicity in the German criminal actions is the most serious offence against Poland. Any Pole who collaborates in their acts of murder, whether by extortion, informing on Jews, or by exploiting their terrible plight or participating in acts of robbery, is committing a major crime against the laws of the Polish Republic. Warsaw, May 1943”

{#15 July 22nd. 1943 In a Radio Broadcast Zegota reported that few Jews remained in Poland which makes Sikorski’s letter rather superfluous.}

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